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1 – 10 of 552
Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2015

Pierre A. Balthazard and Robert W. Thatcher

Through a review of historically famous cases and a chronicle of neurotechnology development, this chapter discusses brain structure and brain function as two distinct yet…

Abstract

Through a review of historically famous cases and a chronicle of neurotechnology development, this chapter discusses brain structure and brain function as two distinct yet interrelated paths to understand the relative contributions of anatomical and physiological mechanisms to the human brain–behavior relationship. From an organizational neuroscience perspective, the chapter describes over a dozen neuroimaging technologies that are classified under four groupings: morphologic, invasive metabolic, noninvasive metabolic, and electromagnetic. We then discuss neuroimaging variables that may be useful in social science investigations, and we underscore electroencephalography as a particularly useful modality for the study of individuals and groups in organizational settings. The chapter concludes by considering emerging science and novel brain technologies for the organizational researcher as we look to the future.

Details

Organizational Neuroscience
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-430-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Mohamed M. Mostafa

The purpose of this paper is to review recent applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and other neuroimaging techniques in marketing and advertising…

1246

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review recent applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and other neuroimaging techniques in marketing and advertising, and to present some methodological and statistical considerations that should be taken into consideration when applying fMRI to study consumers’ cognitive behavior related to marketing phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

A critical approach to investigate three methodological issues related to fMRI applications in marketing is adopted. These issues deal mainly with brain activation regions, event-related fMRI and signal-to-noise ratio. Statistical issues related to fMRI data pre-processing, analyzing and reporting are also investigated.

Findings

Neuroimaging cognitive techniques have great potential in marketing and advertising. This is because, unlike conventional marketing research methods, neuroimaging data are much less susceptible to social desirability and “interviewer’s” effect. Thus, it is expected that using neuroimaging methods to investigate which areas in a consumer’s brain are activated in response to a specific marketing stimulus can provide a much more honest indicator of their cognition compared to traditional marketing research tools such as focus groups and questionnaires.

Originality/value

By merging disparate fields, such as marketing, neuroscience and cognitive psychology, this research presents a comprehensive critical review of how neuroscientific methods can be used to test existing marketing theories.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Caspar Krampe

To advance marketing research and practice, this study aims to examine the application of the innovative, mobile-applicable neuroimaging method – mobile functional…

Abstract

Purpose

To advance marketing research and practice, this study aims to examine the application of the innovative, mobile-applicable neuroimaging method – mobile functional near-infrared spectroscopy (mfNIRS) – in the field of marketing research, providing comprehensive guidelines and practical recommendations.

Design/methodology/approach

A general review and investigation of when and how to use mfNIRS in business-to-consumer and business-to-business marketing settings is used to illustrate the utility of mfNIRS.

Findings

The research findings help prospective marketing and consumer neuroscience researchers to structure mfNIRS experiments, perform the analysis and interpret the obtained mfNIRS data.

Research implications

The application of mfNIRS offers opportunities for marketing research that allow the exploration of neural processes and associated behaviour of customers in naturalistic settings.

Practical implications

The application of mfNIRS as a neuroimaging method enables the investigation of unconscious neural processes that control customer behaviour and can act as process variables for companies.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to provide comprehensive guidelines and applied practical recommendations concerning when and how to apply mfNIRS in marketing research.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 28 April 2021

Silvia Siu-Yin Clement-Lam, Airey Nga-Lui Lau and Devin M. Kearns

Neuroimaging research has substantially enhanced our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of typical and atypical learning in children. These developments can…

Abstract

Neuroimaging research has substantially enhanced our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of typical and atypical learning in children. These developments can advance the design of novel approaches to diagnosis and intervention for learning disabilities. Despite the promise of educational neuroscience, there are still walls between neuroscience and special education researchers such that more collaboration and understanding are needed between these disciplines. This chapter attempts to break down the walls by discussing how neuroimaging techniques can be incorporated into special education research. We also present arguments as to why neuroscience is “the next big thing” in special education research and the obstacles that must be overcome in order for neuroscience to be incorporated into education research. To describe how neurobiology might impact special education, we focus primarily on reading disability. We believe that educational neuroscience can aid in the identification and intervention of other learning disorders as well.

