Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2022

Bosul Yoo and Sotaro Katsumata

This study aims to enhance knowledge on marketing strategies to increase repeat visitors. Furthermore, the authors suggest using appropriate destination information…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to enhance knowledge on marketing strategies to increase repeat visitors. Furthermore, the authors suggest using appropriate destination information tailored to first-time visitors and repeat visitors as social capital.

Design/methodology/approach

This study compares the differences in satisfaction between first-time foreign tourists and those repeat visiting. The authors apply a theoretical framework based on optimal distinctiveness theory (ODT) and consumer knowledge to determine which actions maximize the satisfaction of each group. Then, the relationships among assimilation desire, differentiation desire and satisfaction are quantitatively analyzed.

Findings

The results show the difference in the relationship between assimilation and travel satisfaction for first-time visitors and repeat visitors. First-time visitors are satisfied with popular sightseeing spots with higher assimilation level, whereas repeat visitors are satisfied with moderately unpopular sightseeing spots with lower assimilation level. The results clarify that information reflecting only the popularity of destinations is significantly effective for first-time visitors, but unsuitable for repeat visitors. Therefore, it would be possible to propose to repeat visitors a combination of “moderately differentiated” destinations.

Originality/value

The first contribution is that on the basis of Brewer (1991), the quantitative analysis confirmed that the social identity of an individual changes from assimilation to differentiation with the accumulation of experience until the optimal point is found. The second contribution is that we combined several fields such as ODT (Brewer, 1991), familiarity (Alba and Hutchinson, 1987), trial/repeat behavior (Iyengar et al., 2015) and reference groups (Peter & Olson, 2010). The third contribution is that the authors proposed marketing strategies on the basis of the empirical analysis to increase the number of inbound tourists.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Margaret E. Ormiston and Elaine M. Wong

In this chapter, we argue that beyond the self-enhancement motive (i.e., the desire for a positive identity), other identity motives play a significant, yet underspecified…

Abstract

In this chapter, we argue that beyond the self-enhancement motive (i.e., the desire for a positive identity), other identity motives play a significant, yet underspecified role in homogeneous and diverse groups. In particular, we explore how the desire for self-verification, belonging, and distinctiveness offer alternative and, at times, even contradictory explanations for findings typically attributed to self-enhancement. We also consider the ways in which these motives are influenced in homogenous and diverse groups and the effects they have on group processes and performance. Through our examination, we aim to stimulate research on the role of multiple identity motives in homogenous and diverse groups.

Details

Diversity and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-053-7

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2021

Reza Fazli-Salehi, Ivonne M. Torres, Rozbeh Madadi and Miguel Ángel Zúñiga

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of self-related traits on consumer self-brand connection (SBC) and communal-brand connection (CBC) in public vs private…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of self-related traits on consumer self-brand connection (SBC) and communal-brand connection (CBC) in public vs private consumption. Marketing practitioners will benefit by understanding the consumer traits that can be triggered and focused on in advertising campaigns. Moreover, it is important to know which traits have a significant impact on each product category section (i.e. public vs private use).

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment used a between-subjects design with two randomized blocks of publicly used brands and privately used brands. Within each block, the relationship between independent variables (narcissism and need for uniqueness [NFU]) and dependent variables (SBC, CBC and purchase intention) were analyzed using SmartPLS.

Findings

The results showed that narcissism has a significant positive impact on consumers’ SBC for publicly consumed products, no effect was found for CBC. NFU shows a significant positive impact on SBC and CBC for both categories. The results also showed a positive impact for SBC on purchase intention, no effect was found for CBC.

Research limitations/implications

Future research can examine brand names that people favor the most and test whether individuals’ narcissism and NFU is influential on their SBC and CBC with the brands, regardless of the exposure to the visual cues provided in this paper. Moreover, there are more behavioral outcomes that need examination. For example, it would be fruitful to see whether attitude toward the ad, or brand attitude are affected by consumers’ narcissism and NFU.

Practical implications

The results contribute to the effectiveness of advertising in different industries. For instance, brand managers and marketing practitioners can benefit by understanding which product types are more attractive to consumers based on their tendency toward uniqueness. Moreover, narcissism is another common trait that can be used to target consumers. Thus, certain product types may be more attractive to consumers based on their narcissism tendencies.

