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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

J. Howard Finch, Richard C. Becherer and Richard Casavant

The concept of option pricing is used to develop an alternative model for pricing services that have a fixed availability and expiration. The binomial option pricing model…

Abstract

The concept of option pricing is used to develop an alternative model for pricing services that have a fixed availability and expiration. The binomial option pricing model and abandonment theory are financial models used to demonstrate that the option to cut price contributes positively to a service’s expected profitability. Pricing of hotel rooms is used to demonstrate in a marketing context the use of this option model approach. Airline seats, events, and vacation house rentals are some of the many other alternative applications among consumer services, as broadcast time is a similar example among industrial services.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Vipul Kumar Singh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically the forecasting performance of jump-diffusion option pricing models of (Merton and Bates) with the benchmark…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically the forecasting performance of jump-diffusion option pricing models of (Merton and Bates) with the benchmark Black–Scholes (BS) model relative to market, for pricing Nifty index options of India. The specific period chosen for this study canvasses the extreme up and down limits (jumps) of the Indian capital market. In addition, equity markets keep on facing high and low tides of financial flux amid new economic and financial considerations. With this backdrop, the paper focuses on finding an impeccable option-pricing model which can meet the requirements of option traders and practitioners during tumultuous periods in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

Envisioning the fact, the all option-pricing models normally does wrong valuation relative to market. For estimating the structural parameters that governs the underlying asset distribution purely from the underlying asset return data, we have used the nonlinear least-square method. As an approach, we analyzed model prices by dividing the option data into 15 moneyness-maturity groups – depending on the time to maturity and strike price. The prices are compared analytically by continuously updating the parameters of two models using cross-sectional option data on daily basis. Estimated parameters then used to figure out the forecasting performance of models with corresponding BS and market – for pricing day-ahead option prices and implied volatility.

Findings

The outcomes of the paper reveal that the jump-diffusion models are a better substitute of classical BS, thus improving the pricing bias significantly. But compared to jump-diffusion model of Merton’s, the model of Bates’ can be applied more uniquely to find out the pricing of three popularly traded categories: deep-out-of-the-money, out-of-the-money and at-the-money of Nifty index options.

Practical implications

The outcome of this research work reveals that the jumps are important components of pricing dynamics of Nifty index options. Incorporation of jump-diffusion process into option pricing of Nifty index options leads to a higher pricing effectiveness, reduces the pricing bias and gives values closer to the market. As the models have been tested in extreme conditions to determine the dominant effectuality, the outcome of this paper helps traders in keeping the investment protected under normal conditions.

Originality/value

The specific period chosen for this study is very unique; it canvasses the extreme up and down limits (jumps) of the Indian capital market and provides the most apt situation for testifying the pricing competitiveness of the models in question. To testify the robustness of models, they have been put into a practical implication of complete cycle of financial frame.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Aparna Prasad Bhat

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the effectiveness of major deterministic and stochastic volatility-based option pricing models in pricing and hedging…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the effectiveness of major deterministic and stochastic volatility-based option pricing models in pricing and hedging exchange-traded dollar–rupee options over a five-year period since the launch of these options in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the pricing and hedging performance of five different models, namely, the Black–Scholes–Merton model (BSM), skewness- and kurtosis-adjusted BSM, NGARCH model of Duan, Heston’s stochastic volatility model and an ad hoc Black–Scholes (AHBS) model. Risk-neutral structural parameters are extracted by calibrating each model to the prices of traded dollar–rupee call options. These parameters are used to generate out-of-sample model option prices and to construct a delta-neutral hedge for a short option position. Out-of-sample pricing errors and hedging errors are compared to identify the best-performing model. Robustness is tested by comparing the performance of all models separately over turbulent and tranquil periods.

Findings

The study finds that relatively simpler models fare better than more mathematically complex models in pricing and hedging dollar–rupee options during the sample period. This superior performance is observed to persist even when comparisons are made separately over volatile periods and tranquil periods. However the more sophisticated models reveal a lower moneyness-maturity bias as compared to the BSM model.

Practical implications

The study concludes that incorporation of skewness and kurtosis in the BSM model as well as the practitioners’ approach of using a moneyness-maturity-based volatility within the BSM model (AHBS model) results in better pricing and hedging effectiveness for dollar–rupee options. This conclusion has strong practical implications for market practitioners, hedgers and regulators in the light of increased volatility in the dollar–rupee pair.

