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1 – 10 of over 45000
Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

John Fraedrich, Othman Althawadi and Ramin Bagherzadeh

The continued rise of the multinational and debate as to what constitutes global business values is predicated on the UN Declaration and Global Business Compact. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The continued rise of the multinational and debate as to what constitutes global business values is predicated on the UN Declaration and Global Business Compact. This research suggests both documents explicitly exclude the existence of a foundational ethereal power creating morals thereby nullifying two thirds of the general population’s belief system. The authors argue against humanism as a global value beginning and suggest theism as a better origin and use the scientific method to introduce mathematical axioms supporting theism and complimenting humanism. Ontologically, the theist becomes a stronger base for the scientific inquiry into morals, values and business ethics. A comparison of major religious morals revealed eight factors: assurance; candor, fairness and honesty; character, integrity, truthfulness and exacting in truth; charity and compassion; environment; perseverance and tolerance; sacrifice; and seriousness. The research suggests that the UN documents do not adequately reflect these morals suggesting a change for businesses especially in Islamic regions.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive review of religious materials emphasizing morals rather than customs, eternal entity description or negative behaviors yielded 1,243 morals and associated synonyms via six religions (Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism) representing 4.5 billion people. All positive morals were cross-referenced and only common items across all six religions were included. With the 29 common morals, the authors completed a word meaning search and did a second comparison that yielded 8 moral factors or constructs.

Findings

Eight moral factors were found to be common in all major religions (assurance, fairness/honesty, character/integrity, charity/compassion, environment, tolerance, sacrifice and seriousness). By using the scientific method (Axioms), the authors argue that theism is a better beginning to researching morals and values within business and marketing.

Social implications

Multinationals should be made aware of the disconnect between the underlying problems of the Global Business Compacts’ values and the global morals identified. The results suggest adopting a codification system based on the pertinent morals as related to economic theories: capitalism, socialism and theism. The use of theism as a base to business and marketing ethics includes billions of customers and employees and their belief systems that should increase the validity and reliability of actions associated with corporate social responsibility, the environment and best practices.

Originality/value

The UN Declaration and subsequent Global Business Compact are argued to be flawed by its exclusion of religious morals and the historical period in which it was created. By using the scientific method and creating two axioms, the base to all business and marketing ethics must shift to the common moral factors identified.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1991

Luo Guojie

There is an antinomy in the history of the world: i.e. at the sametime as social progress there is moral degeneracy. Some people thinkthat the degeneracy is a necessary…

Abstract

There is an antinomy in the history of the world: i.e. at the same time as social progress there is moral degeneracy. Some people think that the degeneracy is a necessary price paid for the reform of China. It is argued that the contradiction could have been avoided or reduced to the minimum if we paid enough attention to morals. The criteria of productive force and of morals are not in opposition, and the latter cannot be replaced by the former in judging actions. In the moral field, the former plays the role of “the criterion of criteria”; it can be used as a criterion only through certain established moral judgements.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 18 no. 8/9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Massimo N. Nardo and Ronald D. Francis

The purpose of this paper is to address the established dilemma of action versus intent as explanations of the basis of ethical behaviour. In essence it aims to pose the…

1104

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the established dilemma of action versus intent as explanations of the basis of ethical behaviour. In essence it aims to pose the question “If one had a choice between an executive who acted from cold calculated intent, and behaved ethically as it was profitable – compared to someone with excellent intent who consistently got it ethically wrong – who would you choose – the psychopathic ethicist or the well‐intentioned bumbler?”. The intended contribution of this paper is to add some further considerations to that debate.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper notes the basic dilemma of moral choice, action or intent: it also adds to the debate by a consideration of several lesser points, including different meanings of “outcome” and the awareness that morals refer to an underpinning value choice. Its analytic path touches short‐term versus long‐term perspectives, commonsense, the theoretical debate, idealism and utilitarianism, equitability, morals and the law, morality and genes, unintended consequences and paradox of compliance.

Findings

The paper acknowledges that moral values are values that may be derived from wider elements, and that moral choices are such that they should be expressed in principles that transcend special times, place, or special pleading. There is an expressed need for consistency of approach.

Research limitations/implications

The debate, still alive and well, needs to extend to include contemporary issues. The present writers are inclined to the view that a raised awareness of the issue, and its application to real life situations, is critical. The discussed issues would certainly benefit from further speculation.

Practical implications

Morals must operate in a real world, and that clearly implies desirable outcomes: good intent is recognised as powerful – but does not do as much to foster moral behaviour as does an orientation to outcome. It is such qualifications that need to be borne in mind when considering the complementary roles of moral decision making in any context, including that of business and of crime. It is hoped that directorial and managerial decisions will be invested with this understanding.

