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Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Matthew Weinshenker

The author tests the hypothesis that the effects of evening and night employment on working parents’ work-to-family conflict and life satisfaction depend on the reasons…

Abstract

The author tests the hypothesis that the effects of evening and night employment on working parents’ work-to-family conflict and life satisfaction depend on the reasons that individuals name for their schedules. Regression models are fitted to data from an original sample of 589 employed US parents. Partnered (married and cohabiting) fathers who work partially in the evening or night experience less work-to-family conflict if they report personal motives, but schedule motivation does not affect work-to-family conflict among partnered or single mothers. Partnered mothers who work primarily in the evening or at night report higher life satisfaction if they do so for personal reasons, but this effect is not found for single mothers or partnered fathers. Specifically seeing their schedules as facilitating family care matters for partnered mothers, but not fathers. Although nonstandard employment schedules have been linked to poor well-being among working parents, this is the first quantitative study to assess the role of worker motivation to the author’s knowledge. The results are suggestive because they are based on a nonprobability sample of modest size. However, they demonstrate the need for future studies of employment scheduling to collect information on worker motivations. Most night workers in the United States do not select their shifts for personal reasons, putting them at risk for work-to-family conflict and reduced life satisfaction. They deserve extra support in exchange for laboring while others sleep or spend time with family.

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The Work-Family Interface: Spillover, Complications, and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-112-4

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Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2007

Robert Perrucci and Shelley MacDermid

We expand the concept of time in the workplace by examining the different ways that time is discussed and the different meanings attached to time. Drawing upon…

Abstract

We expand the concept of time in the workplace by examining the different ways that time is discussed and the different meanings attached to time. Drawing upon observation, informal discussions, and focus groups, we examine worker discourse about clock time, work time, and family time, and argue that the meaning attached to each is related to workers’ ability to exercise some control over time. Using survey data collected from shift workers, we illustrate the connection between time and control by examining the predictors of job satisfaction and workfamily conflict.

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Workplace Temporalities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1268-9

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Book part
Publication date: 27 March 2006

Rosalind Chait Barnett

Major demographic trends are affecting the work schedules of U.S. employees with likely consequences for health and quality-of-life outcomes. These trends include long work

Abstract

Major demographic trends are affecting the work schedules of U.S. employees with likely consequences for health and quality-of-life outcomes. These trends include long work hours, at least for some groups of employees, and an increasing proportion of employees in the U.S. and other countries who are working nonstandard work schedules. This chapter contains a review of the empirical literature linking the number of hours worked and the distribution of those hours at the individual and couple level to a variety of outcomes, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In addition, because the majority of U.S. workers live in dyads (Jacobs & Gerson (2004). The time divide: Work, family and gender inequality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), major attention is given to the impact of work hours on the employee's spouse as well as on the employee. It is also noted that the relationship between work hours and outcomes might be different among employed single women with children. Data are presented from two new studies conducted by my research team to fill some of the critical knowledge gaps. Finally, I suggest some directions for future research.

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Employee Health, Coping and Methodologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-289-4

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

Nicholas J. Beutell

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of work schedules on workfamily conflict and synergy using the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) and conservation of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of work schedules on workfamily conflict and synergy using the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) and conservation of resources models. The impact of resources including supervisor support, work schedule control and satisfaction, as well as the moderating effects of work schedules on conflict (synergy) and domain satisfaction are examined.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative study examined responses from organizationally‐employed respondents (n=2,810) from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce using MANOVA and multiple regressions.

Findings

Work schedules were significantly related to work‐interfering with family (WIF) and workfamily synergy (W‐FS) but not for family interfering with work (FIW). Perceived supervisory support was significantly related to employee work schedule control and work schedule satisfaction. Perceived control of work schedule and work schedule satisfaction were significantly related to workfamily conflict and synergy. Work schedules moderated the relationship between workfamily conflict (synergy) and domain satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Although based on a national probability sample, this study may suffer from common method variance since all measures were from the same self‐report questionnaire.

Practical implications

The results do suggest that solutions like increased schedule flexibility for all workers may not be efficacious in reducing workfamily conflict or increasing workfamily synergy. Employee control over work schedule, employee satisfaction with work schedule, and supervisor support need to be considered as well.

