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In recent decades, Iranian vernacular architecture has defined the local architectural identity by demonstrating distinctive characteristics. Defining such a critical role…
In recent decades, Iranian vernacular architecture has defined the local architectural identity by demonstrating distinctive characteristics. Defining such a critical role for vernacular studies has led to different approaches in the design of the contemporary architecture of Iran. The first approach of integrating vernacular and contemporary designs has focused on local people, their needs, local construction, and building materials. The revival of vernacular architectural design and building elements has been at the forefront of this approach in Iran. However, recent use in Iran has concentrated on the symbolic/abstract reuse of vernacular building forms. Vernacular architecture is known to merely provide for the functional requirements of buildings, and not for aesthetic purposes. Conversely, in the second approach, vernacular building elements are considered to be symbols of local identity. This paper will argue that although the symbolic reuse of vernacular features may not uphold the functional expectations of the vernacular form, this reuse is useful in reviving architectural identity. In addition, underscoring such a different role for vernacular building features in contemporary architecture might help to expand the realm of vernacular studies. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the conversion of vernacular architecture in Iran by focusing on the instance of wind-catchers. Wind-catchers typically were used in residential buildings and are considered potent symbols of climate adaptation. In contemporary architecture, however, a form of wind-catcher has been used as a symbol for local architectural identity. Through this transformation, the essential nature of the wind-catcher has found new life in the contemporary architecture of Iran.
Despite a growing literature on strategic partnerships, little attention has been paid to the way public‐private partnerships (PPPs) manage their relationships with their…
Despite a growing literature on strategic partnerships, little attention has been paid to the way public‐private partnerships (PPPs) manage their relationships with their environments. Using a stakeholder approach, we specify how a large international public‐private partnership was able to endure over a period of 24 years in spite of a particularly challenging societal environment in a Latin American country. We identify sustainability mechanisms and discuss their implications for managing a PPP.
Discharging frail older people from acute hospital settings has been an issue of concern for over 40 years and recent studies suggest that enduring problems remain. This…
Discharging frail older people from acute hospital settings has been an issue of concern for over 40 years and recent studies suggest that enduring problems remain. This paper explores the experiences of discharge from three different units: an acute surgical ward, an acute medical ward and a specialist ward for older people. Based on extensive data from interviews with older people, their family carers and ward‐based staff, a grounded theory of the discharge experience is presented. This suggests that the quality of discharge hinges largely on whether the focus of efforts is on ‘pace’ (the desire to discharge older people as rapidly as possible) or ‘complexity’ (where due account is taken of the complex interaction of medical and wider social issues). When pace is the focus, ‘pushing’ and ‘fixing’ are the main processes driving discharge. However, when attention is given to complexity, far more subtle processes of ‘informing’ and ‘brokering’ are in evidence. These latter processes are conceived of as forms of ‘relational practice’ and it is argued that such practices lie at the heart of high quality care for older people.
The paper provides a Canadian perspective on the use of psychotropic medication in the management of problem behaviours in adults with intellectual disabilities in Canada…
The paper provides a Canadian perspective on the use of psychotropic medication in the management of problem behaviours in adults with intellectual disabilities in Canada. Psychotropic medication and intellectual disabilities were explored in the context of Canadian health and social services, clinical practices, medical training and factors that have shaped these over the past few decades. Informal physician intellectual disabilities networks and the newly formed Canadian Network of the National Coalition on Dual Diagnosis provided the opportunity to survey the use of psychotropic medication for problem behaviours across the country. Geographic, political, cultural and other influences on the development of health and social services are described, as well as training requirements for physicians. Survey responses were received from all provinces and represented clinicians in mental health multidisciplinary teams, health and social services ministry representatives, agency staff (up to executive director level) and family members of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Psychiatry and family medicine perspectives of the authors from working in Canada and the UK with people with intellectual disabilities presenting with problem behaviours are described. In Canada there are no national, provincial or territorial policies or guidelines on use of psychotropic medication for the management of such behaviours. There are no requirements for physicians prescribing these medications to have training in the care of people with intellectual disabilities. Services for people with intellectual disabilities and behaviour problems in Canada appear to be more crisis‐reactive than those in the UK.
