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Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Enrique Carreras-Romero, Ana Carreras-Franco and Ángel Alloza-Losada

Economic globalization is leading large companies to focus on international strategic management. Nowadays, the assets referred to as “corporate intangibles,” such as…

Abstract

Economic globalization is leading large companies to focus on international strategic management. Nowadays, the assets referred to as “corporate intangibles,” such as corporate reputation, are becoming increasingly important because they are considered a key factor for the viability of an organization, and companies therefore need to incorporate them into their scorecards for management. The problem is that their measurement is subjective and latent. These two characteristics impede direct international comparison and require demonstrating the accuracy of comparison via a minimum of two tests – construct equivalence and metric equivalence. As regards corporate reputation, construct equivalence was verified by Naomi Gardberg (2006). However, the subsequent studies did not address metric equivalence. Based on the results of a survey provided by the Reputation Institute (n = 5,950, 50 firms evaluated in 17 countries in the Americas, Europe, Asia and Australia), the degree of RepTrak metric equivalence has been tested, using two different methodologies, multigroup analysis (structural equation model), and a new technique from 2016, the Measurement Invariance of Composite Model procedure from the Partial Least Square Path Modeling family. As one would expect from other cross-cultural studies, reputation metrics do not meet the full metric equivalence, which is why they require standardization processes to ensure international comparability. Both methodologies have identified the same correction parameters, which have allowed validation of the mean and variance of response style by country.

Details

Global Aspects of Reputation and Strategic Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-314-0

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Jörg Henseler, Christian M. Ringle and Marko Sarstedt

Research on international marketing usually involves comparing different groups of respondents. When using structural equation modeling (SEM), group comparisons can be…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on international marketing usually involves comparing different groups of respondents. When using structural equation modeling (SEM), group comparisons can be misleading unless researchers establish the invariance of their measures. While methods have been proposed to analyze measurement invariance in common factor models, research lacks an approach in respect of composite models. The purpose of this paper is to present a novel three-step procedure to analyze the measurement invariance of composite models (MICOM) when using variance-based SEM, such as partial least squares (PLS) path modeling.

Design/methodology/approach

A simulation study allows us to assess the suitability of the MICOM procedure to analyze the measurement invariance in PLS applications.

Findings

The MICOM procedure appropriately identifies no, partial, and full measurement invariance.

Research limitations/implications

The statistical power of the proposed tests requires further research, and researchers using the MICOM procedure should take potential type-II errors into account.

Originality/value

The research presents a novel procedure to assess the measurement invariance in the context of composite models. Researchers in international marketing and other disciplines need to conduct this kind of assessment before undertaking multigroup analyses. They can use MICOM procedure as a standard means to assess the measurement invariance.

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Massoomeh Hedayati, Aldrin Abdullah and Mohammad Javad Maghsoodi Tilaki

The purpose of this paper is to examine the validity of community organisation as part of the systemic model. Based on the systemic model of community crime, it is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the validity of community organisation as part of the systemic model. Based on the systemic model of community crime, it is perceived that community networks are negatively correlated with victimisation. The authors consider an alternative interpretation, suggesting that these conceptual relationships can run opposite to the directions shown in the systemic model. The crime rate itself may change residents’ perception of neighbouring behaviour and informal control.

Design/methodology/approach

This hypothesis is tested using a multigroup analysis of the community organisation across a sample of victims and non-victims in a Malaysian neighbourhood.

Findings

The authors find that property crime affects ethnic relations among the residents, where the non-victims perceived higher levels of ethnic relationships compared with the victims. The results show that configural and metric invariance are fully supported, while scalar and structural invariance were partially supported, suggesting that the items measured may be robust across cultures and that the factor loadings appeared to be equivalent across victims and non-victims. Non-victims perceived significantly higher informal control and closer ethnic relations than victims.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new direction of the systemic model, whereby victimisation could affect residents’ size of friendship networks and perception informal control.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2020

Rocío Carranza, Estrella Díaz, David Martín-Consuegra and Pilar Fernández-Ferrín

The development of Information Systems (IS) and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is offering new opportunities for businesses to implement promotion…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of Information Systems (IS) and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is offering new opportunities for businesses to implement promotion strategies focused on customer attraction and retention. In this sense, mobile coupon usage has increased as a promotion tool, especially in the fast-food sector. However, the use by consumers of these coupons is not homogeneous and it is conditioned by prior experience. Thus, this study aimed to examine variations between Fast Food Restaurant (FFR) customers based on their prior experiences with the use of mobile coupon (expert vs novice users).