Originality/value

This study examined the impact of work schedules on workfamily conflict and synergy. It is noteworthy since very little research has been conducted on work schedules and synergy. The results also broaden evidence for the JD‐R and conservation of resources models.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Ma. Regina M. Hechanova

This study sought to explain the high turnover rates in Philippine call centers using a cultural lens. Specifically, the study looks at the phenomenon of work‐life conflict

Abstract

Purpose

This study sought to explain the high turnover rates in Philippine call centers using a cultural lens. Specifically, the study looks at the phenomenon of work‐life conflict and its impact on turnover intent. It also examined the moderating role of perceived organization support on the relationship between work‐life conflict and turnover intent.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized a two‐phased, mixed‐method approach. In the first phase, qualitative data from 30 interviews were obtained to validate the existence of the constructs among Filipino call center agents. In the second phase, 991 surveys were administered to quantitatively test the hypothesized relationships between the study variables.

Findings

Results show that work‐life conflict predicts intent to leave over and beyond that explained by job satisfaction. Findings also show that organizational support moderates the relationship between work‐life conflict and intent to leave. The results also reveal the context‐specific sources of work‐life conflict: physical and psychological impact of work schedule, social isolation and lack of social support.

Research limitations/implications

The study focused on work‐life conflict and perceived organizational support. However, there are other variables that may be examined in future research such as personality, family, and organizational variables.

Practical implications

Beyond the traditional responses to the issue of work‐life conflict, the results suggest the importance of cultural nuanced responses to address work‐life conflict.

Social implications

Although outsourcing is a boon to the economy of developing countries, policies encouraging call centers need to be coupled with an understanding of the personal and social costs of call center work.

Originality/value

This study highlights the importance of considering culture in viewing management practices and their impact on workers' behavior and wellbeing. It calls attention to the unique experience of call centers in developing countries and the importance of developing work‐life interventions that are contextualized to local culture.

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Mina Beigi, Shiva Mirkhalilzadeh Ershadi and Melika Shirmohammadi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between workfamily conflict and its antecedent variables. The research's dependent variables include work

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between workfamily conflict and its antecedent variables. The research's dependent variables include work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW). Independent variables consist of work‐related (hours spent at work, role conflict, role ambiguity, supervisor support, and work shifts), family‐related (hours spent with family, marital status, spousal employment, number of children, and age of the youngest child), and demographic (gender, age, tenure, and education) variables.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 333 operating room personnel in ten Iranian hospitals completed a survey questionnaire, which consisted of 38 questions administered to participants in the workplace.

Findings

Analysis of data revealed that among work‐related variables, the role conflict was positively associated with WIF. Supervisor support and working shifts were also weakly related to WIF. No significant relationships were found between family‐related variables and FIW. Among the demographic variables, only gender influenced FIW in a manner that men experienced more FIW than women.

Originality/value

The research findings contribute to understanding workfamily conflict in a new cultural setting. The empirical evidence of workfamily conflict in Iran, among operating room personnel, shows that experiences and antecedents of workfamily conflict vary among diverse cultures and industries. Models of workfamily conflict may need to be modified to reflect the experiences and antecedents that explain workfamily conflict in cultures similar to that of Iran.

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2007

Marie Gee Wilson, Andrea Polzer‐Debruyne, Sophie Chen and Sonia Fernandes

This research aims to investigate the efficacy of family involvement in shift work training targeting both physiological and social coping strategies.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to investigate the efficacy of family involvement in shift work training targeting both physiological and social coping strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized repeated surveys of workfamily conflict (WFC) and familywork conflict (FWC) in a naturally occurring field experiment. Three small process manufacturing sites introduced training for shift workers, with or without family involvement, and with or without training on managing relational aspects of shift‐work.

Findings

The inclusion of social coping strategies combined with family involvement significantly reduced workfamily conflict. Open response categories on the survey suggest that these reductions were due to the facilitation of a joint problem solving approach by family members. In contrast, employee focused training on physiological coping alone appears to increase family conflicts.

Research limitations/implications

As a field study, this paper cannot control for the particularities of family situations. It should also be noted that the participants were all male, and results may have differed for female shift workers given differing family and work expectations.

Practical implications

For employers and OSH officers, this research suggests that broader spectrum training may assist shift workers in managing the requirements and impact of unsociable hours of work. For the shift worker, the research reinforces the importance of family support and family involvement in moderating shift work's potentially negative effects.

