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Introduction Consider a hi‐fi loudspeaker manufacturing company acquired on the brink of insolvency by an American multinational. The new owners discover with growing concern that the product range is obsolete, that manufacturing facilities are totally inadequate and that there is a complete absence of any real management substance or structure. They decide on the need to relocate urgently so as to provide continuity of supply at the very high — a market about to shrink at a rate unprecedented in its history.
This paper deals with the organizing of interactive product development. Developing products in interaction between firms may provide benefits in terms of specialization, increased innovation, and possibilities to perform development activities in parallel. However, the differentiation of product development among a number of firms also implies that various dependencies need to be dealt with across firm boundaries. How dependencies may be dealt with across firms is related to how product development is organized. The purpose of the paper is to explore dependencies and how interactive product development may be organized with regard to these dependencies.
The analytical framework is based on the industrial network approach, and deals with the development of products in terms of adaptation and combination of heterogeneous resources. There are dependencies between resources, that is, they are embedded, implying that no resource can be developed in isolation. The characteristics of and dependencies related to four main categories of resources (products, production facilities, business units and business relationships) provide a basis for analyzing the organizing of interactive product development.
Three in-depth case studies are used to explore the organizing of interactive product development with regard to dependencies. The first two cases are based on the development of the electrical system and the seats for Volvo’s large car platform (P2), performed in interaction with Delphi and Lear respectively. The third case is based on the interaction between Scania and Dayco/DFC Tech for the development of various pipes and hoses for a new truck model.
The analysis is focused on what different dependencies the firms considered and dealt with, and how product development was organized with regard to these dependencies. It is concluded that there is a complex and dynamic pattern of dependencies that reaches far beyond the developed product as well as beyond individual business units. To deal with these dependencies, development may be organized in teams where several business units are represented. This enables interaction between different business units’ resource collections, which is important for resource adaptation as well as for innovation. The delimiting and relating functions of the team boundary are elaborated upon and it is argued that also teams may be regarded as actors. It is also concluded that a modular product structure may entail a modular organization with regard to the teams, though, interaction between business units and teams is needed. A strong connection between the technical structure and the organizational structure is identified and it is concluded that policies regarding the technical structure (e.g. concerning “carry-over”) cannot be separated from the management of the organizational structure (e.g. the supplier structure). The organizing of product development is in itself a complex and dynamic task that needs to be subject to interaction between business units.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the social impacts of short-distance office relocation that also involved a new way of working, as perceived by employees…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the social impacts of short-distance office relocation that also involved a new way of working, as perceived by employees during a relocation process. Relocation is any process of moving business premises and can consist of (often) significant change in locality, building change, workplace change and ways of working. This case study was not influenced by the effect of locality change making it hence a short-distance relocation.
The social impacts are analysed based on the perceptions of approximately 15 per cent (nine employees) of the case organization across the relocation process – two months before, one week before and four months after the move. The qualitative data collection is conducted by semi-structured interviews, supplemented by diaries and participatory action research.
Before the relocation, the subject organization’s old premises were considered inadequate. Still, employees had concerns during the process about the new open office environment including the adoption of new ways of working. Some employees did experience resistance towards the change, although the amount of engagement possibilities was deemed sufficient and engagement recognized as an important part of the process. After the relocation, adaptation was considered easier than originally anticipated and experiences of improved inter-team collaboration were reported by most while others experienced just the opposite, pointing out to emerging individual differences.
The limitations of this study arise mainly from the ability to statistically generalize on the basis of a single case study which this paper represents. Furthermore, since the last interviews were made four months after the move, all post-occupancy implications were possibly not yet fully experienced.
The paper provides information on the social impacts of organizational relocation process, as it identifies individual employee perceptions during a relocation process where locality change is minimal. Moreover, the threefold research approach across the relocation process enables the appearance of possible time-dependent development of adaptation to change in employee perceptions and these perceptions to be analysed in more detail.
