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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2014

David Gilling

Few organisations exhibit the importance of physicality in leadership as explicitly as the symphony orchestra. While usually attributed to the direction of the conductor…

Abstract

Few organisations exhibit the importance of physicality in leadership as explicitly as the symphony orchestra. While usually attributed to the direction of the conductor my own experience suggests that leading in orchestral performance is grounded in physical relations between individuals and among instrumental groups across the orchestra as much as in the interaction between musicians and maestro. In order to further interrogate this experience while enhancing our understanding of onstage relations among orchestral musicians, I recently undertook research that employed an autoethnographic methodology underpinned by the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty (2002, 2004) and the sense-making ideas of Weick (1995, 2001a). Using this method while drawing on ideas such as kinaesthetic empathy (Pallaro, 1995; Parviainen, 2002), the picture presented in what follows is one of leadership embedded in physical interaction among colleagues.

This interaction is, I suggest, based on sense-making and sense-giving activity that occurs in a ‘kinaesthetic loop’ that draws on and is generated by auditory, visual and gestural information given and received by individual musicians. This activity in turn mediates the acoustic space between musicians and thus, ultimately, determines how leadership and coordination in the orchestra are constituted. Rather than being disembodied products of dictatorial direction dispensed through the orchestra’s hierarchy, orchestral performance and leadership emerge in this more nuanced account as co-creative processes in which all the musicians on stage share responsibility.

Details

The Physicality of Leadership: Gesture, Entanglement, Taboo, Possibilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-289-0

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

William Mesa

The purpose of this paper is to explain how intellectual capital (IC) is enacted and used in non‐profit symphony orchestras from an organisational behaviour perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain how intellectual capital (IC) is enacted and used in non‐profit symphony orchestras from an organisational behaviour perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a nine‐month case study on two community‐based non‐profit orchestras. The method uses field observations, interviews, factor analysis, and visual models in explaining how IC is connected to organisational practices.

Findings

IC is perhaps best understood in its context to specific organisations rather than as discrete items that are allocated.

Research limitations/implications

The case study is limited to non‐profit orchestras based on an organisational behaviour perspective. The results, however, invite further research into how IC is used as a resource towards strategic planning.

Practical implications

The study results point towards managing IC resources, given that they are grounded in actions and practices of the organisation. Questions of “how” (how is IC used?) drive the study versus questions of “what” (identification of IC).

Originality/value

Understanding IC as context‐dependent provides management guidance to NPO orchestras for improving volunteer participation, motivation, and meeting personal goals. It also informs boards of possible outcomes in implementing organisational change.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Anna-Karin Stockenstrand

The purpose of this paper is to add to our understanding of how external factors such as funding and external accountabilities affect the organisational inner workings…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to add to our understanding of how external factors such as funding and external accountabilities affect the organisational inner workings, especially identity issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a comparative case study of two professional chamber orchestras, one in Sweden and one in the UK. The two orchestras had significantly different funding conditions and had different relations with funders and were thus exposed to different kinds of accountability dilemmas. The two organisations were studied using and ethnographically inspired approach. The developments of various parts of the organisations were studied, such as funding, management, strategy, management control and identity issues.

Findings

The paper illustrates how the solution to accountability dilemmas in an organisation can, over time, result in the protection or the dilution of a perceived organisational core and thus in an identity struggle. Especially, management has to deal with the balance between financial and operational accountability, where organisational members could perceive the decisions to be confirming or rejecting what they perceived as being the higher purpose of their work.

Practical implications

This paper may help managers become more aware of the long ranging consequences of managerial decisions and how such decisions may affect the identity orientation of organisational members.

Originality/value

The paper combines the concept of identity with the concept of accountability, something that has not been done to a large extent in previous research.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Gaelle Beau

The purpose of this paper is to go beyond the leader-centric approach to highlight the shared leadership phenomena happening in organizations where there is no head…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to go beyond the leader-centric approach to highlight the shared leadership phenomena happening in organizations where there is no head leader. Seeing interactions between the orchestra members through the lens of aesthetics is a useful way of understanding leadership phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

The different approaches used are interviews, participant observation, analysis of video, photo materials and journalist review.

Findings

The managerial evidence says that without a head leader nothing is possible in organizations with a high level of complexity is not proved in a conductorless orchestra. The orchestra without a conductor shows that leadership is an aesthetic phenomenon. The conductorless orchestra is enhancing the sensitivity of organizational practices in a situation where beauty is a common goal to achieve. Studying leadership through the aesthetic lens is very relevant to understand this phenomenon, and shows that leadership is a co-construction between leaders and followers (and therefore negotiated).

Research limitations/implications

It has to be compared to a non “amateur” orchestra where power struggles are maybe more visible.

Originality/value

No study has been done on aesthetics and the no-conductor orchestra.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2013

Chi Cheung Leung

The aim of the study is to examine the development of four not-for-profit Chinese orchestras in Hong Kong, aiming to identify their key characteristics in management and…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study is to examine the development of four not-for-profit Chinese orchestras in Hong Kong, aiming to identify their key characteristics in management and operational practices, and highlight a probable proposal on how the concept of cultural entrepreneurship could be brought about for the growth of an orchestra.

