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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Susan Glose, Tamatha Arms and Noell Rowan

The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes surrounding prescription opioid medications of community living older adults in southeast…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes surrounding prescription opioid medications of community living older adults in southeast North Carolina.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional, descriptive, anonymous survey design of participants aged 55 or over was used.

Findings

Study participants (N = 119) reported bias in their attitudes and beliefs about the use and misuse of prescription opioid medications. Multiple regression analyses revealed that gender, age, work, marital status and education level all had significant results in explaining variance in the statistical models. Even though study participants demonstrated high levels of education and understanding of the potential of addiction to opiates, there were a number of misconceptions about prescription pain medications revealed.

Originality/value

There is a dearth of studies looking at older adults’ knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about prescription pain medications. This urges the necessity of increased awareness via further research, presentations and creative discourse to assist in the understanding of precursors of addiction and ways to deal with pain that do not automatically depend on prescription opioid medicines. Implications include outreach to a larger and more diverse sample to address knowledge, beliefs and attitudes surrounding prescription opioid medications of community living older adults in southeast North Carolina and beyond.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Loren E. Wilbers

In this chapter, I explore connections between institutional and personal narratives of treating chronic pain with prescription opioids.

Abstract

Purpose

In this chapter, I explore connections between institutional and personal narratives of treating chronic pain with prescription opioids.

Methods/Approach

I explore how stories told in a Food and Drug Administration public hearing construct moral boundaries around different kinds of pain patients and justify a label change intended to reduce prescribing of opioids to people with chronic pain. I then examine how personal narratives, acquired through interviews with chronic pain patients who rely on opioids, both conform to and challenge the institutional narratives told in the hearing and work as subversive stories. Additionally, I consider how institutional and personal narratives of chronic pain shed light on intersections and conflicts between the medical and social models of disability.

Findings

The “invisible disability” experience of chronic pain highlights the complex entanglement between the struggles associated with impairment emphasized by the medical model, and those stemming from cultural and structural barriers emphasized by the social model.

Implications/Value

I conclude with a discussion of the methodological value of examining narratives such as those of chronic pain and disability at multiple levels of social life. This study contributes to efforts to broaden disability discourse to include experiences such as chronic pain that are poorly represented in disability scholarship.

Details

New Narratives of Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-144-5

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Bharat Mehra and Baheya S. Jaber

The acceleration of Opioid deaths over the last decade has made it a serious national public health crisis. Alabama has not been immune to this epidemic, with dramatically…

Abstract

The acceleration of Opioid deaths over the last decade has made it a serious national public health crisis. Alabama has not been immune to this epidemic, with dramatically increased age-adjusted drug overdose death rates. These increases have occurred in a state with limited resources for Opioid health prevention, treatment, and recovery services. This chapter introduces the term “o-CHIL” in order to better understand the multi-factorial layers of intertwining health injustices (in the plural) experienced in Alabama’s communities and their embedded public libraries. It highlights the complexities in Opioid consumer health information literacies, the culturally situated dimensions of the Opioid crisis in Alabama, and the uniquely relevant consumer health literacies in its public libraries. Findings are based on an empirical assessment of representative information support services identified in February 2020 on the websites of the 230 public libraries listed as members of the Alabama Public Library Service. The exploratory study applies website content analysis to identify seven examples of information offerings and to class offerings into three categories: (1) information sources (collections, resources); (2) information policy and planning (assigned Opioid-related role, strategic representation); and (3) connections (internal, external, news and events). The discussion potentially provides new directions, approaches, and opportunities to build collaborations of sharing within Alabama’s network of public libraries and beyond for them to better serve their local and regional communities impacted by the Opioid crisis.

Details

Roles and Responsibilities of Libraries in Increasing Consumer Health Literacy and Reducing Health Disparities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-341-8

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Janet Currie, Jonas Jin and Molly Schnell

This chapter uses quarterly county-level data from 2006 to 2014 to examine the direction of causality in the relationship between per capita opioid prescription rates and…

Abstract

This chapter uses quarterly county-level data from 2006 to 2014 to examine the direction of causality in the relationship between per capita opioid prescription rates and employment-to-population ratios. We first estimate models of the effect of per capita opioid prescription rates on employment-to-population ratios, instrumenting opioid prescriptions for younger ages using opioid prescriptions to the elderly. We find that the estimated effect of opioids on employment-to-population ratios is positive but small for women, while there is no relationship for men. We then estimate models of the effect of employment-to-population ratios on opioid prescription rates using a shift-share instrument and find ambiguous results. Overall, our findings suggest that there is no simple causal relationship between economic conditions and the abuse of opioids. Therefore, while improving economic conditions in depressed areas is desirable for many reasons, it is unlikely on its own to curb the opioid epidemic.

