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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2013

King Man Chong

This qualitative multiple-case study research attempts to examine controversies associated with national education and national identity by exploring the perceptions of…

Abstract

Purpose

This qualitative multiple-case study research attempts to examine controversies associated with national education and national identity by exploring the perceptions of national identity of Hong Kong secondary school teachers. Since the resumption of Hong Kong's sovereignty by China in 1997, national identification with Chinese has been a policy priority. Hong Kong has seen an increase of national education, which aims at cultivating a Chinese national identity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted with case study method with a convenient sampling method on ten purposively chosen sample of Hong Kong secondary school teachers, who are responsible for citizenship education in their schools. It is a qualitative research design with each teacher interviewed twice to obtain in-depth interview data.

Findings

The findings reveal that teachers perceive their national identity with different emphases, which include both elements of civic and ethnic nationalism. Also, Hong Kong teachers showed a diversified perception of their national identity both before and after 1997, and it was found that political, social and personal events exerted influences upon their national identification. These have implication for understanding identity issue and teaching citizenship education in Hong Kong.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to make a contribution towards understanding teachers’ perceptions of national identity by revealing that Hong Kong teachers perceive their national identity with both elements of civic and ethnic nationalism, and their perceptions are mediated by political, social and personal events. Furthermore, multiple levels of identities, namely, local, national, and global levels, should be observed.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

John M.T. Balmer and Weifeng Chen

This paper aims to examine the attractiveness of the Tong Ren Tang (TRT) as a Chinese corporate heritage tourism brand and consider the significance of TRT for Chinese…

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3022

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the attractiveness of the Tong Ren Tang (TRT) as a Chinese corporate heritage tourism brand and consider the significance of TRT for Chinese national identity. The study considers the saliency of Balmer’s augmented role identity notion vis-à-vis corporate heritage institutions/corporate brands. Insights are made from and for corporate heritage, heritage tourism and national identity literature.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model comprising five hypotheses was developed and this informed a survey-based questionnaire administered to domestic tourists/customers visiting Tong Ren Tang’s flagship shop in Beijing.

Findings

The attractiveness to domestic Chinese tourists/customers of the TRT corporate heritage tourism brand was found to be attributable to its multiple role identities: national, corporate, temporal, familial and imperial. As such, this study lends credence to Balmer’s augmented role identity notion. Chinese domestic tourists/customers – as members of an ethnic Chinese community – in visiting TRT not only consume an extant corporate heritage by tangible and intangible means but can also be seen to express, and reaffirm, their sense of Chinese national identity.

Practical implications

For TRT’s managers, there should be an appreciation that the attractiveness of TRT as a corporate heritage tourism brand rests not only on what it sells but also in what it symbolises in national and cultural terms. This finding is applicable to the managers of many other corporate heritage/corporate heritage tourism brands.

Social implications

Adopting a primordial perspective, the TRT pharmacy was found to be of singular significance to China’s national identity. Traditional Chinese Medicine, Confucian and Daoist religious/philosophical and China’s erstwhile Imperial polity are significant and enduring precepts of Chinese national identity. As such the TRT flagship shop/brand is of singular importance, as China has eviscerated much of its cultural heritage – particularly in relation to its corporate heritage brands.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study to focus on corporate heritage tourism brands and one of the first studies to examine a Chinese corporate heritage/corporate heritage tourism brand. Also significant in focussing on the TRT corporate heritage brand. Established in 1669, TRT’s history spans five centuries: a corporate provenance which is exceptional within the People’s Republic of China. The study links the corporate brand notion with the nascent corporate heritage brand domain and the established area of heritage tourism.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Annie Cheng and Elson Szeto

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether there are any effects on Hong Kong university students’ national identity after short-term study abroad. If so, what…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether there are any effects on Hong Kong university students’ national identity after short-term study abroad. If so, what sources of influence from the short-term study abroad programme contribute to the students’ change in national identity?

Design/methodology/approach

Using the case study approach, 85 students completed a questionnaire, and a small group of 12 students were invited to individual interviews for further investigation.