Originality/value

Existing literature on this topic has largely centered around either US equity index options or options on major liquid currencies. While many studies have solely focused on the pricing performance of option pricing models, this paper examines both the pricing and hedging performance of competing models in the context of Indian currency options. Robustness of findings is tested by comparing model performance across periods of stress and tranquility. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this paper is one of the first comprehensive studies to focus on an emerging market currency pair such as the dollar–rupee.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2019

Sanjeet Singh, Nav Bhardwaj, Gagan Deep Sharma, Tuğberk Kaya, Mandeep Mahendru and Burak Erkut

This paper aims to consolidate and review the literature in the field of market-calibrated option pricing analysis. By doing so, the paper brings out the gaps in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to consolidate and review the literature in the field of market-calibrated option pricing analysis. By doing so, the paper brings out the gaps in the extant literature and makes suggestions for future researchers in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in this research is inspired by the works of Ferreira et al. (2016), Jabbour (2013), Lage Junior and Godinho Filho (2010), Seuring (2013) and Sharma et al. (2018). A total of 1,500 papers written on the pricing of options globally are collated from the Web of Science ranging across 2010-2018.

Findings

Most of the research papers present mathematical proposals to value options; without calibrating it with real market data points. The authors bring out five important gaps in the extant literature.

Originality/value

This is arguably the first study that consolidates the literature in the field of market calibrated option pricing analysis with a view to suggest directions for future researchers.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Jan M. Smolarski, Neil Wilner and Jose G. Vega

This paper aims to examine the applicability of real options methodology with respect to developing internal transfer pricing mechanisms. A pervasive theme in existing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the applicability of real options methodology with respect to developing internal transfer pricing mechanisms. A pervasive theme in existing models is their inability to handle the dynamic and volatile nature of today’s business environment, as well as their lack of objective managerial flexibility. The authors address these and other issues and develop a transfer pricing mechanism based on Black–Scholes and the binomial options pricing methodology, which is better suited in today’s dynamic business environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a conceptual approach in developing theoretical justifications and show, practically, how a transfer price can be developed using two different real options pricing models.

Findings

The authors find that real options transfer price mechanism (real options framework [ROF]) can effectively deal with many of the issues that permeate a modern organization with complex multi-dimensional operations. The authors argue that uncertainty and behavioral issues commonly associated with setting transfer prices are better handled using a transfer pricing mechanism that preserves flexibility at the business unit level, the managerial level and the firm level. The approach allows for different managerial styles in both centralized and decentralized sub-units within the same organization. The authors argue that an open multi-dimensional framework using real options is suitable under conditions of uncertainty and managerial opportunism.

Practical implications

ROF-based transfer pricing may be significant in that firms can use it as a tool to manage an organization by setting the prices centrally and at the same time allowing managers to select the transfer price that best suits their specific situation and operating conditions. This may result in a more efficient and more profitable organization.

Originality/value

The contribution of the paper is the melding of the ROF from the finance literature with the accounting problem of setting a transfer price for items lacking a competitive market price. The authors also contribute to existing research by explicitly developing a framework that values managerial flexibility, takes into account uncertainty and considers the behavioral aspects of the transfer pricing process. The authors establish the conditions under which a generic real options model is a feasible alternative in determining a transfer price.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Book part
Publication date: 9 September 2020

Yiying Cheng

Recently, there has been much progress in developing Markov switching stochastic volatility (MSSV) models for financial time series. Several studies consider various MSSV…

Abstract

Recently, there has been much progress in developing Markov switching stochastic volatility (MSSV) models for financial time series. Several studies consider various MSSV specifications and document superior forecasting power for volatility compared to the popular generalized autoregressive heteroscedasticity (GARCH) models. However, their application to option pricing remains limited, partially due to the lack of convenient closed-form option pricing formulas which integrate MSSV volatility estimates. We develop such a closed-form option pricing formula and the corresponding hedging strategy for a broad class of MSSV models. We then present an example of application to two of the most popular MSSV models: Markov switching multifractal (MSM) and component-driven regime switching (CDRS) models. Our results establish that these models perform well in one-day-ahead forecasts of option prices.

Details

Advances in Pacific Basin Business, Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-363-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

George C. Philippatos, Nicolas Gressis and Philip L. Baird

The Black‐Scholes (B‐S) model in its various formulations has been the mainstay paradigm on option pricing since its basic formulation in 1973. The model has generally…

Abstract

The Black‐Scholes (B‐S) model in its various formulations has been the mainstay paradigm on option pricing since its basic formulation in 1973. The model has generally been proven empirically robust, despite the well documented empirical evidence of mispricing deep‐in‐the‐money, deep out‐of‐the‐money and, occasionally, at‐the‐money options with near maturities [see Galai (1983)]. Research on explaining the observed pricing anomalies has focused on the variance of the return of the underlying asset, which, in the case of the B‐S model, is assumed to remain invariant over time. The variance term is not directly observable, leading researchers to speculate that pricing discrepancies may be caused by misspecification of this variable. More specifically, interest in the volatility variable has centered about the implied standard deviation (ISD).

