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Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2014

Denise C. Tahara and Richard P. Green

This paper proposes an organizational change process to prepare physicians and other health professionals for their new roles in patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs). It…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes an organizational change process to prepare physicians and other health professionals for their new roles in patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs). It provides physician-centered tools, models, concepts, and the language to implement transformational patient-centered medical care.

Design/methodology/approach

To improve care delivery, quality, and patient engagement, a systems approach to care is required. This paper examines a systems approach to patient care where all inputs that influence patient interactions and participation are considered in the design of health care delivery and follow-up treatment plans. Applying systems thinking, organizational change models, and team-building, we have examined the continuum of this change process from ideation through the diffusion of new methods and behaviors.

Findings

PCMHs make compelling business sense. Studies have shown that the PCMH improves patient satisfaction, clinical outcomes and reduces underuse and overuse of medical services. Patient-centered care necessitates transitioning from an adversarial to a collaborative culture. It is a transformation process predicated on strong leadership able to align an organization toward a vision of patient-centered care, creating a collaborative culture committed to health-goal achievement.

Originality/value

This paper proposes that the PCMH is a rigorous team-building transformational organizational change, a radical departure from the current hierarchical, silo-oriented, medical practice model. It requires that participants within and across health care organizations learn new skills and behaviors to achieve the anticipated quality and efficiency improvements. It is an innovative health care organization model of the future whose success is premised on teams supplanting the individual as the building block and unit of health care performance.

Details

Population Health Management in Health Care Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-197-8

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2020

Timothy J. Vogus, Andrew Gallan, Cheryl Rathert, Dahlia El-Manstrly and Alexis Strong

Healthcare delivery faces increasing pressure to move from a provider-centered approach to become more consumer-driven and patient-centered. However, many of the actions…

Abstract

Purpose

Healthcare delivery faces increasing pressure to move from a provider-centered approach to become more consumer-driven and patient-centered. However, many of the actions taken by clinicians, patients and organizations fail to achieve that aim. This paper aims to take a paradox-based perspective to explore five specific tensions that emerge from this shift and provides implications for patient experience research and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a conceptual approach that synthesizes literature in health services and administration, organizational behavior, services marketing and management and service operations to illuminate five patient experience tensions and explore mitigation strategies.

Findings

The paper makes three key contributions. First, it identifies five tensions that result from the shift to more patient-centered care: patient focus vs employee focus, provider incentives vs provider motivations, care customization vs standardization, patient workload vs organizational workload and service recovery vs organizational risk. Second, it highlights multiple theories that provide insight into the existence of the tensions and how they may be navigated. Third, specific organizational practices that engage the tensions and associated examples of leading organizations are identified. Relevant measures for research and practice are also suggested.

Originality/value

The authors develop a novel analysis of five persistent tensions facing healthcare organizations as a result of a shift to a more consumer-driven, patient-centered approach to care. The authors detail each tension, discuss an existing theory from organizational behavior or services marketing that helps make sense of the tension, suggest potential solutions for managing or resolving the tension and provide representative case illustrations and useful measures.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Book part
Publication date: 22 February 2010

Rebecca K. Givan, Ariel Avgar and Mingwei Liu

This paper examines the relationship between human resource practices in 173 hospitals in the United Kingdom and four organizational outcome categories – clinical…

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between human resource practices in 173 hospitals in the United Kingdom and four organizational outcome categories – clinical, financial, employee attitudes and perceptions, and patient attitudes and perceptions. The overarching proposition set forth and examined in this paper is that human resource management (HRM) practices and delivery of care practices have varied effects on each of these outcomes. More specifically, the authors set forth the proposition that specific practices will have positive effects on one outcome category while simultaneously having a negative effect on other performance outcomes, broadly defined.

The paper introduces a broader stakeholder framework for assessing the HR–performance relationship in the healthcare setting. This multi-dimensional framework incorporates the effects of human resource practices on customers (patients), management, and frontline staff and can also be applied to other sectors such as manufacturing. This approach acknowledges the potential for incompatibilities between stakeholder performance objectives. In the healthcare industry specifically, our framework broadens the notion of performance.

Overall, our results provide support for the proposition that different stakeholders will be affected differently by the use of managerial practices. We believe that the findings reported in this paper highlight the importance of examining multiple stakeholder outcomes associated with managerial practices and the need to identify the inherent trade-offs associated with their adoption.

