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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2017

John B. Davis

In his 1931 unpublished “Surplus Product” manuscript Sraffa used an open–closed distinction to explain the relationship between the “economic field” and distribution. This…

Abstract

In his 1931 unpublished “Surplus Product” manuscript Sraffa used an open–closed distinction to explain the relationship between the “economic field” and distribution. This chapter examines Sraffa’s thinking in this regard, and shows how it allowed him to resolve a problem he encountered in his early objectivist representation of commodity production in economies with a surplus. The chapter argues that Sraffa adopted a view different from Bertalanffy’s general systems theory understanding of open and closed systems developed around the same time in such a way as to address the specific nature of economics. The chapter compares two related interpretations of Sraffa’s thinking in regard to the open–closed distinction developed by Arena and Ginzburg, and also addresses how Sraffa’s thinking regarding open and closed systems compares with similar thinking of Wittgenstein and Gramsci. The concluding discussion contrasts Sraffa’s causal reasoning with mainstream economics’ ceteris paribus method of causal reasoning.

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Including a Symposium on New Directions in Sraffa Scholarship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-539-9

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Yijiang Zhao, Michael Davis and Kevin T. Berry

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect on the cost of capital of increased disclosure that reduces information asymmetry among market participants.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect on the cost of capital of increased disclosure that reduces information asymmetry among market participants.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the decision to regularly hold open (closed) conference calls pre‐Reg FD as a proxy for a commitment to the policy of public (selective) disclosure and a cross‐sectional research design to examine the associations between open/closed conference calls and three proxies for firms' cost of capital (i.e. bid‐ask spreads, share turnover, and implied costs of capital).

Findings

The results show that firms that commit to open calls exhibit lower relative bid‐ask spreads, lower implied costs of capital, and higher share turnover than firms that commit to closed calls.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that increased disclosure that “levels the playing field” for small investors benefits investors as a whole by improving firms' market liquidity and reducing the cost of capital.

Originality/value

This study contributes to existing literature on the association between corporate disclosure and firms' cost of capital.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Mohammad Alawamleh, Loiy Bani Ismail, Khaled Aladwan and Aya Saleh

The purpose of this paper is to examine critically the different influences of open/closed innovation on employees’ performance.

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1278

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine critically the different influences of open/closed innovation on employees’ performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes into account the different influence of open and closed innovation on the performance of employees. Some previous literature was reviewed and the quantitative method used a structured questionnaire to collect primary data from participants.

Findings

The results indicated that open innovation was more influential on the performance of employees than closed innovation. It also appeared that the case study organization uses the open innovation approach in the investments department to attract more clients and investments and thus increase its benefits.

Practical implications

The paper presents a critical account of differences in the influence on employees’ performance between open and closed innovation; it also takes into account the pros and cons of both aspects and their influence on the overall performance of the organization, putting into perspective the recommendations for the best approach to guarantee a good orientation within the internal environment of the organization. Finally, it helps in understanding the best approach to attract talent and creativity to the organization.

Originality/value

It is expected that the current research will offer guidance to organizations in Jordan to draw up plans for effective management of innovative approaches both internally and externally. It highlights the practice of open innovation and its role in attracting talent to the organization, to boost employees’ performance.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Fei Wang, Chengdong Wu, Xinthe Xu and Yunzhou Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to present a coordinated control strategy for stable walking of biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL), which consists of artificial leg…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a coordinated control strategy for stable walking of biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL), which consists of artificial leg (AL) and intelligent bionic leg (IBL).

Design/methodology/approach

The original concentrated control in common biped robot system is replaced by a master‐slave dual‐leg coordinated control. P‐type open/closed‐loop iterative learning control is used to realize the time‐varying gait tracking for IBL to AL.

Findings

The new control architecture can simplify gait planning scheme of BRHL system with complicated closed‐chain mechanism and mixed driving mode.

Research limitations/implications

Designing and constructing a suitable magneto‐rheological damper can greatly improve the control performance of IBL.

Practical implications

Master‐slave coordination strategy is suitable for BRHL stable walking control.

Originality/value

The concepts and methods of dual‐leg coordination have not been explicitly proposed in single biped robot control research before. Master‐slave coordinated control strategy is suitable for complicated BRHL.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1976

B.M. Khumawala and D. Clay Whybark

A very important concern of physical distribution managers is deciding the location of warehouses (distribution centres or depots). It is, therefore, not surprising that

Abstract

A very important concern of physical distribution managers is deciding the location of warehouses (distribution centres or depots). It is, therefore, not surprising that this location problem has been receiving considerable research attention and indeed, some impact has been made in actual industrial warehouse location decisions. The interested reader is referred to the expository articles, which describe both the theoretical developments and some practical applications of the theory.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0020-7527

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Aníbal J.J. Valido and João Barradas Cardoso

The purpose of this paper is to present a design sensitivity analysis continuum formulation for the cross-section properties of thin-walled laminated composite beams…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a design sensitivity analysis continuum formulation for the cross-section properties of thin-walled laminated composite beams. These properties are expressed as integrals based on the cross-section geometry, on the warping functions for torsion, on shear bending and shear warping, and on the individual stiffness of the laminates constituting the cross-section.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to determine its properties, the cross-section geometry is modeled by quadratic isoparametric finite elements. For design sensitivity calculations, the cross-section is modeled throughout design elements to which the element sensitivity equations correspond. Geometrically, the design elements may coincide with the laminates that constitute the cross-section.