Findings

Results show that the students’ perceptions of national identity are multiple and complicated through the lens of four components of national identity. The responses of students’ perceptions of change in identity were pointed to three statements: “feeling prouder of being Chinese”, “Hongkongers are very different from mainland Chinese” and “no change in my views of national identity”. The influences of study abroad experiences on national identity varied, dependent on the students’ interaction with the local and non-local people, and reflection on their own identity, whether on the cultural or political differences or on national achievements.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study can inform educators and administrators to enhance profound short-term study abroad experience for the students. The limitation of this case study is that it is concerned with understanding how small numbers of students construct meaning from their individual experience. It is recommended that studies with larger sampling sizes be conducted to investigate students’ perceptions of their national identity before and after studying abroad.

Originality/value

Considering the increasing number of Hong Kong youths who have participated in these short-term study-abroad programmes in higher education, the findings of this study are significant in terms of awakening the students’ taken-for-granted national identity, if any. The programme serves as a means of triggering the students’ feelings and emotions regarding their identity in different national, social and cultural contexts. This can inform policy makers, educational administrators and teachers to formulate an appropriate national education curriculum for the youth.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Nguyen-Hau Le, Hai-Minh Thi Nguyen and Tuan Van Nguyen

Based on the intra-national diversity view, this research aims to employ the concept of national identity to explain the consumer's evaluation of foreign product with…

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1987

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the intra-national diversity view, this research aims to employ the concept of national identity to explain the consumer's evaluation of foreign product with local brand and the extent of consumer ethnocentrism. It then investigates how product evaluation and consumer ethnocentrism are capable of explaining consumer's perceived value of the product. Finally, it tests the impact of consumer perceived value on consumer willingness to buy.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 251 consumers of local wine in Vietnam was analysed using structural equation modelling technique.

Findings

National identity has positive impacts on product evaluation and consumer ethnocentrism. These two factors together can explain 58 percent variance of consumer's perceived value, which is the key predictor of willingness to buy. Additionally, emotional and social values are found to be important motivators of local wine consumption in Vietnam.

Research limitations/implications

The three reflective first-order components of national identity might be alternatively modelled as formative ones. Moderating effect of consumption occasions, consumer knowledge and other social demographics should be investigated. Finally, to compare Vietnamese consumers towards local wine vs foreign wine.

Originality/value

Among very few empirical studies about the effects of national identity on consumer's value of foreign product with local brand under a mixed effects of the perceived inferior quality of locally made product and status-oriented consumption behavior, via the full mediation of product evaluation and consumer ethnocentrism. This study also suggests a conceptual distinction between ethnocentrism and consumer ethnocentrism in studies of national identity.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Bruce D. Keillor and G. Tomas M. Hult

A number of studies in the international marketing literature have focused on the identification and discussion of differences across nations and cultures. Unfortunately…

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7264

Abstract

A number of studies in the international marketing literature have focused on the identification and discussion of differences across nations and cultures. Unfortunately, the majority of these investigations focus on existing differences without addressing which of these differences have the potential to substantially affect international operations or how to make comparisons within a framework which allows some measure of flexibility across nations and cultures. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to develop and measure the national identify of several different cultures in order to establish a means by which similarities and differences can be placed into a practically applicable context for international marketing decision making; and (2) to establish initial generalizable national identity norms for making broad cross‐cultural/cross‐national comparisons. The results based on a five‐country sample (i.e. the USA, Mexico, Japan, Sweden and Hong Kong) show that, within the theoretical framework of national identity it is possible to identify such differences. Implications for both academic research as well as managerial decision making in an international marketing context are presented.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2019

Nicholas Burton, Cheri Bradish and Melanie Dempsey

The purpose of this paper is to examine international football supporter behaviours within the context of national and socio-cultural identification, in an effort to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine international football supporter behaviours within the context of national and socio-cultural identification, in an effort to better understand what role national identity plays in fan motivation and consumer behaviour for expatriate and non-domestic fans.

Design/methodology/approach

International football supporters across ten cultural and ethnic communities were surveyed throughout the 2014 Fédération Internationale de Football Association World Cup Finals, exploring the identification and new media socialisation behaviours of national team supporters in non-domestic markets.

Findings

The study’s findings provide evidence of the role identification plays in informing national and ethnic identities. Supporting one’s home or ancestral national team reflects an important element of national identification and socio-cultural place for expatriate or non-domestic supporters of international football. Importantly, new media behaviours provide supporters with a formative and productive source of national team fan engagement and ethnocultural community creation, particularly for younger target audiences.