The final report for allied health professions Enhance, Include, Evolve: New Ways of Working for allied health professionals (Care Services Improvement…
The final report for allied health professions Enhance, Include, Evolve: New Ways of Working for allied health professionals (Care Services Improvement Partnership/National Institute of Mental Health in England, 2008a) is the culmination of a journey that the allied health professionals have travelled over the past six years. Their aim has been to refresh practice in the light of recent policies and initiatives and, in particular, New Ways of Working.
This paper aims to address the management of people and their working behaviour successfully during workplace change – from a traditional way of working towards new ways of…
This paper aims to address the management of people and their working behaviour successfully during workplace change – from a traditional way of working towards new ways of working. The study was based on the observation that during workplace change, organisations often fail to see the importance of managing (working) behaviour during the process of workplace change. The focus is mostly on the design of the new working environment and the information technology in it. However, these do not seem to be the determining aspects of the success of workplace change, merely necessary boundary conditions. This paper will elucidate how internal communication can make the greatest impact on shifting people’s working behaviour and attitudes and thus manage it effectively.
A literature study has been conducted to investigate the relation between the topics of new ways of working, workplace change and internal communication. This study surfaced the importance of the aspect of (working) behaviour within workplace change. Subsequently, a field study was performed, during which several interviews were held with the project team of the R&D department of a chemical multinational, who is on the brink of implementing a new workplace concept. Also, focus group interviews were held with their employees to research personal views on expected working behaviour.
The outcomes of the research, literature review and field study clarify the critical success factors for internal communication to manage the workplace change, so it lives up to the expectations. These are: face-to-face communication, assigning the manager the role of workplace change leader and use internal communication to inform employees and inspire them.
In this paper, the behavioural aspect has been identified as a key determinant of perceived success of a new workplace concept. Managing workplace change successfully should therefore merely focus on managing the working behaviour of the people involved, instead of managing the building and interior design or the technology in it. Internal communication was identified as a pivotal tool to reach this success.
This paper provides a review of the impact of three of the six work streams from the New Ways of Working for Applied Psychologists. The organisational change model of…
This paper provides a review of the impact of three of the six work streams from the New Ways of Working for Applied Psychologists. The organisational change model of Beckhard and Harris (1989) is used to evaluate why the recommendations of the reports are being adopted at different speeds. Evidence that all are being used is presented. The paper starts with a restatement of the purpose of applied psychology that was developed during the work and is likely to stand the test of time.
This position paper focuses on the current tensions and challenges of aligning inpatient care with innovations in mental health services. It argues that a cultural shift…
This position paper focuses on the current tensions and challenges of aligning inpatient care with innovations in mental health services. It argues that a cultural shift is required within inpatient services. Obstacles to change including traditional perceptions of the role and responsibilities of the psychiatrist are discussed. The paper urges all staff working in acute care to reflect on the service that they provide, and to consider how the adoption of new ways of working might revolutionise the organisational culture. This cultural shift offers inpatient staff the opportunity to fully utilise their expertise. New ways of working may be perceived as a threat to existing roles and responsibilities or as an exciting opportunity for professional development with increased job satisfaction. Above all, the move to new ways of working, which is gathering pace throughout the UK, could offer service users1 a quality of care that meets their needs and expectations.
An enormous amount of change has occurred in the last six years for the mental health system in England and the workforce within it. We have seen the 10‐year National Service Framework for Mental Health (Department of Health, 1999) gradually make its impact felt in the form, in particular, of new community mental health teams and structures for delivering care in the community. We have also, most recently, experienced the passing of the Mental Health Act 2007 (HM Government, 2007), after many turbulent years of controversy and argument, extending to nurses and non‐medical practitioners who have been given statutory powers to act as approved mental health practitioners and approved clinicians.Alongside these important developments has been a gradual revolution in traditional ways of working, in the form of the New Ways of Working initiative. This article considers the impact of New Ways of Working on mental health nursing ‐ the single largest professional group within the mental health workforce ‐ and the continuing implications for the profession. The development of nurse prescribing is used as an illustration of the challenges and opportunities that have commonly arisen when new roles and skill sets have been introduced in mental health settings.