Findings

The developed formulation is based on the concept of adjoint system, which suffers a specific adjoint warping for each of the properties depending on warping. The lamina orientation and the laminate thickness are selected as design variables.

Originality/value

The developed formulation can be applied in a unified way to open, closed or hybrid cross-sections.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Marieke van den Brink, Margo Brouns and Sietske Waslander

The purpose of this research is to show that upward mobility of female academics in regular selection procedures is evolving extremely slowly, especially in The…

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4981

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to show that upward mobility of female academics in regular selection procedures is evolving extremely slowly, especially in The Netherlands. This paper aims at a more profound understanding of professorial recruitment and selection procedures in relation to gender differences at Dutch universities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores the recruitment of university professors as a gendered process and is mainly based on the analysis of selection committee reports between 1999‐2003 from six large Dutch universities (n=682).

Findings

The research findings give a clear indication of gender differences in selection and recruitment procedures. Although not in all disciplines, the paper observes a disparity in the percentages of male and female applicants who were successful in the selection procedure. There is no confirmation of the predicted relationship with the nature of the procedure (open/closed), but there is a correlation with the number of women on the committee.

Research limitations/implications

As it was not possible to make any pronouncements about the quality of the applicants, a strict measurement of gender bias is not possible.

Practical implications

The results show that academic disciplines are gendered in a different way, requiring different measures at the institutional and individual levels.

Originality/value

This is the first paper on recruitment and selection procedures that takes into account disciplinary differences and factors such as the number of applicants for each professorship and the recruitment potential by gender.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2017

Abstract

Details

Including a Symposium on New Directions in Sraffa Scholarship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-539-9

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 December 2019

Pasquale Legato and Rina Mary Mazza

The use of queueing network models was stimulated by the appearance (1975) of the exact product form solution of a class of open, closed and mixed queueing networks…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of queueing network models was stimulated by the appearance (1975) of the exact product form solution of a class of open, closed and mixed queueing networks obeying the local balance principle and solved, a few years later, by the popular mean value analysis algorithm (1980). Since then, research efforts have been produced to approximate solutions for non-exponential services and non-pure random mechanisms in customer processing and routing. The purpose of this paper is to examine the suitability of modeling choices and solution approaches consolidated in other domains with respect to two key logistic processes in container terminals.

Design/methodology/approach

In particular, the analytical solution of queueing networks is assessed for the vessel arrival-departure process and the container internal transfer process with respect to a real terminal of pure transshipment.

Findings

Numerical experiments show the extent to which a decomposition-based approximation, under fixed or state-dependent arrival rates, may be suitable for the approximate analysis of the queueing network models.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of adopting exponential service time distributions and Poisson flows is highlighted.

Practical implications

Comparisons with a simulation-based solution deliver numerical evidence on the companion use of simulation in the daily practice of managing operations in a finite-time horizon under complex policies.

Originality/value

Discussion of some open modeling issues and encouraging results provide some guidelines on future research efforts and/or suitable adaption to container terminal logistics of the large body of techniques and algorithms available nowadays for supporting long-run decisions.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Halina Mayer Chaves Araújo and Wilma Maria Coelho Araújo

Treatment of coeliac disease (CD) is essentially dietary and requires permanent changes in dietary habits. Gluten‐free diet compliance affects every aspect of an…

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1282

Abstract

Purpose

Treatment of coeliac disease (CD) is essentially dietary and requires permanent changes in dietary habits. Gluten‐free diet compliance affects every aspect of an individual's quality of life. This paper aims to analyse the difficulties associated with the food practices tried and reported by CD patients and their health and quality of life.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire with open, closed and multiple choice questions adapted from an already validated instrument was administered to a sample of 105 CD patients. The inclusion criteria were patients diagnosed with CD living in Distrito Federal (DF) who agreed to participate in the study.

Findings

The greatest concerns of CD patients were eating out (44.23 per cent), having to read food labels (50.00 per cent), believing that foods are not safe (52.88 per cent) and not having dietary alternatives (56.44 per cent). Some (39.42 per cent) patients have no difficulty following the diet, 42.3 per cent have some difficulty and 18.27 per cent find it very difficult to follow the diet.

Originality/value

This study discloses some of the social difficulties faced by CD patients, such as eating with relatives and friends, and discusses the impact of these challenges on their quality of life. The data show that information can help CD patients to maintain their quality of life.

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