Details

The Next Big Thing in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-749-7

Book part
Publication date: 8 September 2017

Hassan R. HassabElnaby, Ahmed Abdel-Maksoud and Amal Said

Decision-making rationality is said to be bounded by managers’ cognitive capabilities. Recent studies indicate that accounting functions evolved to augment the cognitively…

Abstract

Decision-making rationality is said to be bounded by managers’ cognitive capabilities. Recent studies indicate that accounting functions evolved to augment the cognitively bounded human brain in handling complex economic exchanges. The neuroscience discipline suggests that human brains have the ability to implement “automatic” processes of positive versus negative emotional stimuli to make rational decisions. Neuroscientific evidence shows that the activations in the ventral striatum decrease with negative emotional information/motives and increase with positive emotional information/motives. The authors, hence, argue that our understanding of the decision-making rationality in financial and managerial decisions could be enhanced by using a functional neuroimaging approach.

Decision-making rationality has been focal in debt covenant violation and earnings management research. The contracting theory predicts a relationship between managers’ decisions and the proximity of violating debt covenants. However, no prior research has investigated brain activities associated with the evaluation of debt covenant violation and earnings management. Meanwhile, in another strand of research, there is an extensive prior literature concerning the consequences of managers’ decisions and the use of accounting information in relation to their evaluative style, i.e., supervisory style. The authors argue that the relationship between the proximity to debt covenants violation and earnings management incentives is contingent upon managers’ supervisory style. However, no previous research has examined the impact of the supervisory style on earnings management in the context of the proximity to debt covenants violation and other earnings management incentives.

In this research note, we argue that neuroaccounting could be relied on to examine the relationship between the proximity to debt covenants and earnings management, contingent upon managers’ supervisory style, by capturing brain activities. The adoption of the neuroscience functional neuroimaging approach in this field should contribute to the understanding of managers’ behaviors and provide implications for research and practitioners. The goal of this research note is to provide a new avenue for future research in this field.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-527-6

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Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2011

Kelly Joyce

This chapter presents a sociological analysis of the work involved in producing neuroimaging scans used in clinical practice. Drawing on fieldwork in magnetic resonance…

Abstract

This chapter presents a sociological analysis of the work involved in producing neuroimaging scans used in clinical practice. Drawing on fieldwork in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) units in hospitals and free-standing imaging centers; in-depth interviews with technologists, radiologists, and neurologists; and reviews of relevant medical literatures, this analysis demonstrates how assembly line techniques structure neuroimaging work. Neuroimages (after being ordered by the referring clinician) are created in an image production line where scans of brains, breasts, livers, and other body parts are all produced: although some facilities may focus on one area of the body, most create an array of scans. Following MRI scans as they are produced demonstrates how medical work emphasizes repetition, specialization, and efficiency – key features of mass production. On the medical assembly line, the organization of work aims to transform patients into objects – ones that multiply as scans are created and circulated. Neurologists, radiologists, and technologists are positioned as skilled workers who manage the flow of bodies and the production of knowledge with the aim of producing health or, at the very least, knowledge of illness. Patients are also actors who actively impact the imaging production process. Previous scholarship has shown that diagnostic work involves a distributed form of expertise; one that involves patients, other medical professionals, machines, and neurologists. This chapter demonstrates that the deployment and synchronization of this expertise is a form of labor, involving distinct professions, professional hierarchies, and reimbursement systems. Working conditions are central to the production of MRI scans as knowledge and contribute to the social shaping of neuroimaging techniques.

Details

Sociological Reflections on the Neurosciences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-881-6

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Alex M. Andrew

The purpose of this paper is to review proposals for earthquake prediction and study using accelerometers incorporated in laptop computers. Also reviewed is a lecture by…

199

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review proposals for earthquake prediction and study using accelerometers incorporated in laptop computers. Also reviewed is a lecture by Stephen Wolfram, creator of the Mathematica software package, introducing a new venture called Wolfram Alpha that combines computation with access to real‐world data. Developments in neural imaging techniques and some findings are discussed, including a remarkable manifestation of neural plasticity.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim is to review developments on the internet, especially those of general cybernetic interest.

Findings

Use of accelerometers, incorporated in laptop computers for a different purpose, appears to offer valuable opportunities for earthquake prediction and study. Exactly what will emerge from the Wolfram‐Alpha initiative remains to be seen but it holds great promise. New neuroimaging techniques have shown their worth in producing new findings, including one that reveals interesting neural plasticity.