Details

Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-932-9

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2014

Larry R. Hearld, Kristine R. Hearld and Tory H. Hogan

Longitudinally (2008–2012) assess whether community-level sociodemographic characteristics were associated with patient-centered medical home (PCMH) capacity among primary…

Abstract

Purpose

Longitudinally (2008–2012) assess whether community-level sociodemographic characteristics were associated with patient-centered medical home (PCMH) capacity among primary care and specialty physician practices, and the extent to which variation in PCMH capacity can be accounted for by sociodemographic characteristics of the community.

Design/methodology/approach

Linear growth curve models among 523 small and medium-sized physician practices that were members of a consortium of physician organizations pursuing the PCMH.

Findings

Our analysis indicated that the average level of sociodemographic characteristics was typically not associated with the level of PCMH capacity, but the heterogeneity of the surrounding community is generally associated with lower levels of capacity. Furthermore, these relationships differed for interpersonal and technical dimensions of the PCMH.

Implications

Our findings suggest that PCMH capabilities may not be evenly distributed across communities and raise questions about whether such distributional differences influence the PCMH’s ability to improve population health, especially the health of vulnerable populations. Such nuances highlight the challenges faced by practitioners and policy makers who advocate the continued expansion of the PCMH as a means of improving the health of local communities.

Originality/value

To date, most studies have focused cross-sectionally on practice characteristics and their association with PCMH adoption. Less understood is how physician practices’ PCMH adoption varies as a function of the sociodemographic characteristics of the community in which the practice is located, despite work that acknowledges the importance of social context in decisions about adoption and implementation that can affect the dissemination of innovations.

Details

Population Health Management in Health Care Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-197-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2016

Fredrik Bååthe, Gunnar Ahlborg Jr, Lars Edgren, Annica Lagström and Kerstin Nilsson

The purpose of this paper is to uncover paradoxes emerging from physicians’ experiences of a patient-centered and team-based ward round, in an internal medicine department.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to uncover paradoxes emerging from physicians’ experiences of a patient-centered and team-based ward round, in an internal medicine department.

Design/methodology/approach

Abductive reasoning relates empirical material to complex responsive processes theory in a dialectical process to further understandings.

Findings

This paper found the response from physicians, to a patient-centered and team-based ward round, related to whether the new demands challenged or confirmed individual physician’s professional identity. Two empirically divergent perspectives on enacting the role of physician during ward round emerged: We-perspective and I-perspective, based on where the physician’s professional identity was centered. Physicians with more of an I-perspective experienced challenges with the new round, while physicians with more of a We-perspective experienced alignment with their professional identity and embraced the new round. When identity is challenged, anxiety is aroused, and if anxiety is not catered to, then resistance is likely to follow and changes are likely to be hampered.

Practical implications

For change processes affecting physicians’ professional identity, it is important for managers and change leaders to acknowledge paradox and find a balance between new knowledge that needs to be learnt and who the physician is becoming in this new procedure.

Originality/value

This paper provides increased understanding about how physicians’ professional identity is interacting with a patient-centered ward round. It adds to the knowledge about developing health care in line with recent societal requests and with sustainable physician engagement.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2013

Cheryl Brunoro‐Kadash and Nick Kadash

The purpose of this paper is to describe the processes and results of implementing and evaluating the Releasing Time to Care™ (RTC™) model in a 45‐bed Neurosciences unit…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the processes and results of implementing and evaluating the Releasing Time to Care™ (RTC™) model in a 45‐bed Neurosciences unit in a tertiary care hospital in Saskatchewan province of western Canada.

Design/methodology/approach

Organizational restructuring in healthcare systems has impacted the ability of clinical registered nurses (CRNs) in participation and in influencing the decision making that affect the delivery and outcomes of patient‐centered care. At the same time, CRNs' work has intensified because of increases in patient acuity, technological advances, complexity of care provided to patient families and communities, in addition to the intensifying demands put on by an aging population and dwindling resources. The work reported in this paper shows that significant improvements have been made based on the current needs and the change is forever imminent. Establishing solid people connections and networking opportunities proved valuable for current and future exchange of information and knowledge translation.

Findings

Model implementation resulted in positive narrative and empirical data including: improved patient safety, staff engagement, leadership opportunities and an affirmative shift in organizational culture. Improved patient safety was evidenced by a reduction in falls and decreased medication errors.

Originality/value

The paper focuses on including the clinical nurse in organizational and system change towards improving patient‐centered quality care. Neurosciences 6300 at Royal University Hospital (RUH) in Saskatoon, was viewed as an RTC™ champion and one of the first to implement and complete the 11‐module toolkit.

