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Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2015

Ritu V. Chopra and Denise J. Uitto

The paradigm shift to an inclusion model of education demands strategic planning and programming by teachers to ensure individualized instruction for students with…

Abstract

The paradigm shift to an inclusion model of education demands strategic planning and programming by teachers to ensure individualized instruction for students with disabilities. Paraeducators or teacher assistants are increasingly being used in the delivery of instruction to students with disabilities; therefore, directing or supervising the work of the paraeducator is an integral part of planning and programming for inclusive classrooms. Research-based elements and components of paraeducator supervision are shared to help teachers and other professionals utilize paraeducators effectively in supporting instructional needs of students with disabilities.

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Working with Teaching Assistants and Other Support Staff for Inclusive Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-611-9

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Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2015

Jan Stivers and Sharon Cramer

Special education teachers and paraeducators who generated and analyzed metaphors to describe their relationships uncovered insights into how they perceive their roles and…

Abstract

Special education teachers and paraeducators who generated and analyzed metaphors to describe their relationships uncovered insights into how they perceive their roles and responsibilities, and identified models for a more effective collaboration. The metaphors generated by 67 special education teachers and paraeducators indicate that they value relationships characterized by compatibility (e.g., “peanut butter and jelly”) and coordination of effort (e.g., “well-oiled machine”) and have diverse views on the relative contributions paraeducators make to the instructional program (e.g., “my right arm” vs. “icing on the cake”). Notably absent is acknowledgment of the teacher’s critical role as team leader, responsible for directing the work of paraeducators; metaphors like “two peas in a pod” far outnumber those like “architect and builder.” The chapter includes a description of a process that teachers and paraeducators can use to generate and analyze metaphors to serve as models for a more effective collaboration; examples are provided.

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Working with Teaching Assistants and Other Support Staff for Inclusive Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-611-9

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Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2015

Dorotha “Mike” Monfore, Jeremy Lynch and Matthew Erickson

As teachers make desperate pleas for more paraeducators to be hired to support a diverse student population, the number of paraeducators working in public and private…

Abstract

As teachers make desperate pleas for more paraeducators to be hired to support a diverse student population, the number of paraeducators working in public and private school classrooms is steadily rising as it reaches nearly half a million in the United States alone (Stockall, 2014). “Teacher shortages, increasing numbers of English language learners and the rising enrollment of students with disabilities and other special needs are just some of the factors that make the need for a dynamic school team more necessary than ever” (National Education Association, 2014, para. 1). Currently, limited research exists on paraeducators’ perceptions of their role in the inclusive classroom. Paraeducators are responsible for many duties throughout the course of the school day, have a high level of responsibility for the quality of services they provide to the students, and have many concerns and challenges related to their work (Downing, Ryndak, & Clark, 2000; Monfore, Lynch, & Erickson, 2013; Rosales, n.d.). This chapter expresses the voices of many paraeducators in the field and highlights their thoughts on best practices and the continued implementation of collaboration, effective teaming, and equality.

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Working with Teaching Assistants and Other Support Staff for Inclusive Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-611-9

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Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2015

Denise J. Uitto and Ritu V. Chopra

Training, particularly in the form of comprehensive professional development, continues to be a need for paraeducators (also known as teacher assistants). Training needs…

Abstract

Training, particularly in the form of comprehensive professional development, continues to be a need for paraeducators (also known as teacher assistants). Training needs begin with an initial set of knowledge and skills and is built based upon the paraeducator’s role with individual students and the educational settings. Standards or guidance documents are available from a few individual states within the United States, higher education systems, and professional organizations that serve individuals with exceptional needs and agencies. An international professional organization, Council for Exceptional Children [CEC] (2011), identified a common skill set that reinforces standards for defining curricula when providing training to paraeducators. Key to their ongoing professional development is the on-the-job coaching by the education professional (teacher), to support the application of skills into the inclusive setting. Various forms of professional development are available including online trainings in addition to face-to-face.

