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Book part
Publication date: 11 April 2012

Reidar Almås and Hugh Campbell

Purpose – This chapter introduces the book collection and sets the theoretical framework for the subsequent chapters.Design/methodology/approach – The approach of the book…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter introduces the book collection and sets the theoretical framework for the subsequent chapters.

Design/methodology/approach – The approach of the book is to re-interpret major challenges to global agriculture – particularly climate change and the food crisis of 2008 – as demonstrating shocks to the resilience of global food systems.

Findings – Using resilience to shocks as a key quality of food systems enables recent crises to be understood as central to the ongoing dynamics of food systems rather than simply atypical events. Alongside climate change and food security, other potential shocks are identified: biosecurity, energy, financial and volcanic.

Originality/value – This framework establishes new criteria for examining the potential merit of multifunctional and neo-liberal policy regimes with world food systems.

Details

Rethinking Agricultural Policy Regimes: Food Security, Climate Change and the Future Resilience of Global Agriculture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-349-1

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Pia Heike Johansen

– The purpose of this paper is to provide a sector-based analysis of the drivers for social entrepreneurship in the agricultural sector.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a sector-based analysis of the drivers for social entrepreneurship in the agricultural sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses qualitative data from two studies in the Danish region of Northern Jutland. The data include responses from 38 farmers who offered or had considered offering social services. The analytical framework is taken from a review of the limited literature on Green Care and Social Farming and social entrepreneurship theory.

Findings

Strong and consistent tools for the categorisation of farmers’ social entrepreneurship have been developed. However, these tools have merely been used descriptively rather than to create proactive agriculture policies to facilitate social entrepreneurship. In Region Northern Jutland social entrepreneurship in farming is driven by a combination of tradition, close relationships and coincidence. It is ad hoc, with each initiative starting from scratch because no knowledge or experience has been gathered or distributed.

Research limitations/implications

The agricultural sector-based approach to social entrepreneurship will not be discussed against other approaches to social entrepreneurship. This would be a suggestion for another more conceptual kind of article in the future.

Originality/value

A study of social entrepreneurship among farmers has not yet been coupled with a sector-based analytical framework. This paper contributes to the literature of social entrepreneurship by supplementing with an agricultural sector-based approach.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

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Book part
Publication date: 11 April 2012

Katrina Rønningen, Alan Renwick and Rob Burton

Purpose – This chapter aims to explore the consequences of a renewed impetus for ‘neo-productivist’ agriculture on multifunctionality in Western Europe.…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter aims to explore the consequences of a renewed impetus for ‘neo-productivist’ agriculture on multifunctionality in Western Europe.

Design/methodology/approach – We analyse how the issue of multi-functionality has been interpreted and implemented in Western Europe through a comparison between Norway and Scotland (as an EU example). Relevant policy documents and literature are analysed. The chapter explores whether European agricultural multifunctionality is being revised in response to the rise of neo-liberal (neo-productivist) ideologies, food security and climate change issues.

Findings – Our results suggest that Norway and the European Union have developed somewhat different understandings of multifunctionality. In response to recent events these forms are diverging further with the EU strengthening and Norway weakening their respective policies and discourses. However, in both cases, food security and climate change are emerging as key elements in the restructuring of both policy and rhetoric.

Research limitations/implications and practical implications – The study has been limited to an overview of multifunctionality within the European context and a case study approach using Norway and Scotland. Nevertheless, in highlighting the flexible use of the notion of ‘multifunctionality’, it illustrates to policymakers the importance of maintaining a focus on its key environmental and social objectives in the face of pressures to increase production and liberalise agricultural policies.

Originality/value – This is one of the first studies to point out the varied nature of the ‘multifunctionality’ discourse in Europe and how it is likely to change further in response to economic, environmental and social changes.

Details

Rethinking Agricultural Policy Regimes: Food Security, Climate Change and the Future Resilience of Global Agriculture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-349-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2009

A. Ba, H. To and A. Fleury

The major challenge for the peri-urban agriculture in the South is to maintain the food supply of cities because the food chains are often local and made up of a number of…

Abstract

The major challenge for the peri-urban agriculture in the South is to maintain the food supply of cities because the food chains are often local and made up of a number of humble actors: Families seek out their living from small parcels of land, farmers sell directly to consumers, on street markets, or deliver their crops to small collectors who in turn sell to retailers. This differs greatly with the North where food chains provision societies through hyper- and supermarkets and are linked to large producers. Moreover, such chains use modern transportation and preservation systems and they are global. Similar technological and social advancement can also be observed today in the South. Consequently, a social turmoil forces out rural growers from the traditional chains can be observed; as a result, they become city dwellers and engage in urban food production.

This article deals with the significant transformations of agriculture observed in cities of the South, namely: i) changes in the organisation of the food industry in relation to the scale of transactions ii) the role of agriculture in the process of becoming a city-dweller and iii) the emergence of the multi-functionality of agriculture based on a new city-agriculture relationship. Observations are based on the doctoral dissertations of Ba (2007) and To (2008).