Explains the development of Israel’s welfare state, concentrating on the labour exchange system and housing. Links the development of the Zionist welfare state to economic…
Explains the development of Israel’s welfare state, concentrating on the labour exchange system and housing. Links the development of the Zionist welfare state to economic and political conditions, in particular state‐building and the management of the Palestinian community within the state. Refers to literature on policy paradigms. Notes the stable institutional infrastructures developed by the Jewish community in Palestine and the Zionist labour movement, which led to an embryonic welfare state. Recounts the development of the labour exchange process and the public housing policy, describing how the policies reinforced statehood – settling immigrants into areas where Jewish presence needed strengthening and, at first, largely excluding the Palestinian community from access to housing and the labour process. Points out that, over time, the exclusion of Palestinians became unrealistic. Concludes that Israel’s welfare state was determined by political conditions of developing statehood – most importantly the exodus of Palestinians and the influx of Jewish immigrants.
Delves into history to find out if sociological knowledge can be applied successfully to policy making. Explains that society is based on the use of multiple knowledge…
Delves into history to find out if sociological knowledge can be applied successfully to policy making. Explains that society is based on the use of multiple knowledge structures and belief systems. Cites examples of centres which were set up in the USA to improve understanding and knowledge in a specific area, which could then contribute towards policy making and, ultimately, improved practice. Discusses the application of knowledge at various points in history, indicating that ruling elites are not motivated by knowledge (intellect) but by sentiment, and that this is still the case today. Refers to various literary works on sociological practice. Advocates that modern social research should be driven by policy issues and that sociologists should seize the opportunity, presented by decentralization, to become policy makers in their own communities.
Based on fifteen years of data on the annual Academy of International Business (AIB) best dissertation Farmer Award finalists, we find that these dissertations were done…
Based on fifteen years of data on the annual Academy of International Business (AIB) best dissertation Farmer Award finalists, we find that these dissertations were done at a range of North American universities. Interestingly, dissertation topics differed from the topics covered in the three top IB journals with five‐sixths of the topics in management, organization, economics, or finance and two‐thirds set in a single country or region (U.S., Japan, North America, and Western Europe). Survey research is the most common methodology but analysis of secondary data is growing. As expected, the finalists are on average an extraordinarily prolific group.
Current networks are providing plenty of services that users can access and use. These services are more and more pervasive and deployed in different networks distributed…
Current networks are providing plenty of services that users can access and use. These services are more and more pervasive and deployed in different networks distributed across an environment. This raises the problem of managing such environments in order to grant access to services from anywhere and to adapt the environment’s networks to dynamic changes. Also, there is a need of an autonomous behavior to reduce human intervention and assure environment’s consistency. This autonomous and distributed behavior leads to the definition and integration of existing and new technologies to enable autonomous distributed management. This is fulfilled by providing paradigms that bring awareness about the surroundings and enabled tools to manage and adapt the environment’s resources. The main problem is to dynamically provide auto‐configuration of networks to deal with the frequent changes which results from users’ roaming, changing services constraints, and changing services themselves, and adding, upgrading or removing policies. The outcome of these issues is a dynamic system with complex management. Hence, this paper proposes the integration of different techniques to provide an autonomous, distributed, and secure management including auto‐configuration, adaptation, and auto‐protection of pervasive environments. Then, policies control the behavior of the environment, devices configuration and the enforcement of security mechanisms to protect sensitive data. Also, mobile agents are employed to distribute management tasks across the distributed environment. In order to provide auto‐protection capabilities, the autonomous behavior of the environment have to be secured. Actually, this security issue is addressed by defining an agent‐based Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) with X.509 certificates. The agent ensures then that the security functions are applied across all the distributed networks, where specific agents are responsible for conveying necessary information and certificates to local environments. Finally, the paper proposes a semantic‐based privacy management approach using ontologies to decide how privacy information is handled in the environment.
Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.