Details

Health and Labor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-861-2

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2020

Sabir Zaman, Shahid Irfan, Basharat Hussain, Muhammad Tahir Nawaz and Shazia Khalid

There is increased social discussion of the emerging issues of opioid use, health and well-being of young adults within contemporary Asian society. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

There is increased social discussion of the emerging issues of opioid use, health and well-being of young adults within contemporary Asian society. The purpose of this study is to contribute new knowledge of opioid-using young adults through ethnographic perspectives of the five main cultures of Pakistan. Furthermore, it tried to explore the values of opioid users.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a qualitative study. Semi-structured interview and observation techniques were used to gain the participants’ information, in a non-judgmental environment. Observation and life focus history interview methodology were used for data collection. The sample consisted of 18 male opioid users (approximately three from each area including: Punjab, Khyber Pakhtoon Khah, Balochistan, Sindh, Gilgit Baltistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir). An interview script was used in interviews after written informed consent. After the detailed interview and observation of non-verbal behaviours, the researchers analysed the data by using the content analysis of qualitative method.

Findings

The result showed that poor relationships, conflicts over property, lack of social support and family problems increased with the use of opioids by individuals. The individual’s mental health, such as hopelessness, curiosity, mistrust and lack of interest in social activities, was the major cause of opioid addiction. Moreover, peer influences and friends may also have played contributing roles in opioids use among men.

Research limitations/implications

The current study added to the understanding of the relationship of different environmental, behavioural and social factors involved in developing opioid use among young individuals. The homogeneity of the sample may have weakened the generalisability of the findings of the study as all participants in the study were male.

Practical implications

Clinicians and allied professionals have shown a great interest in early intervention with opioid users. At the same time, there is a lack of qualitative studies exploring the lived experiences of young opioid users. That is why this study was done, to empower counsellors.

Social implications

Opioids, including heroin, have strong addictive tendencies. They are easily available, particularly in unplanned urban areas of Pakistan. The present study tried to understand the lived experiences and beliefs of opioid users belonging to different cultures of Pakistan.

Originality/value

At the same time, there is a lack of qualitative studies exploring the lived experiences of adult opioid users. Therefore, this study presented 18 interview-based facts from the opioid users belonging to different areas of Pakistan residing in capital of Pakistan. The content of these vignettes was examined in the context of an ethnographic perspective, as it has a strong connection and contribution to drug abuse.

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2018

Jennifer Fuhrmann-Berger

The purpose of this paper is to aid employers and HR professionals in addressing the opioid epidemic, by examining the economic burden of addiction and its impact on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to aid employers and HR professionals in addressing the opioid epidemic, by examining the economic burden of addiction and its impact on the workplace, and it presents solutions based on a clinical approach to treatment and prevention of substance abuse.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper undertakes a review of current opioid addiction statistics provided by various professional organizations and the US government to assess the scope of opioid addiction and its effects on the US economy. Solutions to the growing issue of addiction are based on the author’s clinical experience within the pharmacy benefits space.

Findings

Opioid addiction costs employers an estimated $18bn annually and incurred $1tn in expenses overall in the US between the years 2001 and 2017. These figures account for factors such as medical expenses, lost productivity and loss of life. The opioid crisis has led to a significant decline in workforce participation (20 per cent among men and 25 per cent among women), making it difficult for employers to find and keep qualified workers.

Originality/value

In this article, the author discusses means by which employers and HR professionals can protect and retain employees in the face of a national epidemic of addiction to prescription opioids. Solutions encompass not only how to identify and address existing substance abuse, but how to prevent addiction through employee education and close clinical coordination with partners such as an organization’s pharmacy benefits manager.