Design/methodology/approach

This study looks into the cases of the development of four not-for-profit community Chinese orchestras in Hong Kong in accordance to the theoretical framework built on the reviewed literature. A self-assessment questionnaire survey was conducted among the key leaders in the orchestras, asking them to evaluate themselves about their features as a cultural entrepreneur, and the extent of the development of the orchestras towards entrepreneurship. The survey serves as preliminary reference data for follow-up phone interviews, with questions asked in accordance to the results of the survey.

Findings

The study shows that the four leaders of the Chinese orchestras have different qualities of a cultural entrepreneur. The four orchestras use different strategies to promote Chinese music, and adopt diversified approaches to survive. Four models of community orchestra having different features are identified, namely new generation model, affiliation-based model, mentor-mentee model, and developmental model. The findings suggest that community orchestras have limitations to the development of cultural entrepreneurship in Hong Kong, and they need the support of the right person and policy to grow and foster.

Originality/value

The results inform and give insights to cultural entrepreneur-to-bes and practitioners in the cultural industries as well as policy makers on some of the probable innovations employed by not-for-profit community performing groups.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Josephine Pichanick Mogelof and Lisa Haueisen Rohrer

The original purpose of this study was not to focus on job satisfaction, but rather to conduct an exploratory investigation of how symphony orchestra players cope with the…

Abstract

Purpose

The original purpose of this study was not to focus on job satisfaction, but rather to conduct an exploratory investigation of how symphony orchestra players cope with the frustrations and disappointments of orchestra life. Symphony orchestra players report surprisingly low levels of job satisfaction given the perception held by many that life and work in symphony orchestras is glamorous and rewarding.

Design/methodology/approach

Job satisfaction data were collected in the form of interviews and surveys from 66 musicians in an élite, major orchestra and a non‐élite, regional orchestra.

Findings

Players in both orchestras were similarly satisfied with co‐worker relationships and experienced similar levels of intrinsic work motivation and job involvement. Despite better financial resources in the major orchestra, satisfaction with opportunities for growth and opportunities to exert influence increased with tenure in the regional orchestra, whereas the opposite was true for major players.

Originality/value

The article discusses context‐driven job satisfaction tradeoffs associated with careers in élite versus non‐élite organizations and the role organizations may play in facilitating or impeding workers’ participation in valued activities. It emphasizes the importance of participation in valued activities as a key driver of job satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Per Forsberg and Anna-Karin Stockenstrand

The purpose of this paper is to contribute with knowledge about how resistance to the neo-liberal agenda is made possible, especially through renewal and reproduction of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute with knowledge about how resistance to the neo-liberal agenda is made possible, especially through renewal and reproduction of collective communities.

Design/methodology/approach

Using two ethnographical studies, one of a chamber orchestra and one of a shipping company for illustrating resistance.

Findings

It is resistance through distancing and creation of a “hidden script” that prevents the collective community from be broken down by individualization. However, resistance through distancing needs to be combined with resistance through persistence in order to become intelligent.

Originality/value

The paper makes use of ethnographic studies to investigate possibilities of resistance. The study has also found it fruitful to combine James Scott's (1990) notion of collectively created hidden scripts with Collinson's (1992, 1994) notion of resistance through distancing and persistence.

Details

Journal of Organizational Ethnography, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6749

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Book part
Publication date: 19 February 2020

Edna Pasher, Roni Porat, Yaara Turjeman-Levi, Mor Harir and Yael Caspi

Among the key challenges facing today’s business organizations is that of ongoing innovation for survival. To meet this challenge, new skills for effective leadership are…

Abstract

Among the key challenges facing today’s business organizations is that of ongoing innovation for survival. To meet this challenge, new skills for effective leadership are required: knowledge workers need to be creative and entrepreneurial. Leading them, however, can be like ‘herding cats’. The classic metaphor of the organization as a machine does not offer an effective approach to leading complex human organizations. New thinking is needed, such as complexity theory, which considers the organization as a living organism and so provides a basis for innovative approaches to organizational structure and management. In this context, performing arts organizations can be a fruitful source of leadership inspiration. Performing arts organizations have never adopted the concept of the organization as machine and have therefore managed to keep alive the passion of their people. Thus these organizations constitute a valuable example for managers in the Knowledge Age, who must replace traditional leadership approaches to attract, keep and grow talent. Here, a case study is presented in which the authors, including the conductor Maestro Roni Porat, decode the key success factors in conducting an orchestra and consider their transferability to talent management in business organizations. While setting the tone, the conductor gives each of the players a chance to shine and co-evolve with the rest, thus creating a winning harmonic orchestra.

Details

Innovation and the Arts: The Value of Humanities Studies for Business
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-886-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Yaakov Atik

The ability to successfully direct and inspire 90 to 100 talentedmusicians to perform as one unit is often attributed to the conductor′scharismatic powers. The influence…

Abstract

The ability to successfully direct and inspire 90 to 100 talented musicians to perform as one unit is often attributed to the conductor′s charismatic powers. The influence of the player as part of an interactive process is generally neglected. Examines these assumptions both by reference to the literature and from interviews with both conductors and musicians. Discusses leadership theories appropriate to the orchestral setting including a distinction between socialized and personalized charismatic leadership. The leadership‐followership process in the orchestra is seen as having three distinct phases; the testing phase, the working stage and the inspirational stage. Suggests implications for leadership in more generalized management settings.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Abstract

Details

Women in Leadership 2nd Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-064-8

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