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Elisa Giulia Liberati, Mara Gorli and Giuseppe Scaratti

The purpose of this paper is to understand how the introduction of a patient-centered model (PCM) in Italian hospitals affects the pre-existent configuration of clinical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how the introduction of a patient-centered model (PCM) in Italian hospitals affects the pre-existent configuration of clinical work and interacts with established intra/inter-professional relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative multi-phase study based on three main sources: health policy analysis, an exploratory interview study with senior managers of eight Italian hospitals implementing the PCM, and an in-depth case study that involved managerial and clinical staff of one Italian hospital implementing the PCM.

Findings

The introduction of the PCM challenges clinical work and professional relationships, but such challenges are interpreted differently by the organisational actors involved, thus giving rise to two different “narratives of change”. The “political narrative” (the views conveyed by formal policies and senior managers) focuses on the power shifts and conflict between nurses and doctors, while the “workplace narrative” (the experiences of frontline clinicians) emphasises the problems linked to the disruption of previous discipline-based inter-professional groups.

Practical implications

Medical disciplines, rather than professional groupings, are the main source of identification of doctors and nurses, and represent a crucial aspect of clinicians’ professional identity. Although the need for collaboration among medical disciplines is acknowledged, creating multi-disciplinary groups in practice requires the sustaining of new aggregators and binding forces.

Originality/value

This study suggests further acknowledgment of the inherent complexity of the political and workplace narratives of change rather than interpreting them as the signal of irreconcilable perspectives between managers and clinicians. By addressing the specific issues regarding which the political and workplace narratives clash, relationship of trust may be developed through which problems can be identified, mutually acknowledged, articulated, and solved.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Michelle Miller-Day, Janelle Applequist, Keri Zabokrtsky, Alexandra Dalton, Katherine Kellom, Robert Gabbay and Peter F. Cronholm

The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) has become a dominant model of primary care re-design. This transformation presents a challenge to many care delivery…

Abstract

Purpose

The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) has become a dominant model of primary care re-design. This transformation presents a challenge to many care delivery organizations. The purpose of this paper is to describe attributes shaping successful and unsuccessful practice transformation within four medical practice groups.

Design/methodology/approach

As part of a larger study of 25 practices transitioning into a PCMH, the current study focused on diabetes care and identified high- and low-improvement medical practices in terms of quantitative patient measures of glycosylated hemoglobin and qualitative assessments of practice performance. A subset of the top two high-improvement and bottom two low-improvement practices were identified as comparison groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with diverse personnel at these practices to investigate their experiences with practice transformation and data were analyzed using analytic induction.

Findings

Results show a variety of key attributes facilitating more successful PCMH transformation, such as empanelment, shared goals and regular meetings, and a clear understanding of PCMH transformation purposes, goals, and benefits, providing care/case management services, and facilitating patient reminders. Several barriers also exist to successful transformation, such as low levels of resources to handle financial expense, lack of understanding PCMH transformation purposes, goals, and benefits, inadequate training and management of technology, and low team cohesion.

Originality/value

Few studies qualitatively compare and contrast high and low performing practices to illuminate the experience of practice transformation. These findings highlight the experience of organizational members and their challenges in practice transformation while providing quality diabetes care.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Rocco Palumbo, Silvia Cosimato and Aurelio Tommasetti

Service ecosystems are gaining credence among management scholars. However, there is still little agreement about the distinguishing attributes of service ecosystems in…

Abstract

Purpose

Service ecosystems are gaining credence among management scholars. However, there is still little agreement about the distinguishing attributes of service ecosystems in both the public and the private sectors. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the health care service system, suggesting a “recipe” for the implementation of a sustainable and innovative health care service ecosystem.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed methodology was used. First, a critical literature review was conducted to lay the conceptual foundations of this study. Then a theory about the institutional, organizational and managerial requisites for the implementation of a health care service ecosystem was developed.

Findings

The health care sector is appropriate for the core tenets of the service ecosystem perspective. Tailored interventions aimed at improving the functioning of the health care service ecosystem should be implemented at the micro, meso, macro and mega levels. Patient empowerment, patient-centered care and integrated care are the fundamental ingredients of the recipe for effective health care service ecosystems.

Practical implications

The ecosystem approach provides health policy makers with interesting insights to help shape the health care service system of the future. The paper also contributes to the innovation of managerial practices emphasizing the role of patient involvement in the design and delivery of health care.

Originality/value

This is one of the first attempts to systematize scientific knowledge about service ecosystems in the health care sector. An agenda for further research is suggested, in order to further advance the establishment of an effective and innovative health care service ecosystem.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

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