Originality/value

This is the first study to assess the impact of family involvement in training and development‐based interventions. This paper provides a unique perspective on shift work interventions by documenting both content and process effects for shift work support.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2012

Sharon Glazer, Małgorzata W. Kożusznik and Irina A. Shargo

Global virtual teams (GVTs), also known as transnational or distributed teams, are increasingly common as organizations strive to maintain a global presence, find top and…

Abstract

Global virtual teams (GVTs), also known as transnational or distributed teams, are increasingly common as organizations strive to maintain a global presence, find top and diverse talent, and cope with economic constraints. Despite increasing adoption of GVTs, there is a dearth of research addressing whether GVTs are an effective coping strategy for dealing with the world economic crisis and if there are unintended negative consequences on employee well-being as a result of their use. Thus, a focal question guiding the development of this chapter is whether or not GVTs are a sustainable solution for organizations? In this chapter we present a generic framework depicting the cycle by which macroeconomic demands impose changes on organization's structures, which trickle down to the level of the individual who has to cope with the demands the new structure has imposed. We discuss GVTs as an intervention (or cure) for organizations’ dealing with the current world economic crisis and how this organizational intervention inevitably becomes the context (or cause) for the kinds of stressors or demands employees face.

Details

The Role of the Economic Crisis on Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-005-5

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Erica L. Bettac and Tahira M. Probst

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the experiences of workfamily conflict (WFC) and health- and sleep-related outcomes differ among traditionally employed and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the experiences of workfamily conflict (WFC) and health- and sleep-related outcomes differ among traditionally employed and two forms of self-employment (SE): incorporated and unincorporated workers. Moreover, to explore whether the rationale in one’s decision to enter SE might influence these experiences, the authors additionally examined work-family (WF)- and non-WF-related reasons behind an individual’s decision to pursue incorporated vs unincorporated SE status.

Design/methodology/approach

Using anonymous Mechanical Turk survey data from a high-quality US adult worker sample (n=711; 62 percent male, age M=33.94) consisting of traditionally (78 percent) and self-employed individuals, the authors conducted an analysis of covariance to test hypotheses regarding the relationships between employment status, reasons for pursuing SE, WFC, sleep disturbance, sleep hours and physical health complaints.

Findings

Results showed WFC was positively related to sleep disturbances and physical health complaints and this relationship was exacerbated for self-employed workers, particularly those who were incorporated. Unincorporated self-employed individuals indicated more WF-balance-related reasons for pursuing SE compared to incorporated workers. Moreover, individuals who pursued SE for WF-balance reasons tended to report fewer negative reactions to WFC.

Practical implications

SE is associated with more negative sleep and health-related outcomes in response to WFC. This is particularly true for incorporated workers. Individuals should bear in mind these outcomes when considering whether to pursue SE. Moreover, governmental policies, and calls for change in such policies, should not only address financially related detriments (e.g. higher taxes, fewer benefits and protections) but also increasing support and providing resources (e.g. health insurance, family leave and entrepreneurial workplace initiatives) regarding the work/family and health-related impairments common for this growing, independent portion of the workforce.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine WF-related rationales for pursuing SE and differing sleep and health outcomes in response to WFC as a function of SE status and type.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Jenell L.S. Wittmer, Agnieszka K Shepard and James E. Martin

Employees working nonstandard schedules outside the daytime hours of the Monday-Friday work week are increasing. Using Social Exchange Theory (SET), the purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Employees working nonstandard schedules outside the daytime hours of the Monday-Friday work week are increasing. Using Social Exchange Theory (SET), the purpose of this paper is to hypothesize relationships between scheduling preferences, attitudes, and retention indicators.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 343 US Postal Service mail processors (day, evening, or night shift; all shifts working weekends) from three cities. Multivariate analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression were used to test hypotheses related to participants’ perceptions of scheduling preferences and attitudes.

Findings

The authors found that preferences and attitudes toward shift worked had stronger relationships with each other and employee retention indicators for the night and evening shifts than the day shift, and these same relationships were stronger for the day shift when focussing on days of the week worked.

Research limitations/implications

Although limited by generalizability concerns, this study provides a distinctive application of SET to work schedules and offers a unique perspective on how working nonstandard days and nonstandard times, individually, impact the employment relationship.

Practical implications

Better work schedule management, with increased flexibility and control, may be one way of reducing negative employee reactions to nonstandard schedules.

Originality/value

This study goes beyond the typical examinations of standard vs nonstandard shifts, to study multiple nonstandard shifts and examines the relationships of these schedules on employee retention variables, focussing on both shift and weekend work.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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