Details

Open House International, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Irina Tatiana Garces and Cagri Ayranci

A review on additive manufacturing (AM) of shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) is put forward to highlight the progress made up to date, conduct a critical review and…

Abstract

Purpose

A review on additive manufacturing (AM) of shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) is put forward to highlight the progress made up to date, conduct a critical review and show the limitations and possible improvements in the different research areas within the different AM techniques. The purpose of this study is to identify academic and industrial opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces the reader to three-dimensional (3 D) and four-dimensional printing of shape memory polymers (SMPs). Specifically, this review centres on manufacturing technologies based on material extrusion, photopolymerization, powder-based and lamination manufacturing processes. AM of SMPC was classified according to the nature of the filler material: particle dispersed, i.e. carbon, metallic and ceramic and long fibre reinforced materials, i.e. carbon fibres. This paper makes a distinction for multi-material printing with SMPs, as multi-functionality and exciting applications can be proposed through this method. Manufacturing strategies and technologies for SMPC are addressed in this review and opportunities in the research are highlighted.

Findings

This paper denotes the existing limitations in the current AM technologies and proposes several directions that will contribute to better use and improvements in the production of additive manufactured SMPC. With advances in AM technologies, gradient changes in material properties can open diverse applications of SMPC. Because of multi-material printing, co-manufacturing sensors to 3D printed smart structures can bring this technology a step closer to obtain full control of the shape memory effect and its characteristics. This paper discusses the novel developments in device and functional part design using SMPC, which should be aided with simple first stage design models followed by complex simulations for iterative and optimized design. A change in paradigm for designing complex structures is still to be made from engineers to exploit the full potential of additive manufactured SMPC structures.

Originality/value

Advances in AM have opened the gateway to the potential design and fabrication of functional parts with SMPs and their composites. There have been many publications and reviews conducted in this area; yet, many mainly focus on SMPs and reserve a small section to SMPC. This paper presents a comprehensive review directed solely on the AM of SMPC while highlighting the research opportunities.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Book part
Publication date: 22 September 2015

Ana Maria de Souza Mello Bicalho and Scott William Hoefle

To critically assess the contribution of community-based logging, low-carbon emission non-timber activities, and direct payment for environmental services in building…

Abstract

Purpose

To critically assess the contribution of community-based logging, low-carbon emission non-timber activities, and direct payment for environmental services in building sustainable rural livelihoods in the Amazon.

Methodology/approach

Fieldwork undertaken in 2008, 2010, and 2013 on sources of income for 110 interviewed families living in and around three different types of conservation units located on the advancing frontier in western Pará State.

Findings

Three scenarios identified with very different socio-environmental outcomes, (1) the multi-functional combination of agricultural and non-agricultural activities replaces frontier farming, reduces deforestation and carbon emissions, increases income, and promotes social inclusion, (2) the mere juxtaposition of green alternative activities alongside unsustainable frontier farming has limited regional impact, and (3) environmental restrictions interfere with rural livelihoods to the point that people to leave the countryside.

Social implications

Evaluation of the effectiveness of GO and NGO policies in one of the poorest and environmentally problematic regions of Brazil.

Originality/value

First-hand information at the family farmer level concerning sources of income from conventional and green land use systems which is essential for formulating viable socio-environmental policy capable of reducing deforestation and carbon emissions which negatively impact global climate change.

Details

Climate Change, Culture, and Economics: Anthropological Investigations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-361-7

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Xiao‐Liang Shen, Nan Wang, Yongqiang Sun and Li Xiang

This study aims to examine the effects of system and information characteristics in developing users' perceptions towards ubiquitous decision support systems (UDSS).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of system and information characteristics in developing users' perceptions towards ubiquitous decision support systems (UDSS).

Design/methodology/approach

The research model is empirically examined with survey data from 218 mobile users who have adopted a UDSS, i.e. mobile Dianping.com. A structural equation modelling approach is employed to assess the hypotheses.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that system characteristics of wireless networks, mobile devices and mobile applications significantly predicted system quality, which in turn determined system usefulness. Localisation, immediacy and customisation of mobile word‐of‐mouth were the major predictors of information quality, which in turn determined information usefulness.

Originality/value

This study contributes to our current understanding of ubiquitous commerce, especially mobile word‐of‐mouth, by presenting an integrated research framework, identifying system and information characteristics that are specific to the ubiquitous era, extending system quality and system usefulness from a single system to a combination of systems, and empirically examining the crossover effects between system and information factors.

