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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Ahmet Coşkun and Mehtap Karakoç

The kinds of decisions people make or how they react to certain situations could differ according to the society, atmosphere or environment those people come from. Studies…

Abstract

The kinds of decisions people make or how they react to certain situations could differ according to the society, atmosphere or environment those people come from. Studies about the influence of human behaviors on economics, business and actions were initiated by analyzing human behaviors and those studies carry on into behavioral finance and behavioral accounting.

In previous years, the models used were based on the assumption that people behave rationally while making decisions. These models lost validity recently and behavioral accounting started to search for the influences affecting human behaviors. They started considering not only the people who prepare accounting data but also the people who take advantage of this data. People’s environment, cultural differences, psychological and sociological factors have entered into the accounting’s field of interest as factors that have an influence on behavior.

The aim of this study is to try to analyze the theoretical bases and extent of behavioral accounting, which focuses on the human behavior factors being observed while creating or using financial reports. The authors also aim to contribute to the literature by including the neuroaccounting dimension into the analysis.

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Uncertainty and Challenges in Contemporary Economic Behaviour
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-095-2

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Book part
Publication date: 9 October 2012

Kerwin Kaye

Purpose – This chapter critically examines efforts to destigmatize addiction through the creation of a diagnostic category and medicalization. It further critiques…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter critically examines efforts to destigmatize addiction through the creation of a diagnostic category and medicalization. It further critiques “realist” accounts of neuro-scientific knowledge, proposing instead a “biocultural” framework that enables a more multifaceted understanding of drug problems that leads back to questions of biopolitics.

Methodology/approach – After showing that medicalization is not always associated with destigmatization, this chapter reviews evidence suggesting that the social class of drug users is central to questions of stigma. A literature review concerning social constructionist approaches to bodies is then offered, culminating in an exploration of “biocultural” frames and their implications for psychiatric knowledge.

Findings – The material world can only be grasped through a cultural frame, an understanding that challenges “realist” accounts of knowledge. While making reference to brain functioning, psychiatric “disorders” in fact identify violations of interpersonal or psychic norms. These violations cannot be linked in a linear way to patterns of brain activity, even at a theoretical level.

Social implications – This chapter points toward a way of analyzing psychiatric disorders that allows for and highlights their political effects. Without ruling out medical interventions, it suggests that clinical and social understandings are an essential component of psychiatric understanding.

Originality/value of chapter – While “biocultural” approaches have been proposed by other social theorists, this chapter applies the frame in new ways to the psychiatric endeavor. In the face of increasing medicalization within the field of psychiatry, this chapter makes a strong theoretical case concerning the value of clinical and social knowledge concerning psychiatric disorders.

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Critical Perspectives on Addiction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-930-1

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Hilary Brown

In commenting on the issues raised by Drake et al. the purpose of this paper is to discuss three areas of practice: assessing capacity in the presence of intransigence…

Abstract

Purpose

In commenting on the issues raised by Drake et al. the purpose of this paper is to discuss three areas of practice: assessing capacity in the presence of intransigence and/or rigid patterns of thinking and behaviour; understanding addiction in this context; and identifying “reasonable adjustments” in the way addiction and substance misuse services are provided to this client group.

Design/methodology/approach

As well as discussing the issues raised by Drake et al. the commentary refers to a serious case review exploring similar issues.

Findings

Both the case discussed by Drake et al. and the serious case review draw attention to the importance of identifying “reasonable adjustments” to current practice.

Research limitations/implications

While the implications of the cases discussed are very significant, further work quantifying the scope of the problems identified would be very useful.

Practical implications

The 1995 Disability Discrimination Act (UK) requires public services to make “reasonable adjustments” in order for people with a range of disabilities to access their services on an equitable basis. This paper identifies what some of those areas of difficulty might be.

Originality/value

This is a relatively new area of work and expertise in both mainstream addiction and specialist intellectual disability and mental health services needs to be developed in order for them to provide more coherent and accessible programmes to individuals.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Lance Nizami

Neuroscientists act as proxies for implied anthropomorphic signal-processing beings within the brain, Homunculi. The latter examine the arriving neuronal spike-trains to…

Abstract

Purpose

Neuroscientists act as proxies for implied anthropomorphic signal-processing beings within the brain, Homunculi. The latter examine the arriving neuronal spike-trains to infer internal and external states. But a Homunculus needs a brain of its own, to coordinate its capabilities – a brain that necessarily contains a Homunculus and so on indefinitely. Such infinity is impossible – and in well-cited papers, Attneave and later Dennett claim to eliminate it. How do their approaches differ and do they (in fact) obviate the Homunculi?

