Search results

1 – 10 of over 2000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Tricia S. Jones and Martin S. Remland

Traditionally, conflict theory and research has focused almost exclusively on verbal behavior to understand strategic processes. Research on various nonverbal cues in…

Downloads
2188

Abstract

Traditionally, conflict theory and research has focused almost exclusively on verbal behavior to understand strategic processes. Research on various nonverbal cues in conflict interaction is limited to investigations of narrowly defined variable sets and/or atheoretic descriptions of nonverbal behaviors, with little attention to the underlying reasons for the behavioral choices made by disputants. This paper proposes an attribution‐based model of conflict escalation as a consequence of non‐verbal status displays. The lack of research on the role of nonverbal communication in conflict escalation and the limitations of current models of nonverbal immediacy exchange are cited as a justification for the proposed model. Implications of the model are summarized in the form of several propositions.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Yam B. Limbu, C. Jayachandran, Barry J. Babin and Robin T. Peterson

Previous studies that examined the role of empathy and nonverbal immediacy on business-to-business (B2B) salesperson performance is limited in scope and yielded…

Downloads
2378

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies that examined the role of empathy and nonverbal immediacy on business-to-business (B2B) salesperson performance is limited in scope and yielded inconclusive evidence. Grounded in Plank and Greene’s (1996) framework of salesperson effectiveness, this paper aims to empirically investigate the mediating role of adaptive selling behavior through which empathy and nonverbal immediacy influence sales force performance and the form of empathy (cognitive or affective) that has the most beneficial role in improving relationship (versus outcome) salesperson performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using cross-sectional data that were collected from 422 pharmaceutical sales representatives, this study used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

Adaptive selling behavior mediates the effect of perspective taking empathy and empathic concern on relationship performance. However, the impact of empathy on outcome performance is not significant through adaptive selling behavior, but perspective taking empathy has a direct influence on outcome performance. Contrary to expectations, nonverbal immediacy is not mediated by adaptive selling behavior but has a direct and positive impact on relationship performance.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study have several implications for recruitment, training and assessment of salespeople in a B2B context. Based on the empirical evidence, it is highlighted that firms may use different forms of empathy and nonverbal cues to promote adaptive selling behavior that impact sales force performance (i.e. outcome or relationship).

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study which simultaneously examines the mediating role of adaptive selling behavior in the relationship between three antecedent variables that relate to sales force empathy and nonverbal communication (i.e. perspective taking empathy, empathic concern and nonverbal immediacy) and two aspects of B2B sales performance (relationship and outcome).

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Cheng-Yu Lin and Jiun-Sheng Chris Lin

Rapport between service employees and customers has been suggested to be an important determinant of customer relationship management, yet existing marketing literature…

Downloads
3333

Abstract

Purpose

Rapport between service employees and customers has been suggested to be an important determinant of customer relationship management, yet existing marketing literature still lacks a sufficient understanding of how service employees’ nonverbal communication affects customer-employee rapport development in service encounters. The purpose of this paper is to fill this research gap by proposing and testing a model that explores how service employees’ nonverbal communication (employee affective delivery and behavioral mimicry) influences customer positive emotions and customer-employee rapport. The mediating role of customer positive emotions and the moderating role of store atmosphere in the process of customer-employee rapport development were also assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an observational methodology in conjunction with a customer survey, multi-source survey data collected from 303 customer-employee pairs in the apparel retailing industry was examined through structural equation modeling and regression analysis.

Findings

Results showed that employee nonverbal communication positively influenced customer positive emotions and customer-employee rapport. The partial mediating role of customer positive emotions and the moderating role of store atmosphere in the process of rapport development were also confirmed.

Practical implications

Service firms should train and motivate employees to use nonverbal communication to develop and strengthen customer-employee rapport. The importance of customer positive emotions in the service process should be addressed in the customer-employee rapport development process. Moreover, service managers should also allocate firm resources to create a well-designed store atmosphere for target customers.