Originality/value

Despite the popularity of SBC and CBC research, there is limited knowledge about the consumer traits which can stimulate and enhance these concepts. As such, an important question that needs to be addressed is: “What consumer personality traits lead to higher SBC and CBC?” When it comes to self-concept, a limited number of studies exist that explore the actual types of personality or self-concept that generate a desired connection between the “self” and brands.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Alexander D. Hoppe

How do cultural organizations handle the competing demands of isomorphism and differentiation? Strategic balance theory is a promising point of departure. Proponents argue…

Abstract

How do cultural organizations handle the competing demands of isomorphism and differentiation? Strategic balance theory is a promising point of departure. Proponents argue that while isomorphism contributes to legitimacy, differentiation minimizes competition through innovation or niche control. However, most research has focused on successful cases of optimal performance in core or world cities. I introduce data from three seasons (250+ hours) of ethnographic research on fashion weeks in both a core city and semi-peripheral city. I find that geography acts as a structural barrier to competition: while semi-peripheral producers pursue some standards of fashion capitals in world cities, they cannot compete on the basis of style. Rather than optimizing through strategic balance, cultural organizations embrace a double edge of legitimation. Their sub-optimal vision of organizational survival cultivates legitimacy from available but symbolically polluting sources. Imperfect imitation is suggested instead as a viable legitimation strategy. I call for more attention to semi-peripheral geography and imperfect imitation in culture industry research.

Details

Aesthetics and Style in Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-236-9

Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2010

Steven L. Blader, Batia M. Wiesenfeld, Naomi B. Rothman and Sara L. Wheeler-Smith

Purpose – This chapter presents a social emotions-based analysis of justice dynamics, emphasizing the important influence of social emotions (e.g., envy, empathy…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter presents a social emotions-based analysis of justice dynamics, emphasizing the important influence of social emotions (e.g., envy, empathy, schadenfreude, and vicarious joy) on justice judgments and reactions. The chapter also identifies a dimension for organizing social emotions, based on the degree of congruence they reflect between self and other. Congruent social emotions align the individual experiencing the emotion with the individual who is the target of their emotion, thus leading individuals to reason about and perceive justice in ways that are aligned with the target. Conversely, incongruent social emotions create misalignment and lead to justice perceptions that are misaligned and oppositional with regard to the target.

Methodology/approach – The chapter is informed by research suggesting that justice judgments are subjective. We consider the perspective of each of the key parties to justice (i.e., decision makers, justice recipients, and third parties) to evaluate the effect of (in)congruent social emotions on justice.

Findings – The core argument advanced in the chapter is that the (in)congruence of parties’ social emotions shape whether people evaluate the outcomes, procedures, and treatment encountered by a target as being fair. Fairness judgments, in turn, shape parties’ actions and reactions.

Originality/value – The chapter is the first to offer a framework integrating research on organizational justice with research on social emotions, arguing that social emotions strike at the very foundation of justice dynamics in groups and teams. In addition, the congruence dimension described in the chapter offers a novel and potentially important way of thinking about social emotions.

Details

Fairness and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-162-7

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2019

Marcel Paulssen, Johanna Brunneder and Angela Sommerfeld

Prior research does not provide a clear picture of how managers can effectively manage customer in-role and extra-role behaviours in a retail setting. This study aims to…

1202

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research does not provide a clear picture of how managers can effectively manage customer in-role and extra-role behaviours in a retail setting. This study aims to test the differential impact of the two main customer relationship predictor paths – identity-based and satisfaction-based paths – on customer in-role and extra-role behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

A random sample of 500 customers from the flagship store of an up-market, international department store chain participated in a written survey. Purchase spending data for each customer was obtained from the retailer’s loyalty card database.

Findings

The two studied predictor paths possess a differential impact on customer extra-role behaviours. Civic virtue and co-creation behaviours are exclusively driven by the identity-based path, whereas sportsmanship is driven solely by the satisfaction-based path. Moreover, the identity-based path impacts purchase behaviour only when symbolic purchase motivation is high. Overall satisfaction has no impact on purchase behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

In some retailing contexts, extra-role behaviours such as co-creation or civic virtue might simply be irrelevant (e.g. discount chains).

Practical implications

Managers, who have the intention to stimulate customers to give constructive feedback on products or services, or to involve them in co-creation activities, are well advised to also invest in identity-based path activities.

Originality/value

This study is the first to empirically test the effects of customer identification and overall customer satisfaction on the various dimensions of customer in-role and extra-role behaviours. Customer extra-role behaviours should not be conceptualised as one global construct but should comprise distinct dimensions of discretionary behaviours that have different antecedents.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Hamizah Abd Hamid, Conor O’Kane and André M. Everett

The purpose of this paper is to examine how ethnic migrant entrepreneurs (EMEs) utilise identity work to build legitimacy in a host country. According to optimal

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how ethnic migrant entrepreneurs (EMEs) utilise identity work to build legitimacy in a host country. According to optimal distinctiveness theory (ODT), legitimacy is achieved by balancing conformance and distinctiveness. This paper draws on ODT in the context of ethnic migrant entrepreneurship to examine how EMEs both fit in (conformance) and maintain their uniqueness (distinctiveness) in cross-cultural settings.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a qualitative approach utilising semi-structured interviews to examine the identity work of EMEs from three distinct countries (Indonesia, Pakistan and South Korea (henceforth Korea)) in one host country (Malaysia).