Design/methodology/approach

The Attneave and Dennett approaches are carefully scrutinized. To Attneave, Homunculi are effectively “decision-making” neurons that control behaviors. Attneave presumes that Homunculi, when successively nested, become successively “stupider”, limiting their numbers by diminishing their responsibilities. Dennett likewise postulates neuronal Homunculi that become “stupider” – but brain-wards, where greater sophistication might have been expected.

Findings

Attneave’s argument is Reductionist and it simply assumes-away the Homuncular infinity. Dennett’s scheme, which evidently derives from Attneave’s, ultimately involves the same mistakes. Attneave and Dennett fail, because they attempt to reduce intentionality to non-intentionality.

Research limitations/implications

Homunculus has been successively recognized over the centuries by philosophers, psychologists and (some) neuroscientists as a crucial conundrum of cognitive science. It still is.

Practical implications

Cognitive-science researchers need to recognize that Reductionist explanations of cognition may actually devolve to Homunculi, rather than eliminating them.

Originality/value

Two notable Reductionist arguments against the infinity of Homunculi are proven wrong. In their place, a non-Reductionist treatment of the mind, “Emergence”, is discussed as a means of rendering Homunculi irrelevant.

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Kybernetes, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

Saleeshya P.G. and Binu M.

Lean implementation is a strategic decision. The capacity of organisation to be “Lean” can be identified before lean implementation by assessing leanness of an…

Abstract

Purpose

Lean implementation is a strategic decision. The capacity of organisation to be “Lean” can be identified before lean implementation by assessing leanness of an organisation. This study aims to attempt developing a holistic leanness assessment tool for assessing organisational leanness.

Design/methodology/approach

A neuro-fuzzy leanness assessment model for assessing the leanness of a manufacturing system is presented. The model is validated academically and industrially by conducting a case study.

Findings

Neuro-fuzzy hybridisation helped assess the leanness accurately. Fuzzy logic helped to perform the leanness assessment more realistically by accounting ambiguity and vagueness in organisational functioning and decision-making processes. Neural network increased the learning capacity of assessment model and increased the accuracy of leanness index.

Research limitations/implications

The industrial case study in the paper shows the results in telecom equipment manufacturing industry. This may not represent entire manufacturing sector. The generic nature of the model developed in this research ensures its wide applicability.

Practical implications

The neuro-fuzzy hybrid model for assessing leanness helps to identify the potential of an organisation to become “Lean”. The organisational leanness index developed by the study helps to monitor the effectiveness and impact of lean implementation programmes.

Originality/value

The leanness assessment models available in literature lack depth and coverage of leanness parameters. The model developed in this research assesses leanness of an organisation by accounting for leanness aspects of inventory management, industrial scheduling, organisational flexibility, ergonomics, product, process, management, workforce, supplier relationship and customer relationship with the help of neuro-fuzzy hybrid modelling.

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International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Nima Gerami Seresht, Rodolfo Lourenzutti, Ahmad Salah and Aminah Robinson Fayek

Due to the increasing size and complexity of construction projects, construction engineering and management involves the coordination of many complex and dynamic processes…

Abstract

Due to the increasing size and complexity of construction projects, construction engineering and management involves the coordination of many complex and dynamic processes and relies on the analysis of uncertain, imprecise and incomplete information, including subjective and linguistically expressed information. Various modelling and computing techniques have been used by construction researchers and applied to practical construction problems in order to overcome these challenges, including fuzzy hybrid techniques. Fuzzy hybrid techniques combine the human-like reasoning capabilities of fuzzy logic with the capabilities of other techniques, such as optimization, machine learning, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) and simulation, to capitalise on their strengths and overcome their limitations. Based on a review of construction literature, this chapter identifies the most common types of fuzzy hybrid techniques applied to construction problems and reviews selected papers in each category of fuzzy hybrid technique to illustrate their capabilities for addressing construction challenges. Finally, this chapter discusses areas for future development of fuzzy hybrid techniques that will increase their capabilities for solving construction-related problems. The contributions of this chapter are threefold: (1) the limitations of some standard techniques for solving construction problems are discussed, as are the ways that fuzzy methods have been hybridized with these techniques in order to address their limitations; (2) a review of existing applications of fuzzy hybrid techniques in construction is provided in order to illustrate the capabilities of these techniques for solving a variety of construction problems and (3) potential improvements in each category of fuzzy hybrid technique in construction are provided, as areas for future research.