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 400 fast-food customers was collected using a structured questionnaire. In order to compare the proposed relationships between expert and novice users, a multigroup approach was applied through new, recently proposed evaluation procedures designed for PLS–SEM.

Findings

The results show that the two groups of consumers (expert vs novice users) have notable differences regarding the relationship between perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. This relationship was the strongest in both groups. However, there are no differences found in other aspects considered as antecedents to mobile coupons usage, for instance, usage intention and attitude.

Practical implications

This work emphasises the importance of considering differences based on experience between mobile coupon users. Ease of use, perceived consumer utility and increased mobile coupons in apps can be the key to driving effective business strategies based on promotional tactics by FFRs. Likewise, this study can help other researchers in their empirical applications of PLS–SEM analysis.

Originality/value

This study is the first to provide an in-depth analysis of differences based on users' experience with mobile coupons at FFRs. It is innovative in its introduction of the consumer's coupon proneness variable.

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2018

Samra Chaudary

The paper takes a behavioral approach by making use of the prospect theory to unveil the impact of salience on short-term and long-term investment decisions. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper takes a behavioral approach by making use of the prospect theory to unveil the impact of salience on short-term and long-term investment decisions. This paper aims to investigate the group differences for two types of investors’ groups, i.e. individual investors and professional investors.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses partial least square-based structural equation modeling technique, measurement invariance test and multigroup analysis test on a unique data set of 277 active equity traders which included professional money managers and individual investors.

Findings

Results showed that salience has a significant positive impact on both short-term and long-term investment decisions. The impact was almost 1.5 times higher for long-term investment decision as compared to short-term decision. Furthermore, multigroup analysis revealed that the two groups (individual investors and professional investors) were statistically significantly different from each other.

Research limitations/implications

The study has implications for financial regulators, money managers and individual investors as it was found that individual investors suffer more with salience heuristic and may end up with sub-optimal portfolios due to inefficient diversification. Thus, investors should be cautious in fully relying on salience and avoid such bias to improve investment returns.

Practical implications

The study concludes with a discussion of policy and regulatory implications on how to minimize salience bias to achieve optimum and diversified portfolios.

Originality/value

The study has significantly contributed to the growing body of applied behavioral research in the discipline of finance.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Coşkun Erdağ

The primary purpose of this study is to test the measurement invariance and the latent mean differences of the personal accountability measure (PAM) constructs.

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this study is to test the measurement invariance and the latent mean differences of the personal accountability measure (PAM) constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

Obtained through the Turkish version of the PAM from a random sample of 453 teachers working in elementary and secondary schools in Aksaray province, data were analyzed using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the measurement invariance and latent mean differences of the internal and external accountability constructs across gender, tenure, school grade and teacher branches, respectively.

Findings

Teacher internal and external accountability constructs were demonstrated in this study to be fully equivalent across gender and tenure, and partially equivalent across school grade and teacher branches. Latent mean comparisons showed that less-experienced tenure teachers, class teachers and ESL teachers in Turkey felt more internally accountable compared to their peers in other groups. No significant latent mean differences of teacher external accountability were observed across genders, tenures, school types or teacher branches.

Originality/value

This study contributes to research by providing further valuable information on the equivalencies of the external and internal accountability constructs across gender, tenure, school grade and branch for future research studying multigroup comparisons and structural relationships of personal accountability constructs. It also provides school principals and policymakers with more accurate, multigroup comparisons of teacher external and internal accountability dispositions across gender, tenure, school grade and branch.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Michael Klesel, Florian Schuberth, Jörg Henseler and Bjoern Niehaves

People seem to function according to different models, which implies that in business and social sciences, heterogeneity is a rule rather than an exception. Researchers…

Abstract

Purpose

People seem to function according to different models, which implies that in business and social sciences, heterogeneity is a rule rather than an exception. Researchers can investigate such heterogeneity through multigroup analysis (MGA). In the context of partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM), MGA is currently applied to perform multiple comparisons of parameters across groups. However, this approach has significant drawbacks: first, the whole model is not considered when comparing groups, and second, the family-wise error rate is higher than the predefined significance level when the groups are indeed homogenous, leading to incorrect conclusions. Against this background, the purpose of this paper is to present and validate new MGA tests, which are applicable in the context of PLS-PM, and to compare their efficacy to existing approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose two tests that adopt the squared Euclidean distance and the geodesic distance to compare the model-implied indicator correlation matrix across groups. The authors employ permutation to obtain the corresponding reference distribution to draw statistical inference about group differences. A Monte Carlo simulation provides insights into the sensitivity and specificity of both permutation tests and their performance, in comparison to existing approaches.