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Book part
Publication date: 27 February 2009

Chueh-Yung Tsao and Chao-Ching Liu

Owing to the fact that the over-the-counter (OTC) market has no organized exchange, the options traded in the OTC market are more likely to be exposed to credit risk…

Abstract

Owing to the fact that the over-the-counter (OTC) market has no organized exchange, the options traded in the OTC market are more likely to be exposed to credit risk, Asian options being one of them. In this chapter we first discuss the pricing of geometric Asian options and the Black–Scholes options model subject to credit risk. We then combine the two models to derive a closed-form formula for pricing a geometric Asian option subject to the credit risk. The numerical analysis reveals that other pricing formulae existing in the literature can cause serious pricing errors when there is a possibility of default in reality.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-447-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Kim Hin David Ho and Shea Jean Tay

The purpose of this paper is to examine the risk neutral and non-risk neutral pricing of Singapore Real Estate Investment Trusts (S-REITs) via comparing the average of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the risk neutral and non-risk neutral pricing of Singapore Real Estate Investment Trusts (S-REITs) via comparing the average of the individual ratios (of deviation between expected and observed closing price/observed closing price) with the ratio (of standard deviation/mean) for closing prices via the binomial options pricing tree model.

Design/methodology/approach

If the ratio (of standard deviation/mean) ratio > the ratio (of deviation between expected and observed closing price/observed closing price), then the deviation of closing prices from the expected risk neutral prices is not significant and that the S-REIT is consistent with risk neutral pricing. If the ratio (of deviation between expected and observed closing price/observed closing price) is greater, then the S-REIT is not consistent with risk neutral pricing.

Findings

Capitacommercial Trust (CCT), Capitamall Trust (CMT) and Keppel Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) have large positive differences between the two ratios (39.86, 30.79 and 18.96 percent, respectively), implying that these S-REITs are not trading at risk neutral pricing. Suntec REIT has a small positive difference of 2.35 percent between both ratios, implying that it is trading at risk neutral pricing. Ascendas REIT has the largest negative difference between the two ratios at −4.24 percent, to be followed by Mapletree Logistics Trust at −0.44 percent. Both S-REITs are trading at risk neutral pricing. The analysis shows that CCT, CMT and Keppel REIT exhibit risk averse pricing.

Research limitations/implications

Results are consistent with prudential asset allocation for viable S-REIT portfolio investing but that not all these S-REITs exhibit strong market efficiency in their pricing.

Practical implications

Pricing may be risk neutral over a certain period but investor sentiments, fear of risks and speculative activities could affect an S-REIT’s risk neutrality.

Social implications

With enhanced risk diversification activities, the S-REITs should attain risk neutral pricing.

Originality/value

Virtually no research of this nature has been undertaken for S-REITS.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

Thomas Kokholm and Martin Stisen

This paper studies the performance of commonly employed stochastic volatility and jump models in the consistent pricing of The CBOE Volatility Index (VIX) and The S&P 500…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper studies the performance of commonly employed stochastic volatility and jump models in the consistent pricing of The CBOE Volatility Index (VIX) and The S&P 500 Index (SPX) options. With the existence of active markets for volatility derivatives and options on the underlying instrument, the need for models that are able to price these markets consistently has increased. Although pricing formulas for VIX and vanilla options are now available for commonly used models exhibiting stochastic volatility and/or jumps, it remains to be shown whether these are able to price both markets consistently. This paper fills this vacuum.

Design/methodology/approach

In particular, the Heston model, the Heston model with jumps in returns and the Heston model with simultaneous jumps in returns and variance (SVJJ) are jointly calibrated to market quotes on SPX and VIX options together with VIX futures.

Findings

The full flexibility of having jumps in both returns and volatility added to a stochastic volatility model is essential. Moreover, we find that the SVJJ model with the Feller condition imposed and calibrated jointly to SPX and VIX options fits both markets poorly. Relaxing the Feller condition in the calibration improves the performance considerably. Still, the fit is not satisfactory, and we conclude that one needs more flexibility in the model to jointly fit both option markets.

Originality/value

Compared to existing literature, we derive numerically simpler VIX option and futures pricing formulas in the case of the SVJ model. Moreover, the paper is the first to study the pricing performance of three widely used models to SPX options and VIX derivatives.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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