Details

Fuzzy Hybrid Computing in Construction Engineering and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-868-2

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2020

Nanouk Verhulst, Iris Vermeir and Hendrik Slabbinck

This paper aims to discuss the potential of neuroscientific tools in the service research domain.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the potential of neuroscientific tools in the service research domain.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper integrates a personal viewpoint and an exemplar study to highlight the merits and obstacles of integrating neuro-tools in service experiments.

Findings

Service researchers can benefit from integrating neuro-tools in their toolbox; nevertheless, it does bring along a set of difficulties that need to be dealt with.

Originality/value

Several calls have been made to infuse service research with new methodologies such as neuroscientific tools. Yet, research effectively doing this remains scarce. This paper uses a real example study to illustrate the potential and obstacles related to adopting neuroscientific tools in service research.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Nanouk Verhulst, Arne De Keyser, Anders Gustafsson, Poja Shams and Yves Van Vaerenbergh

The purpose of this paper is to discuss recent developments in neuroscientific methods and demonstrate its potential for the service field. This work is a call to action…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss recent developments in neuroscientific methods and demonstrate its potential for the service field. This work is a call to action for more service researchers to adopt promising and increasingly accessible neuro-tools that allow the service field to benefit from neuroscience theories and insights.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper synthesizes key literature from a variety of domains (e.g. neuroscience, consumer neuroscience and organizational neuroscience) to provide an in-depth background to start applying neuro-tools. Specifically, this paper outlines the most important neuro-tools today and discusses their theoretical and empirical value.

Findings

To date, the use of neuro-tools in the service field is limited. This is surprising given the great potential they hold to advance service research. To stimulate the use of neuro-tools in the service area, the authors provide a roadmap to enable neuroscientific service studies and conclude with a discussion on promising areas (e.g. service experience and servicescape) ripe for neuroscientific input.

Originality/value

The paper offers service researchers a starting point to understand the potential benefits of adopting the neuroscientific method and shows their complementarity with traditional service research methods like surveys, experiments and qualitative research. In addition, this paper may also help reviewers and editors to better assess the quality of neuro-studies in service.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

Izabella Taler

Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) represents a new approach to understanding the process of human communication. Developed by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in the early…

Abstract

Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) represents a new approach to understanding the process of human communication. Developed by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in the early 1970s, it is derived from linguistics, psychology, neurophysiology, kinetics, and cybernetics. NLP is designed to help its users—whether they are therapists, salespersons, or teachers—more quickly gain rapport with their subjects.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Ahmad Mozaffari, Alireza Fathi and Saeed Behzadipour

The purpose of this paper is to apply a hybrid neuro-fuzzy paradigm called self-organizing neuro-fuzzy multilayered classifier (SONeFMUC) to classify the operating faults…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply a hybrid neuro-fuzzy paradigm called self-organizing neuro-fuzzy multilayered classifier (SONeFMUC) to classify the operating faults of a hydraulic system. The main motivation behind the use of SONeFMUC is to attest the capabilities of neuro-fuzzy classifier for handling the difficulties associated with fault diagnosis of hydraulic circuits.

Design/methodology/approach

In the proposed methodology, first, the neuro-fuzzy nodes at each layer of the SONeFMUC are trained separately using two well-known bio-inspired algorithms, i.e. a semi deterministic method with random walks called co-variance matrix adaptation evolutionary strategy (CMA-ES) and a swarm-based explorer with adaptive fuzzified parameters (SBEAFP). Thereafter, a revised version of the group method data handling (GMDH) policy that uses the Darwinian concepts such as truncation selection and elitism is engaged to connect the nodes of different layers in an effective manner.

Findings

Based on comparative numerical experiments, the authors conclude that integration of neuro-fuzzy method and bio-inspired supervisor results in a really powerful classification tool beneficial for uncertain environments. It is proved that the method outperforms some well-known classifiers such as support vector machine (SVM) and particle swarm optimization-based SVM (PSO-SVM). Besides, it is indicated that an efficient bio-inspired method can effectively adjust the constructive parameters of the multi-layered neuro-fuzzy classifier. For the case, it is observed that designing a fuzzy controller for PSO predisposes it to effectively balance the exploration/exploitation capabilities, and consequently optimize the structure of SONeFMUC.

Originality/value

The originality of the paper can be considered from both numerical and practical points of view. The signals obtained through the data acquisition possess six different features in order for the hydraulic system to undergo four types of faults, i.e. cylinder fault, pump fault, valve leakage fault and rupture of the piping system. Besides, to elaborate on the authenticity and efficacy of the proposed method, its performance is compared with well-known rival techniques.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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