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This chapter focuses on strategies to initiate a shift in mobility behaviour away from private cars towards a combination of more environmentally friendly transport modes…
This chapter focuses on strategies to initiate a shift in mobility behaviour away from private cars towards a combination of more environmentally friendly transport modes including public transport, ride- and car sharing or even completely carbon-free modes like walking and cycling. The requirement for such a shift is that people must be able to actually choose between different travelling options and combine them within an intermodal mobility network. Here, shared mobility has a considerable potential to fill the gap between public and individual transport options.
This chapter summarises results from different studies on shared mobility from the providers’, the users’ and the political perspective. The user’s perspective is based on an empirical study comparing car sharers’, car drivers’ and public transport users’ attitudes and mobility patterns.
The empirical findings from the case study have shown that shuttle trips by car in general, and to the train station in particular, are an important field of action for improving the environmental impact of intermodal trips. The study has also shown that car sharing enables people to live without a private car by using different transport modes for different purposes. As the majority of car sharers report needing a car only one to three times a month, they have a very small carbon footprint compared to the average car owner.
Mobility patterns are determined by local transport options as well as by personal routines. Hence, current changes due to new shared mobility options seem to have a considerable direct impact on how people organise their daily lives on the one hand and an indirect impact on their living costs on the other hand, since private cars have an important share of private household costs.
From an environmental perspective, any incentives to encourage people to choose alternative forms of transport over their private cars would seem to be particularly effective. Thus, understanding the behaviour and needs of multi- and intermodal travellers is an important step towards sustainable mobility. Acknowledging that most travellers still need a car every now and then, car sharing is an essential addition to public transport systems, supporting both public transport use and carbon-free mobility like walking and cycling.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on the reference model of a grid-like supply network that enables formulation of delivery routing and scheduling problems in the…
The purpose of this paper is to focus on the reference model of a grid-like supply network that enables formulation of delivery routing and scheduling problems in the context of the periodic vehicle routing problem.
The conditions for seamless (collision-free) synchronization of periodically executed local transport processes presented in this paper guarantee cyclic execution of supply processes, thereby preventing traffic flow congestion.
Systems that satisfy this characteristic, cyclic deliveries executed along supply chains are given and what is sought is the number of vehicles needed to operate the local transport processes in order to ensure delivery from and to specific loading/unloading points on given dates. Determination of sufficient conditions guaranteeing the existence of feasible solutions that satisfy these constraints makes it possible to solve the considered class of problems online.
The computer experiments reported in this paper show the possibilities of practical application of the proposed approach in the construction of decision support systems for food supply chain management.
The aim of the present work is to develop a methodology for the synthesis of regularly structured supply networks that would ensure fixed cyclic execution of local transport processes. The proposed methodology, which implements sufficient conditions for the synchronization of local cyclic processes, allows one to develop a method for rapid prototyping of supply processes that satisfies the time windows constraints given.
This chapter focuses on how to leverage public transport infrastructure to produce walk-friendly environments, positioning public transport as a walk-enhancing mode. What…
This chapter focuses on how to leverage public transport infrastructure to produce walk-friendly environments, positioning public transport as a walk-enhancing mode. What are the steps that public transport operators can take to create walk-friendly environments? Do more comfortable waiting conditions result in stronger loyalty from the existing customer base and stronger buyout from new customers? This novel approach stemmed from a partnership with the public transport operator Transdev on a real-life experiment in Grenoble to provide a more comfortable walking and resting experience for public transport users. Named Carrefour de Mobilité (‘the crossroads of mobility’), the experiment prototyped urban design interventions to enhance the access and waiting experience of users engaged in mixed-mode commuting. An ex ante/ex post evaluation was deployed to ascertain whether walk-friendlier environments encourage a more intensive use of public space and easier shifting between public transport modes. The findings show that when users perceive dedicated infrastructure as walk-friendly, they consider it more visible and more attractive, and find it comfortable enough to spend longer waiting times there. The evaluation would have benefited from an extension of the perimeter covered by the sensor technology measuring system which was not feasible because of budget constraints. The experiment reached out beyond the initial target public and captured children and older women as well, providing an amenity which was lacking for these groups and resulting in a livelier and more diverse environment for everyone. This lean and low-cost experiment shows that activating public space near public transport hubs enhances their attractiveness in the eyes of the public transport users.
The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the ability of a new optimization technique based on the emulation of the immune system to detect the global…
The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the ability of a new optimization technique based on the emulation of the immune system to detect the global maximum with multimodal functions and to test the capability of exploring the parameter space with respect to clustering enhanced Genetic Algorithms (GA).
Both algorithms have been tested on analytical test functions and on numerical functions of applicative interest. A set of performance criteria has been defined in order to numerically compare the performances of both optimization strategies.
Results show the great ability of Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) in thoroughly exploring the space of variables. On the other side, GA are faster to converge to the global optimum, but selection pressure can reduce the number of detected local optima.
This work is an attempt to assess the performances of a relatively new optimization algorithm based on AIS and to find its behavior on multimodal test functions, using GAs as reference optimization technique.
Purpose — The paper aims at an improvement of the understanding, how mobility is reported in longitudinal surveys and to develop ideas how to assess the completeness of…
Purpose — The paper aims at an improvement of the understanding, how mobility is reported in longitudinal surveys and to develop ideas how to assess the completeness of the reported mobility.
Methodology/approach — Analyses of data quality and completeness are performed on the multiday and multiperiod data of the German Mobility Panel. Distinctions are made between differing reporting behaviours of individuals who either reported three times, two times or only once.
Findings — It can be shown that the reporting behaviours are different depending on the number of repetitions. The results illustrate that on the one hand individuals who repeat the survey in a consecutive wave tend to report with greater motivation, endurance and accuracy. On the other hand, participants who have not reported completely and accurately are more likely to drop out. These effects positively influence the quality and completeness and therefore the reliability of recorded mobility figures in multiperiod mobility surveys.
Practical implications — The analytical possibilities of combined multiday and multiperiod data in terms of the assessment of data quality will be demonstrated. Hints to identify such types of survey artefacts are presented.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2000), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are a collection of chronic conditions that include Autistic Disorder, Rett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Aspeger's Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Typically, ASD are often identified during infancy or the toddler years. Most individuals with ASD have some degree of mental retardation. According to Deisinger (2001), genetic factors, abnormalities in brain structure and biochemistry, and complications during pregnancy have been implicated as possible causes of these disorders. Generally, students with ASD have difficulties with daily activities such as language, self-care, mobility, and independent functioning. The focus of this chapter examines the many features that must be considered before diagnosing and classifying individuals with ASD.
The analysis of certain structures must be performed with due consideration to non‐linear behavior, such as material and geometric non‐linearities. The existing methods…
The analysis of certain structures must be performed with due consideration to non‐linear behavior, such as material and geometric non‐linearities. The existing methods for treating non‐linear structural behavior generally make use of repeated linearization, such as load increment methods. This paper demonstrates that there is an alternative type of linearization that appears to have significant advantages when applied to the analysis of non‐linear structural systems. Briefly stated, this alternative linearization can be thought of as a “monomialization”. This monomial (single‐termed power function) approximation more faithfully models the power function behavior inherent in typical structural systems. Conveniently, it becomes a linear form when transformed into log space. Thus, computational tools based on linear algebra remain useful and effective. Preliminary results indicate that the monomial approximation provides a higher quality approximation to non‐linear phenomena exhibited in structural applications. Consequently, incremental and iterative methods become more effective because larger steps can be taken. The net result is an increase in reliability of the solution process and a significant reduction in computational effort. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the method.