Originality/value

This research represents one of the earliest studies to explore and empirically test the influence of employee nonverbal communication on customer-employee rapport development in service encounters. The partial mediating role of customer positive emotions and the moderating role of store atmosphere on the relationship between employee nonverbal communication and customer-employee rapport were also proposed and confirmed.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 August 2008

D.L. Roter, L.H. Erby, J.A. Hall, S. Larson, L. Ellington and W. Dudley

This study aims to explore the role of interactants' nonverbal sensitivity, anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics in learning and satisfaction within the genetic…

Downloads
971

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the role of interactants' nonverbal sensitivity, anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics in learning and satisfaction within the genetic counseling context.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a combined simulation and analogue study. Simulations were videotaped with 152 prenatal and cancer genetic counselors and nine simulated clients. The videotapes were shown to 559 subjects recruited to act as analogue clients (ACs) with the instruction to imagine themselves as the client in the simulation. The profile of nonverbal sensitivity (PONS), a video and audio test of accuracy in the interpretation of nonverbal cues, was administered to both the genetic counselors and ACs. In addition, the ACs completed a literacy screen and post session measures of learning and session satisfaction.

Findings

The study finds that ACs' post‐session knowledge score was positively associated with both their own and the counselors' audio PONS scores. Also related to knowledge were clients' literacy, younger age and non‐minority ethnicity. Ratings of session satisfaction were inversely related to ACs' and counselors' video PONS scores and ACs' literacy and anxiety.

Research limitations/implications

While based on the performance of a large number of practicing genetic counselors, simulated and analogue clients are used to explore study questions.

Practical implications

The nonverbal sensitivity of both providers and ACs plays a role in medical communication and its cognitive and affective consequences. These findings warrant greater attention to nonverbal dynamics in future research and interventions.

Originality/value

No similar studies have investigated the role of nonverbal sensitivity in predicting learning and satisfaction for users of health care services.

Details

Health Education, vol. 108 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 June 2020

Michelle M.E. Van Pinxteren, Mark Pluymaekers and Jos G.A.M. Lemmink

Conversational agents (chatbots, avatars and robots) are increasingly substituting human employees in service encounters. Their presence offers many potential benefits…

Downloads
4542

Abstract

Purpose

Conversational agents (chatbots, avatars and robots) are increasingly substituting human employees in service encounters. Their presence offers many potential benefits, but customers are reluctant to engage with them. A possible explanation is that conversational agents do not make optimal use of communicative behaviors that enhance relational outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to identify which human-like communicative behaviors used by conversational agents have positive effects on relational outcomes and which additional behaviors could be investigated in future research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a systematic review of 61 articles that investigated the effects of communicative behaviors used by conversational agents on relational outcomes. A taxonomy is created of all behaviors investigated in these studies, and a research agenda is constructed on the basis of an analysis of their effects and a comparison with the literature on human-to-human service encounters.

Findings

The communicative behaviors can be classified along two dimensions: modality (verbal, nonverbal, appearance) and footing (similarity, responsiveness). Regarding the research agenda, it is noteworthy that some categories of behaviors show mixed results and some behaviors that are effective in human-to-human interactions have not yet been investigated in conversational agents.

Practical implications

By identifying potentially effective communicative behaviors in conversational agents, this study assists managers in optimizing encounters between conversational agents and customers.

Originality/value

This is the first study that develops a taxonomy of communicative behaviors in conversational agents and uses it to identify avenues for future research.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 April 2020

Shin-Yiing Lee, Jillian C. Sweeney and Geoffrey Norman Soutar

Despite recognition of the importance of emotions and emotion regulation in service encounters, emotion regulation has been generally studied from an employee perspective…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite recognition of the importance of emotions and emotion regulation in service encounters, emotion regulation has been generally studied from an employee perspective. This study investigated customer emotion regulation behaviours (CEREBs) in face-to-face service encounters; arguing for a more nuanced approach through an emotion regulation matrix representing the playing up and downplaying of positive or negative emotions. Motivational factors and service-related situational conditions that influence the likelihood of emotion regulation were also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Four focus groups and the critical incident technique method were used to obtain data from people who had interacted with service employees within the previous six months.

Findings

There was support for emotion regulation in the four facets of the emotion regulation matrix. Five CEREB dimensions, including verbal behaviours and facial expressions, were evident. Motivational factors and situational conditions that impacted on customer emotion regulation in service encounters were also identified.