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Working with Teaching Assistants and Other Support Staff for Inclusive Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-611-9

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Abstract

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Reference Reviews, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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Book part
Publication date: 4 February 2015

Jody Marie Bartz, Jennifer Kurth and Matthew Wangeman

Facilitating inclusive supports and services for learners with low-incidence disabilities involves collaborative teaming, understanding the benefits and challenges…

Abstract

Facilitating inclusive supports and services for learners with low-incidence disabilities involves collaborative teaming, understanding the benefits and challenges involved in delivering inclusive supports, and appreciating the diverse and unique needs of this population. In this chapter, we provide families, educators, researchers, academics, related service personnel, and other professionals with examples of models of service and support delivery. Emphasis will be on school-age learners with low-incidence disabilities. Additionally, an insider perspective of the opportunities for, as well as benefits and barriers to, successful implementation of supports and services for learners with low-incidence disabilities is presented. The chapter concludes with future directions for research.

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Including Learners with Low-Incidence Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-250-0

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Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2015

M. Alexandra Da Fonte and Andrea M. Capizzi

Teachers play a vital role in the structure of their classrooms. Part of this structure is having a clear understanding of the importance of not only supporting their…

Abstract

Teachers play a vital role in the structure of their classrooms. Part of this structure is having a clear understanding of the importance of not only supporting their students, but also the teacher assistants/support staff with whom they collaborate. Providing teacher assistants/support staff with guidance, information on student needs and classroom structures, team-building strategies, training, and supervision sets the stage for a positive climate for collaboration, teamwork, and learning. Consequently, teachers should be proactive and diligent to ensure high-quality training and supervision for teacher assistants/support staff, as this will have a direct impact on the services and learning opportunities being provided to the students.

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Working with Teaching Assistants and Other Support Staff for Inclusive Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-611-9

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Jill Morgan and Betty Y. Ashbaker

This chapter examines the teacher's role as supervisor of support staff (Teaching Assistants (TAs) in the UK, school paraprofessionals in the US) – a role for which there…

Abstract

This chapter examines the teacher's role as supervisor of support staff (Teaching Assistants (TAs) in the UK, school paraprofessionals in the US) – a role for which there is typically little administrative or infrastructural support. Working from a UK perspective, the chapter draws on research from the UK and the US to address questions pertinent to the education systems of all countries which employ paraprofessionals: What types of behaviours do conscientious teachers engage in to provide effective supervision to paraprofessionals? How do paraprofessionals view the supervisory behaviours of their supervising teachers? Given the important role of paraprofessionals, the high levels of expertise required by their assigned roles, and the uneven provision for their professional development, the chapter also makes recommendations for building the teacher's supervisory role into the infrastructure of schools, rather than relying on its emergence as a discretionary behaviour.

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Discretionary Behavior and Performance in Educational Organizations: The Missing Link in Educational Leadership and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-643-0

Book part
Publication date: 30 January 2013

Special education issues and considerations often perplex and confuse many educational institutions, regardless if they are traditional or autonomous organizations such as…

Abstract

Special education issues and considerations often perplex and confuse many educational institutions, regardless if they are traditional or autonomous organizations such as charters. However, research indicates these issues tend to be more complicated with charters because the realm of special education is highly regulated and in many cases, in direct conflict with charter core tenets of autonomy, innovation, curriculum, and accountability. Since the emergence of charter schools in 1991, researchers have investigated the relationship between charter law and the highly regulated domain of special education. The literature has evolved as charters have become more prevalent and established. But one thing remains the same, charter law and federal regulations are often in conflict with one another and cause great tension for autonomous leaders who strive to improve educational practices and learning for all the students they serve. Thus, this chapter focuses on important leadership considerations when building, improving, and maintaining an effective charter organization with regards to working with students with special needs. Essentially, the tension between autonomous leadership and federal regulations can be eased by planning for students with special needs. The key to successful planning and implementation is through alignment that goes beyond the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standard.

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Identifying Leaders for Urban Charter, Autonomous and Independent Schools: Above and Beyond the Standards
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-501-2

Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2015

Abstract

Details

Working with Teaching Assistants and Other Support Staff for Inclusive Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-611-9

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