Practical implications

Earthquake prediction and study, especially by a means that can be implemented quickly and cheaply, is of obvious value in quake‐prone areas such as California. Wolfram Alpha may come to be as familiar a tool as search engines are today. A primary aim of cybernetics is unravelling the working of the central nervous system, and both ethical and practical considerations favour non‐invasive means of investigation such as new neuroimaging techniques that have already proved their worth.

Originality/value

It is hoped this is a valuable periodic review.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 40 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2007

Peter Kenning, Hilke Plassmann and Dieter Ahlert

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the methodology of several brain imaging techniques and in particular, functional magnetic resonance imaging…

6020

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the methodology of several brain imaging techniques and in particular, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and its potential implications for market research. The aim is to enable the reader both to understand this emerging methodology and to conduct independent research in the area.

Design/methodology/approach

A short introduction on current neuroimaging methods used in behavioral neuroscience is provided by means of a literature review. The ensuing discussion focuses on fMRI as the currently most popular neuroimaging technique. Having described the fMRI methodology, an outline of the analysis of functional neuroimaging data follows, after which there is a discussion of some key research issues.

Findings

Although in its infancy, fMRI seems to be a useful and promising tool for market researchers. Initial studies in the field reveal that fMRI is able to shed light on subconscious processes such as affective aspects of consumer behavior.

Practical implications

Because brand positioning, advertising strategies and even pricing strategies are often based on constructs such as emotions, neuropsychological findings and methods should have important implications for practitioners in the field of brand management and advertising. Nonetheless, far more basic research is needed before fMRI can be adopted for marketing practice.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first in the marketing literature to provide a methodological overview of fMRI and discuss the potential implications for marketing research.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Michael J.R. Butler

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the potential implications and non-implications for leadership and organization development of a recent systematic review of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the potential implications and non-implications for leadership and organization development of a recent systematic review of empirical developments in organizational cognitive neuroscience (OCN).

Design/methodology/approach

Butler et al.’s (2016) systematic review of 40 empirical articles related to OCN is re-interpreted in terms of its potential to reveal (non-) implications for practice. OCN is critically discussed, then related to the research findings from studies with two methodological designs.

Findings

At this stage of OCN’s emergence, it appears that neuroimaging and physiology-based research methods have equal potential in their implications for practice, though hormonal data poses ethical public interest dilemmas. Both methods cannot be reduced to specific forms of application to practice, but they set an aspirational direction for the future development of leadership and organizations.

Practical implications

There appear to be two paces of translational activity – practitioners are moving more quickly than academics in applying OCN to practice. It is suggested that a meeting of minds may be needed to ensure that any risks associated with applying OCN to practice are minimized or eliminated.

Social implications

Inter-disciplinary research, like OCN, requires a social consensus about how basic research in cognitive neuroscience can be applied to organizations. A think tank will provide opportunities for deeper engagement and co-production between academics and practitioners.

Originality/value

Critically exploring the potential implications of OCN for practice, by basing the discussion on a systematic review of empirical developments.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2011

Iain Jordan and Declan Murphy

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been studied as a neurodevelopmental disorder since Leo Kanner's early observations of abnormal head circumference in autistic children…

331

Abstract

Purpose

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been studied as a neurodevelopmental disorder since Leo Kanner's early observations of abnormal head circumference in autistic children. In the past few years, there has been much progress made in elucidating the anatomical and functional abnormalities in ASD. This paper aims to summarise the extant research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a summary of relevant research findings in the neuroimaging of autism for the past 12 month period. Papers were identified using the Medline search terms: autism; ASD (functional); magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); neuroimaging; diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); and endophenotype.

Findings

Relatively recent techniques such as functional MRI and DTI have furthered the initial work derived from early histological and structural imaging studies. Even newer techniques, such as DTI tractography and support vector machine analysis, and other computer‐based learning methods have allowed us to move beyond regional variations in grey and white matter volume and study ASD as a disorder of connectivity, and of regional cerebral function and neural circuitry. Brain regions and neural circuits that are implicated in the core symptoms of ASD (deficits in social reciprocity, language and communication, and restricted and stereotyped interests) have been repeatedly shown to be abnormal in those individuals.

Originality/value

This paper aims to provide a background for clinicians to the current research and focuses on developments in the field of neuroimaging of ASD from the past year, which have generated further insights into the neurobiology of ASD.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 5 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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1 – 10 of 552