Research limitations/implications

The findings were based on two qualitative methods. A quantitative approach should be used to further validate the suggested framework.

Originality/value

Most research on emotion regulation has focused on employees. We examined the phenomenon from a customer viewpoint and in a service encounter context. As customers are not bound by employment rules and conventions, a wider range of emotion regulation behaviours were found. The study used the four-faceted emotion regulation matrix to investigate this, developing a conceptual framework that provides a foundation for future research.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 September 2020

Kirsten Kohrs

Ubiquitous Internet access and social media make visual consumption possibly the most vital characteristic of the experience economy. A cumulative, integrative framework…

Abstract

Purpose

Ubiquitous Internet access and social media make visual consumption possibly the most vital characteristic of the experience economy. A cumulative, integrative framework for the analysis of visual artefacts has thus been called for as existing analytical tools and theoretical frameworks (such as semiotics, discourse analysis, content analysis, iconography, rhetoric and so on) each provide in isolation only a restricted perspective. To advance best practice towards shaping brand perception and consumer engagement, this paper provides a crucial analytical tool to uncover the unique and specific characteristics of identitary luxury fashion brand discourse by introducing and applying such an integrative framework.

Design/methodology/approach

A rigorous grounded theory approach was applied to a corpus of primary data, print advertising in Vogue (UK and US) and Vanity Fair (UK). Outcomes were distilled to first principles of meaning-making and aggregated in a framework which also integrates long-existing classics from diverse fields of knowledge to present a broad cumulative perspective for the analysis of visual discursive practice. This paper demonstrates the methodological rigour and validity of the framework, that is, its practical adequacy and explanatory power in uncovering the identitary brand discourse of luxury fashion.

Findings

An application of the integrative framework breaks new ground in uncovering the discreet identitary characteristics of the discursive practice of the luxury brands under investigation, Chanel and Gucci, which can be encapsulated as gendered technology of the confident self (Foucault) and spectacle (Debord), respectively.

Research limitations/implications

To advance theory that illuminates understanding and shaping of brand perception and consumer engagement with luxury fashion brands, the proposed framework is the first to integrate insight from a rigorous analysis of primary data with long-existing classics from salient fields of knowledge. It, thus, provides a broader, more inclusive perspective that elucidates the multifaceted layers of meaning of luxury fashion discourse in a new and comprehensive way which existing approaches with focus on an isolated dimension such as semiotics or nonverbal behaviour and so on would not have been able to reveal.

Practical implications

The inclusive, practicable theoretical framework provides a parsimonious and practical tool that can be applied by non-experts across disciplines to unlock meaning in fashion discourse as a route to shaping brand image and engaging consumers.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new perspective on the communication practice of luxury fashion advertising as the new integrative framework illuminates layers of meaning crucial to understanding the intricacies of identitary brand discourse and to shaping brand perception and engaging consumers.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 May 2008

Jo Blase, Joseph Blase and Fengning Du

This study seeks to identify 172 American elementary, middle, and high school teachers' perceptions of the major sources and intensity of the experience of mistreatment by…

Downloads
2479

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to identify 172 American elementary, middle, and high school teachers' perceptions of the major sources and intensity of the experience of mistreatment by a principal, the effects of such mistreatment, how these perceptions varied by demographic variables, teachers' coping skills, and teachers' perceptions of contributing factors.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants completed a piloted, validated online questionnaire.

Findings

The participants reported experiencing a wide range of abusive principal behaviors that resulted in serious or extensive harmful psychological/emotional, physical/physiological, and work‐related effects to themselves, their work, and their families. An overwhelming majority (77 percent) indicated they would leave their job for another because of the harm caused by the principal's mistreatment. Mistreated teachers typically did not enact problem‐focused coping strategies. Differences were found among teachers of various demographic categories for several variables.

Originality/value

The findings of this current, quantitative study expand the authors' earlier qualitative research on the topic of teacher mistreatment; these are the only studies on this topic completed in the USA. Practical implications and suggestions for future research are included.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Michael Schandorf

Abstract

Details

Communication as Gesture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-515-9

1 – 10 of over 2000