Details

Strategic HR Review, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-4398

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Susan W. Hinze, Noah J. Webster, Heidi T. Chirayath and Joshua H. Tamayo-Sarver

Do physician perceptions of patient “deservingness” factor into the decision to prescribe opioid analgesics? Using a data set of 398 physicians randomly selected from the…

Abstract

Do physician perceptions of patient “deservingness” factor into the decision to prescribe opioid analgesics? Using a data set of 398 physicians randomly selected from the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) membership list, we explore how a range of patient social context variables influence a physician's decision to prescribe opioids for three conditions: ankle fracture, back pain, and migraine headache. Being hurt running from the police, former and current drug or alcohol use, and frequent emergency room (ER) visits reduce the likelihood of opioid prescription. Having a reliable relationship with a primary care provider and being injured in a ladder fall or intramural collegiate basketball game increase the likelihood of opioid prescription. Factor analyses for each of the three conditions reveal two scales: socially stigmatizing characteristics and socially accepted characteristics. Discussion centers on what places people at risk for inadequate pain control. Our work contributes to the expanding literature on social conditions as a fundamental cause of illness.

Details

Social Sources of Disparities in Health and Health Care and Linkages to Policy, Population Concerns and Providers of Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-835-9

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 6 March 2018

This followed Attorney General Jeff Sessions on February 27 announcing the Prescription Interdiction and Litigation task force, the latest government move to push back…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB230214

ISSN: 2633-304X

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Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Farrukh Alam and Peter Barker

The purpose of this paper is to identify risk factors for interruptions in opioid dependence treatment and barriers to (re) entering effective treatment through real-world…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify risk factors for interruptions in opioid dependence treatment and barriers to (re) entering effective treatment through real-world insight on current opioid dependence treatment in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

Project Access UK, a national survey deployed across multiple regions in England, Wales and Scotland, collected data on the perspectives of patients receiving medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid dependence (n=248), out-of-treatment opioid users (n=196), and physicians (n=100).

Findings

Both patients and users reported multiple prior episodes of MAT and detoxification. Among patients, 57 per cent reported continuing illicit drugs use in addition to their treatment, 25 per cent had misused (injected or snorted) and 30 per cent had diverted (sold or given away) prescribed opioid medications. Diverted medications were currently being used by 26 per cent of out-of-treatment users; of these, 21 per cent used methadone. Supervised dosing was rated as the condition of treatment with the biggest impact on daily life. Daily supervision was a requirement for 44, 34 and 23 per cent of patients receiving methadone, mono-buprenorphine and buprenorphine-naloxone, respectively.

Practical implications

Interruptions to opioid dependence treatment in various forms can hamper the recovery of opioid-dependent patients. The benefits of MAT may not be fully realised if treatment is interrupted due to compliance failure, or inflexible treatment programmes leading to premature treatment exit. These findings serve to highlight areas in which treatment disruption can potentially be addressed.

Originality/value

Consideration of these findings may aid in the optimisation of treatment delivery practices to better meet the UK policy of recovery, and ultimately improve patient outcomes.

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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Ethan W. Gossett and P. D. Harms

Acute and chronic pain affects more Americans than heart disease, diabetes, and cancer combined. Conservative estimates suggest the total economic cost of pain in the…

Abstract

Acute and chronic pain affects more Americans than heart disease, diabetes, and cancer combined. Conservative estimates suggest the total economic cost of pain in the United States is $600 billion, and more than half of this cost is due to lost productivity, such as absenteeism, presenteeism, and turnover. In addition, an escalating opioid epidemic in the United States and abroad spurred by a lack of safe and effective pain management has magnified challenges to address pain in the workforce, particularly the military. Thus, it is imperative to investigate the organizational antecedents and consequences of pain and prescription opioid misuse (POM). This chapter provides a brief introduction to pain processing and the biopsychosocial model of pain, emphasizing the relationship between stress, emotional well-being, and pain in the military workforce. We review personal and organizational risk and protective factors for pain, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, optimism, perceived organizational support, and job strain. Further, we discuss the potential adverse impact of pain on organizational outcomes, the rise of POM in military personnel, and risk factors for POM in civilian and military populations. Lastly, we propose potential organizational interventions to mitigate pain and provide the future directions for work, stress, and pain research.

Details

Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

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