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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Margaret E. Ormiston and Elaine M. Wong

In this chapter, we argue that beyond the self-enhancement motive (i.e., the desire for a positive identity), other identity motives play a significant, yet underspecified…

Abstract

In this chapter, we argue that beyond the self-enhancement motive (i.e., the desire for a positive identity), other identity motives play a significant, yet underspecified role in homogeneous and diverse groups. In particular, we explore how the desire for self-verification, belonging, and distinctiveness offer alternative and, at times, even contradictory explanations for findings typically attributed to self-enhancement. We also consider the ways in which these motives are influenced in homogenous and diverse groups and the effects they have on group processes and performance. Through our examination, we aim to stimulate research on the role of multiple identity motives in homogenous and diverse groups.

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Diversity and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-053-7

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Alexander D. Hoppe

How do cultural organizations handle the competing demands of isomorphism and differentiation? Strategic balance theory is a promising point of departure. Proponents argue…

Abstract

How do cultural organizations handle the competing demands of isomorphism and differentiation? Strategic balance theory is a promising point of departure. Proponents argue that while isomorphism contributes to legitimacy, differentiation minimizes competition through innovation or niche control. However, most research has focused on successful cases of optimal performance in core or world cities. I introduce data from three seasons (250+ hours) of ethnographic research on fashion weeks in both a core city and semi-peripheral city. I find that geography acts as a structural barrier to competition: while semi-peripheral producers pursue some standards of fashion capitals in world cities, they cannot compete on the basis of style. Rather than optimizing through strategic balance, cultural organizations embrace a double edge of legitimation. Their sub-optimal vision of organizational survival cultivates legitimacy from available but symbolically polluting sources. Imperfect imitation is suggested instead as a viable legitimation strategy. I call for more attention to semi-peripheral geography and imperfect imitation in culture industry research.

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Aesthetics and Style in Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-236-9

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Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2010

Steven L. Blader, Batia M. Wiesenfeld, Naomi B. Rothman and Sara L. Wheeler-Smith

Purpose – This chapter presents a social emotions-based analysis of justice dynamics, emphasizing the important influence of social emotions (e.g., envy, empathy…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter presents a social emotions-based analysis of justice dynamics, emphasizing the important influence of social emotions (e.g., envy, empathy, schadenfreude, and vicarious joy) on justice judgments and reactions. The chapter also identifies a dimension for organizing social emotions, based on the degree of congruence they reflect between self and other. Congruent social emotions align the individual experiencing the emotion with the individual who is the target of their emotion, thus leading individuals to reason about and perceive justice in ways that are aligned with the target. Conversely, incongruent social emotions create misalignment and lead to justice perceptions that are misaligned and oppositional with regard to the target.

Methodology/approach – The chapter is informed by research suggesting that justice judgments are subjective. We consider the perspective of each of the key parties to justice (i.e., decision makers, justice recipients, and third parties) to evaluate the effect of (in)congruent social emotions on justice.

Findings – The core argument advanced in the chapter is that the (in)congruence of parties’ social emotions shape whether people evaluate the outcomes, procedures, and treatment encountered by a target as being fair. Fairness judgments, in turn, shape parties’ actions and reactions.

Originality/value – The chapter is the first to offer a framework integrating research on organizational justice with research on social emotions, arguing that social emotions strike at the very foundation of justice dynamics in groups and teams. In addition, the congruence dimension described in the chapter offers a novel and potentially important way of thinking about social emotions.

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Fairness and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-162-7

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2019

Marcel Paulssen, Johanna Brunneder and Angela Sommerfeld

Prior research does not provide a clear picture of how managers can effectively manage customer in-role and extra-role behaviours in a retail setting. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research does not provide a clear picture of how managers can effectively manage customer in-role and extra-role behaviours in a retail setting. This study aims to test the differential impact of the two main customer relationship predictor paths – identity-based and satisfaction-based paths – on customer in-role and extra-role behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

A random sample of 500 customers from the flagship store of an up-market, international department store chain participated in a written survey. Purchase spending data for each customer was obtained from the retailer’s loyalty card database.

Findings

The two studied predictor paths possess a differential impact on customer extra-role behaviours. Civic virtue and co-creation behaviours are exclusively driven by the identity-based path, whereas sportsmanship is driven solely by the satisfaction-based path. Moreover, the identity-based path impacts purchase behaviour only when symbolic purchase motivation is high. Overall satisfaction has no impact on purchase behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

In some retailing contexts, extra-role behaviours such as co-creation or civic virtue might simply be irrelevant (e.g. discount chains).