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Xin Wang, Xiaoling Xu, Zuowan Zhou and Jihua Gou

This paper aims to exploit shape memory polymer (SMP) composite as multifunctional coatings for protecting substrates from surface wear and bacterial. The efficiency of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to exploit shape memory polymer (SMP) composite as multifunctional coatings for protecting substrates from surface wear and bacterial. The efficiency of added nano or micro-sized particles in enhancing the properties of SMP was investigated. This study also attempts to use a low-cost and effective spraying approach to fabricate the coatings. The coatings are expected to have good conformability with the substrate and deliver multi-functional performance, such as wrinkle free, wear resistance, thermal stability and antimicrobial property.

Design/methodology/approach

High-performance SMP composite coatings or thin films were fabricated by a home-made continuous spray-deposition system. The morphologies of the coatings were studied using the scanning electron microscope and the transmission electron microscope. The abrasion properties were evaluated by Taber Abraser test, and thermo-gravimetric analysis was carried out to investigate the thermal properties of prepared composites. The antimicrobial property was determined by the inhibition zone method using E. coli. The thermally responsive shape memory effect of the resulting composites was also characterized.

Findings

The morphology analysis indicated that the nanoclay was distributed on the surface of the coating which resulted in a significant improvement of the wear property. The wear resistance of the coatings with nanoclay was improved as much as 40 per cent compared with that of the control sample. The thermo-gravimetric analysis revealed that the weight loss rate of composites with nanoclay was dropped over 40 per cent. The SMP coating with zinc oxide (ZnO) showed excellent antimicrobial effect. The shape recovery effect of SMP/nanoclay and SMP/ZnO composites can be triggered by external heating and the composites can reach a full shape recovery within 60 s.

Research limitations/implications

This study proposed a continuous spray-deposition fabrication of SMP composite coatings, which provides a new avenue to prepare novel multi-functional coatings with low cost.

Originality/value

Most studies have emphasized on the sole property of SMP composites. Herein, a novel SMP composite coating which could deliver multi-functionality such as wrinkle free, wear resistance, thermal stability and antimicrobial property was proposed.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Pierluigi Milone, Flaminia Ventura and Jingzhong Ye

This book is the result of a selection of papers presented in the seminar held in Beijing in 2012. It is the third in chronological order of a seminar series on the…

Abstract

This book is the result of a selection of papers presented in the seminar held in Beijing in 2012. It is the third in chronological order of a seminar series on the comparative analysis of rural development in China, Brazil, and the EU. In previous seminars (2010 in Rome, 2011 in Porto Alegre) the focus was, first, on the nature and dynamics of rural development processes and, second, on the performance of rural development policies. In the third seminar (held in Beijing in November 2012), the focus was on actors and practices. What motivates the actors who are actively involved in rural development? And how do they structure their new practices? In this chapter, different stories on rural development practices between China, Brazil, and the EU are illustrated, highlighting the differences and also commonalities and similarities. In this story, the figure of the peasant appears crucial and in different dimensions: from the manager of natural resources who takes the greatest care of their condition in order to achieve the largest profits; to the innovator who builds on age old methods to find novel solutions with the available conditions, resources, and technologies, and who creates the right synergies for harmonious and positive impact solutions; to the rural villager who does with what he/she has and knows, but who at the same time is curious about innovations; to the father who is aware that he is responsible for building a future for his children. Peasant agriculture seems to go beyond its own limits through a transition process that has led to a paradigm shift moving away from the modernization and creating new opportunities and alternatives in terms of practices, products, and markets. These alternatives are now representing the base for a new autonomy and competitiveness of rural areas in an increasingly globalized world.

Details

Constructing a New Framework for Rural Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-622-5

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Francesco Contò, Demetris Vrontis, Mariantonietta Fiore and Alkis Thrassou

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potentialities of cross border projects to develop and promote wine culture, and consequently tourism and hospitality; paying…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potentialities of cross border projects to develop and promote wine culture, and consequently tourism and hospitality; paying particular attention to the process and actions supporting the development and refinement of cultural attributes, traditional values and regional identity.

Design/methodology/approach

Methodologically, it is a deductive reasoning exploratory research, based on the findings of an extensive undergoing project across ten countries, spanning from Italy to Eastern Europe, and theoretically founded on an extensive literature review.

Findings

The findings identify the spectrum and nature of opportunities and constraints of cross border collaborations in developing the wine industry and reaping of its wider economic and cultural benefits. Further to the scholarly value of the findings, the paper identifies and presents the descriptive managerial/industrial implications, along with prescriptively explicit directions toward practical implementation.

Research limitations/implications

The research is exploratory and therefore, by nature, in need of further empirical validation.

Practical implications

The research constructs a viable framework for an integrative approach involving the improved definition of regional cultural image and identity, proper strategic industry-region and cross-border collaborations, and socio-economic development.

Social implications

To promote cross border countries and cultural territorial values and identity.

Originality/value

The research's value lies in its multi-perspective outlook which keeps the wine business at its focus, but investigates its development outside the strict confines of its own industry to present potentialities through strategic collaborations with the tourist industry and other regions/countries in integrative synergistic approach and with strong cultural elements.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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