Findings

Both proposed tests provide a considerable degree of statistical power. However, the test based on the geodesic distance outperforms the test based on the squared Euclidean distance in this regard. Moreover, both proposed tests lead to rejection rates close to the predefined significance level in the case of no group differences. Hence, our proposed tests are more reliable than an uncontrolled repeated comparison approach.

Research limitations/implications

Current guidelines on MGA in the context of PLS-PM should be extended by applying the proposed tests in an early phase of the analysis. Beyond our initial insights, more research is required to assess the performance of the proposed tests in different situations.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing PLS-PM literature by proposing two new tests to assess multigroup differences. For the first time, this allows researchers to statistically compare a whole model across groups by applying a single statistical test.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2020

Felipe Hernandez-Perlines, Domingo Ribeiro-Soriano and Maria Rodríguez-García

Based on the theory of dynamic capabilities, the purpose of this study is to examine how generation influences the effect of innovation capability on family business…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the theory of dynamic capabilities, the purpose of this study is to examine how generation influences the effect of innovation capability on family business performance. To achieve this purpose, a moderation model is tested using the generational level as the moderating variable.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a sample of 106 family businesses CEOs who were surveyed by mail using the Limesurvey 2.5 platform. The results obtained were analyzed using the second-generation partial least squares (PLS) structural equation model. The MICOM (Measurement Invariance of Composite Models) approach was used to analyze the moderating effect.

Findings

This research sheds lights on the innovation capacity to influence the family businesses performance, and on the generational level moderating this effect. As a result, the influence of the innovation capacity in second generation family businesses performance is higher than in the first generation.

Research limitations/implications

This study reveals the influence that the generational level has on the effect of innovation capacity on the family business performance. A greater dispersion of ownership, more participatory decision-making, and greater CEOs commitment to leadership in second- and later-generation family businesses, are the main key drivers of this result.

Originality/value

In comparison to previous studies, this research provides insights into the moderating effect of the generational level on the influence of innovation capacity on the family businesses performance through the MICOM approach (Measurement Invariance of Composite Models).

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 8 July 2014

W. Eric Lee and Dennis Schmidt

This study investigates the determinants of students’ intention to major in accounting (IMA) in pre-recessionary, recessionary, and post-recessionary time periods. By…

Abstract

This study investigates the determinants of students’ intention to major in accounting (IMA) in pre-recessionary, recessionary, and post-recessionary time periods. By examining four factors (perceived professional ethics (PE), job market consideration (JMC), social influence (SI), and self-efficacy (SE)) in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB), we address two primary research questions. The first question concerns whether the four factors are related to students’ IMA before, during, and after the recession. The second deals with whether there is a shift in the relative importance of the factors between the pre-recessionary, recessionary, and post-recessionary periods. We use structural equation modeling and multigroup analysis of structural invariance to analyze these issues. The results show that all four factors have significant structural weights in each period, with the exception of perceived PE in the pre-recessionary period. In terms of students’ IMA over the three periods, perceived PE, JMC, and SI become factors of greater importance during the recessionary and post-recessionary periods, while SE decreases in relative importance.

Details

Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-851-8

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Marko Sarstedt, Jörg Henseler and Christian M. Ringle

Purpose – Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling has become a pivotal empirical research method in international marketing. Owing to group comparisons' important role…

Abstract

Purpose – Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling has become a pivotal empirical research method in international marketing. Owing to group comparisons' important role in research on international marketing, we provide researchers with recommendations on how to conduct multigroup analyses in PLS path modeling.

Methodology/approach – We review available multigroup analysis methods in PLS path modeling and introduce a novel confidence set approach. A characterization of each method's strengths and limitations and a comparison of their outcomes by means of an empirical example extend the existing knowledge of multigroup analysis methods. Moreover, we provide an omnibus test of group differences (OTG), which allows testing the differences across more than two groups.

Findings – The empirical comparison results suggest that Keil et al.'s (2000) parametric approach can generally be considered more liberal in terms of rendering a certain difference significant. Conversely, the novel confidence set approach and Henseler's (2007) approach are more conservative.

Originality/value of paper – This study is the first to deliver an in-depth analysis and a comparison of the available procedures with which to statistically assess differences between group-specific parameters in PLS path modeling. Moreover, we offer two important methodological extensions of existing research (i.e., the confidence set approach and OTG). This contribution is particularly valuable for international marketing researchers, as it offers recommendations regarding empirical applications and paves the way for future research studies aimed at comparing the approaches' properties on the basis of simulated data.

Details

Measurement and Research Methods in International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-095-7

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