Practical implications

Managers, who have the intention to stimulate customers to give constructive feedback on products or services, or to involve them in co-creation activities, are well advised to also invest in identity-based path activities.

Originality/value

This study is the first to empirically test the effects of customer identification and overall customer satisfaction on the various dimensions of customer in-role and extra-role behaviours. Customer extra-role behaviours should not be conceptualised as one global construct but should comprise distinct dimensions of discretionary behaviours that have different antecedents.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Hamizah Abd Hamid, Conor O’Kane and André M. Everett

The purpose of this paper is to examine how ethnic migrant entrepreneurs (EMEs) utilise identity work to build legitimacy in a host country. According to optimal

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how ethnic migrant entrepreneurs (EMEs) utilise identity work to build legitimacy in a host country. According to optimal distinctiveness theory (ODT), legitimacy is achieved by balancing conformance and distinctiveness. This paper draws on ODT in the context of ethnic migrant entrepreneurship to examine how EMEs both fit in (conformance) and maintain their uniqueness (distinctiveness) in cross-cultural settings.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a qualitative approach utilising semi-structured interviews to examine the identity work of EMEs from three distinct countries (Indonesia, Pakistan and South Korea (henceforth Korea)) in one host country (Malaysia).

Findings

The results show that EMEs’ identity work incorporates both the blurring and strengthening of host-home country boundaries. Building on this study’s results, the authors develop a model of identity work and three propositions regarding legitimacy building through identity in the context of ethnic migrant entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

Through the model and propositions, this research contributes to the identity, international entrepreneurship and ethnic migrant entrepreneurship discourse by identifying the mechanisms, focus and key features of identity work for entrepreneurs operating in cross-cultural settings. In so doing, this research also offers an alternative interpretation on the apparent divergent views around identity work in the fields of organisation (advocate isomorphism) and entrepreneurship (advocate uniqueness).

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International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Mahn Hee Yoon and David J. Yoon

This paper aims to examine the mediating roles of self-efficacy and team commitment in linking service employees’ relative leader-member exchange (RLMX) with customer…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the mediating roles of self-efficacy and team commitment in linking service employees’ relative leader-member exchange (RLMX) with customer service behaviors and also the moderating roles of team-level differentiations in leader-member exchange (LMX) and team-member exchange (TMX) in influencing these mediation processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 467 customer-contact employees working in hotel restaurants. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis was used to test the mediation hypotheses, and moderated path was used to assess the moderated mediation.

Findings

Self-efficacy and team-commitment both mediated the relationship between RLMX and customer service behaviors. The differentiations in LMX and TMX significantly interacted with RLMX in predicting self-efficacy and team commitment and also moderated the indirect effects of RLMX on customer service behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies need to incorporate customers’ or immediate supervisors’ ratings of subordinates’ customer service behaviors and replicate the findings in different countries and work settings.

Practical implications

Hospitality managers should foster a work environment wherein they develop equal quality relationships with their subordinates in a workgroup and promote high-quality relationships among subordinates in the workgroup to improve subordinates’ self-efficacy, team commitment and, subsequently, their customer service behaviors.

Originality/value

This study incorporates both self-efficacy and team commitment as motivation-based and social exchange-based mediators, respectively, in predicting customer service behavior. It also extends the boundary condition for the mediations by considering the team-level differentiations in both vertical exchange (LMX) and horizontal exchange (TMX).

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International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Manuela López, María Sicilia and Alberto Alejandro Moyeda-Carabaza

Companies are now using social network sites (SNSs) within their marketing and brand-building activities. Twitter is the preferred SNS for creating brand communities…

Abstract

Purpose

Companies are now using social network sites (SNSs) within their marketing and brand-building activities. Twitter is the preferred SNS for creating brand communities, which offer companies many advantages. The purpose of this paper is to examine how individuals manage their competing needs for being affiliated (operationalized as personal and communal-brand connections) and for being seen as distinctive (operationalized as need for uniqueness (NFU)) when they are members of brand communities on Twitter. The authors have also analysed which type of brand community is able to achieve the balance between both needs, enhancing identification with the brand community.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 318 valid responses were collected from three camera brand communities on Twitter. Messages (“tweets”) which included a link to an online questionnaire were sent to community members via Twitter. The authors examine the proposed model using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The authors demonstrate that consumers can satisfy their need for affiliation in brand communities created in Twitter. However, consumers can only reach a balance between the need for affiliation and the need for distinctiveness in brand communities built around niche brands. In contrast, the two needs work in opposition to shape identification in brand communities of big brands.