Practical implications

These results bear particular significance for theory and practice: the digital socialisation behaviours supporters engage in are integral components of identity building and communication. In better understanding the awareness and interest of geographically detached sport consumers, this study offers new perspective into the opportunities present for sport organisations and marketers in reaching non-domestic fan nations.

Originality/value

The findings offer new perspective into the role national identification plays in fan involvement and motivation, and importantly how new media has emerged as a key platform for expatriate and non-domestic supporter socialisation amongst international football supporters.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

Details

Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2018

Barbara Stöttinger and Elfriede Penz

In today’s globalized world, countries are becoming increasingly multiethnic. This raises questions about the different dimensions of consumers’ territorial identities

Abstract

Purpose

In today’s globalized world, countries are becoming increasingly multiethnic. This raises questions about the different dimensions of consumers’ territorial identities, and how these dimensions are differentiated, interrelated and interlinked. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Using qualitative interviews, this paper investigates how (40) respondents from two different ethnic minorities in a country that is not necessarily considered multiethnic perceive these dimensions of territorial identity (ethnic, regional and national) as a constituent element of their own person and of their behavior.

Findings

The authors highlight that these three dimensions of territorial identity co-exist as independent entities; they are distinct but interrelated and interconnected. Furthermore, idiosyncrasies in the ethnic sub-samples are investigated and described. These are related to the connection to the country of residence (being born there vs having immigrated there). Finally, avenues for future research, such as expanding the concept of territorial identities and its connection to consumer behavior, are suggested.

Originality/value

The authors extend the bipolarity commonly used in territorial identities (global vs local or ethnic vs national) to three conceptually independent dimensions. The authors explore the relationships between these dimensions of territorial identity and show that they may not conflict but, instead, co-exist.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Chi Kit Chan and Gary Tang

This paper aims to unravel how the formation of Hong Kong citizenship intertwines with controversies over global citizenship, national identities and local identity in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to unravel how the formation of Hong Kong citizenship intertwines with controversies over global citizenship, national identities and local identity in post-handover Hong Kong. It aims to engage the case study of Hong Kong to the academic dialogue surrounding global citizenship, especially its contested compatibility with national identities and various political communities.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of this paper came from the territory-wide survey data conducted by the Public Opinion Programme of the University of Hong Kong (HKUPOP). The study cleans the survey data from 2008 to 2018, performs various regression models and concludes the findings based on longitudinal analyses of the dataset.

Findings

Drawing upon the survey data from 2008 to 2018, this study shows that the identities of Hong Kong people, Chinese in general, ethnic Chinese and citizen of Chinese regime demonstrate varying compatibility to the identity of Global citizen. Such discrepancies are more pronounced when the data are broken down into the youth (aged 18-29) and the adults, and a temporal comparison was exercised before and after the Umbrella Movement in 2014. The identity of Global citizen is compatible to the local identity of Hong Kong people when comparing with its congruence with national identities. On the contrary, the statist national identity (citizen of People’s Republic of China) indicates the least level of compatibility with the notion of Global citizen in Hong Kong.

Originality/value

This paper unravels that the identity of global citizen could be more compatible with local identities at sub-national level than the national identities in Hong Kong. While scholarly deliberation of global citizenship contemplates on the moral and political responsibility beyond national interest, the case study of Hong Kong illustrates the multi-facets of national identities, and the local identity at sub-national level could have different compatibilities with the identity of global citizen. The findings could bring research implication to the studies of global citizenship.

Details

Social Transformations in Chinese Societies, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1871-2673

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Charles Chi Cui and Edward I. Adams

The national identity scale (NATID) was recently reported in the literature for identifying the core elements that define the uniqueness of a given culture or nation in so…

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1696

Abstract

The national identity scale (NATID) was recently reported in the literature for identifying the core elements that define the uniqueness of a given culture or nation in so far as their association with marketing is concerned. This study examined the conceptual strengths and empirical limitations of NATID, and assessed the relevance of the national identity construct in Yemen. Confirmatory factor analysis of the data from a sample of 208 Yemeni respondents revealed that the NATID scale did not fit the Yemeni data. Modification of the scale was made through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, which resulted in four dimensions in two alternative models similar to NATID. Results from the second‐order confirmatory factor analysis of the two alternative models supported NATID’s multi‐dimensionality of the national identity construct in the Yemeni context. Implications for future research are discussed and limitations noted.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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