Findings

The results show that EMEs’ identity work incorporates both the blurring and strengthening of host-home country boundaries. Building on this study’s results, the authors develop a model of identity work and three propositions regarding legitimacy building through identity in the context of ethnic migrant entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

Through the model and propositions, this research contributes to the identity, international entrepreneurship and ethnic migrant entrepreneurship discourse by identifying the mechanisms, focus and key features of identity work for entrepreneurs operating in cross-cultural settings. In so doing, this research also offers an alternative interpretation on the apparent divergent views around identity work in the fields of organisation (advocate isomorphism) and entrepreneurship (advocate uniqueness).

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2022

J. Cameron Verhaal and Elizabeth G. Pontikes

Market actors are simultaneously constrained and enabled by the structures they operate within, which opens opportunities for strategic actors. We build on cultural

Abstract

Market actors are simultaneously constrained and enabled by the structures they operate within, which opens opportunities for strategic actors. We build on cultural entrepreneurship and market category research to advance an agency-based perspective that brings together research streams on positioning for optimal distinctiveness and shaping with category strategy. We distinguish legitimating narratives for an individual position from initiatives aimed at category construction, and propose that linking these is a basis for strategic advantage. Market transformation involves strategic actors crafting differentiating stories that make an individual position compelling, and then extending these narratives to construct an abstract schema that creatively combines cultural defaults. We further highlight that transformative agency requires an engaged audience, such that stakeholders are willing to consider a new narrative.

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Mahn Hee Yoon and David J. Yoon

This paper aims to examine the mediating roles of self-efficacy and team commitment in linking service employees’ relative leader-member exchange (RLMX) with customer…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the mediating roles of self-efficacy and team commitment in linking service employees’ relative leader-member exchange (RLMX) with customer service behaviors and also the moderating roles of team-level differentiations in leader-member exchange (LMX) and team-member exchange (TMX) in influencing these mediation processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 467 customer-contact employees working in hotel restaurants. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis was used to test the mediation hypotheses, and moderated path was used to assess the moderated mediation.

Findings

Self-efficacy and team-commitment both mediated the relationship between RLMX and customer service behaviors. The differentiations in LMX and TMX significantly interacted with RLMX in predicting self-efficacy and team commitment and also moderated the indirect effects of RLMX on customer service behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies need to incorporate customers’ or immediate supervisors’ ratings of subordinates’ customer service behaviors and replicate the findings in different countries and work settings.

Practical implications

Hospitality managers should foster a work environment wherein they develop equal quality relationships with their subordinates in a workgroup and promote high-quality relationships among subordinates in the workgroup to improve subordinates’ self-efficacy, team commitment and, subsequently, their customer service behaviors.

Originality/value

This study incorporates both self-efficacy and team commitment as motivation-based and social exchange-based mediators, respectively, in predicting customer service behavior. It also extends the boundary condition for the mediations by considering the team-level differentiations in both vertical exchange (LMX) and horizontal exchange (TMX).

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Manuela López, María Sicilia and Alberto Alejandro Moyeda-Carabaza

Companies are now using social network sites (SNSs) within their marketing and brand-building activities. Twitter is the preferred SNS for creating brand communities…

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Abstract

Purpose

Companies are now using social network sites (SNSs) within their marketing and brand-building activities. Twitter is the preferred SNS for creating brand communities, which offer companies many advantages. The purpose of this paper is to examine how individuals manage their competing needs for being affiliated (operationalized as personal and communal-brand connections) and for being seen as distinctive (operationalized as need for uniqueness (NFU)) when they are members of brand communities on Twitter. The authors have also analysed which type of brand community is able to achieve the balance between both needs, enhancing identification with the brand community.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 318 valid responses were collected from three camera brand communities on Twitter. Messages (“tweets”) which included a link to an online questionnaire were sent to community members via Twitter. The authors examine the proposed model using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The authors demonstrate that consumers can satisfy their need for affiliation in brand communities created in Twitter. However, consumers can only reach a balance between the need for affiliation and the need for distinctiveness in brand communities built around niche brands. In contrast, the two needs work in opposition to shape identification in brand communities of big brands.

Originality/value

Optimal distinctiveness theory is used as a theoretical background for proposing how the antecedents of identification with the brand community enhance brand loyalty, with reference to the conflict between the individual’s needs for both distinctiveness and affiliation. Consumers’ identification with the brand community is proposed as a mediator to achieve brand loyalty in brand communities. Consumers reach this balance in brand communities built around a niche brand, where individuals with high NFU feel a high identification with the brand community. For big brands, as consumers’ NFU increases, their identification with the brand community and brand loyalty decreases.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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