Originality/value

Optimal distinctiveness theory is used as a theoretical background for proposing how the antecedents of identification with the brand community enhance brand loyalty, with reference to the conflict between the individual’s needs for both distinctiveness and affiliation. Consumers’ identification with the brand community is proposed as a mediator to achieve brand loyalty in brand communities. Consumers reach this balance in brand communities built around a niche brand, where individuals with high NFU feel a high identification with the brand community. For big brands, as consumers’ NFU increases, their identification with the brand community and brand loyalty decreases.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2020

Bruno Felix

This study aims to understand the construction process of an organizational identity in a hybrid organization.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the construction process of an organizational identity in a hybrid organization.

Design/methodology/approach

The author developed a single case study based on in-depth interviews, non-participant observations and document analysis in a credit cooperative.

Findings

After periods of changes in organizational identity (from idealism to pragmatism), the formation of a paradoxical organizational identity was observed in which the core value became a central polarity between idealism and pragmatism; after periods when members engaged in actions that promoted resistance or change, they framed past events in a story of stable dynamics between idealism and pragmatism; and pro-distinctiveness and -similarity forces in relation to other organizations were reconciled in a quest for optimal distinctiveness that simultaneously enabled the development of uniqueness and adequacy.

Originality/value

This is the first study to adopt a paradox perspective to analyze the identity of a cooperative.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Hai Guo, Jintong Tang and Zelong Wei

By integrating the resource management perspective and the optimal distinctiveness perspective, the purpose of this paper is to explain how firms configure their…

Abstract

Purpose

By integrating the resource management perspective and the optimal distinctiveness perspective, the purpose of this paper is to explain how firms configure their managerial ties and competences to identify entrepreneurial opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

Using survey data collected from 238 firms in a transition economy, this paper tests a model of firms’ exploration and exploitation competences under which managerial ties promote or constrain opportunity discovery.

Findings

The paper finds that managerial ties are positively related to opportunity discovery. More importantly, competence exploration strengthens the impact of business ties on opportunity discovery, whereas it weakens the impact of political ties. On the contrary, competence exploitation strengthens the effect of political ties on opportunity discovery, whereas it weakens the impact of business ties.

Originality/value

First, the findings enrich the social network perspective of opportunity recognition by linking managerial social ties to opportunity discovery in the context of a transition economy. Second, this paper adds to current understanding of the resource management perspective and the optimal distinctiveness perspective by exploring the fit between different managerial ties (business ties vs political ties) and different competences (exploration vs exploitation) in contributing to opportunity discovery.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Jorge A. Gonzalez

Relying on relational demography and person-organization fit perspectives, the purpose of this paper is to explore the interactive effect of demographic dissimilarity and…

Abstract

Purpose

Relying on relational demography and person-organization fit perspectives, the purpose of this paper is to explore the interactive effect of demographic dissimilarity and value congruence on workplace attachment outcomes – affective and normative organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Based on optimal distinctiveness theory, asymmetrical effects across gender and race/ethnicity are also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

A diverse sample of 278 restaurant workers in 30 different work units is used to test the hypotheses using hierarchical OLS regression.

Findings

The results partially support the idea that perceived and objective value congruence moderate the relationship of race/ethnic and gender dissimilarity on workplace attachment. Tests for asymmetrical demographic group effects showed that value congruence had a stronger moderating effect for whites than for people of color, and for men than for women.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that value congruence can ameliorate the adverse diversity effects on workplace attachment, but that a complete substitution effect may not be present. Women and minorities may still be sensitive to demographic representation even when their value congruence is high. This implies that a simultaneous pursuit of fit and diversity is an adequate diversity management strategy to stimulate the inclusion and workplace attachment of all social groups.

Originality/value

This study joins a limited number of studies addressing the interaction of value congruence and demographic dissimilarity, and presents empirical evidence from a work setting. Also, this is the first study to show gender and race/ethnic differences in this interaction.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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