Originality/value

The major contributions that this paper seeks to make is that the distinction between intent and consequences may be a false dichotomy; that the notion of outcome has more than one meaning; and that so often our intentions have paradoxical outcomes.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Rhacel Salazar Parreñas

Purpose – The purpose of this essay is to look at the workplace of hostess clubs as moral projects and examine the constitution of morals in the marketplace “from below,”…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this essay is to look at the workplace of hostess clubs as moral projects and examine the constitution of morals in the marketplace “from below,” meaning from the perspective of workers. It focuses specifically on the experiences of Filipina hostesses, who constitute the majority of foreign hostesses in Japan. Specifically, it looks at their moral construction of commercial sex in the clubs where they work, which are usually Philippine clubs, meaning clubs that solely employ Filipino women.

Methodology/Approach – Ethnographic research in Philippine hostess clubs in Tokyo, Japan.

Findings – The analysis illustrates the emergence of three moral groupings among Filipina hostesses. They include moral prudes (those who view paid sex as immoral), moral rationalists (those who morally accept paid sex), and lastly moral in-betweeners (those who morally reject the direct purchase of sex but accept its indirect purchase). The case of hostess clubs shows us market activities – in this case, customer–hostess interactions – do not inevitably result in a hegemonic churning of a particular moral order, as the constitution of morals in the marketplace is not only a top-down process but depends on the actions from below, specifically the personal moral order of hostesses, the club culture (sex regimes), peer pressure, and employment status concerns.

Value – This essay provides concrete empirical evidence on an understudied group of migrant workers, and it advances our knowledge on the experiences of sex workers and their negotiation of moral views on commercial sex.

Details

Economic Sociology of Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-368-2

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Julie Napoli and Robyn Ouschan

This study aims to identify the archetypes, moral foundations and plots associated with veganism through the stories told by vegan bloggers and the effect on mainstreaming…

1287

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the archetypes, moral foundations and plots associated with veganism through the stories told by vegan bloggers and the effect on mainstreaming of this ideology.

Design/methodology/approach

Narrative data was collected from 15 publicly available vegan blogs. Underlying archetypes, morals and story plots were identified and presented as a “story re-told,” highlighting the context and content of what was being said by the protagonists and associated meanings.

Findings

The analysis revealed three moral foundations on which vegan ideology is built: sanctity of life, enacting the authentic self and freedom. A universal hero archetype was also unearthed; however, the moral orientation of the storyteller (agency vs communal) dictated how these morals and archetypes were expressed.

Research limitations/implications

Through the use of common story archetypes, master plots and moral foundations, a deeper understanding of vegans and the choices they make is facilitated, thus making vegan ideology appear less threatening. Storytelling plays an important role in establishing connections through commonality.

Originality/value

This study applies cultivation theory, storytelling analysis and archetype theory to reveal how vegan bloggers counteract mass media cultivation of vegan stereotypes through the stories they tell. We offer a more robust description of vegans, moving beyond stereotypes, and the morals driving behavior. Moreover, a unique mechanism of mainstreaming is exposed that shows vegans connect with people by tapping into universal archetypes and morals that anyone can relate to and relive.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

John Conway O'Brien

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…

Abstract

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 19 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2016

Michel Anteby

Business schools offer a unique window into the making of corporate morals since they bring together future executives at formative moments in their professional lives…

Abstract

Business schools offer a unique window into the making of corporate morals since they bring together future executives at formative moments in their professional lives. This paper relies on an analysis of faculty’s teaching tasks at the Harvard Business School to better understand the making of corporate morals. More specifically, it builds on a coding of teaching notes used by faculty members to highlight the importance of silence in promoting a form of moral relativism. This moral relativism constitutes, I argue, a powerful ideology – one that primes business leaders not to vilify any moral stand. In such a context, almost anything can be labeled “moral” and few behaviors can be deemed “immoral.”

Details

The Structuring of Work in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-436-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2011

Charles G. Leathers and J. Patrick Raines

At the 2009 Devos economic forum on the global financial crisis, David Cameron, then leader of the British Conservative Party and now Britain's Prime Minister, called for…

1807

Abstract

Purpose

At the 2009 Devos economic forum on the global financial crisis, David Cameron, then leader of the British Conservative Party and now Britain's Prime Minister, called for embracing a “moral capitalism.” The purpose of this paper is to consider the insights into a moral framework for the modern economic order that might be drawn from natural religions perceived by Adam Smith and Thorstein Veblen.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the two perceptions of natural religions provide the basis for assessing their compatibilities with the type of competitive market economy that Smith observed in the eighteenth century, and with a modern market economy of large corporate enterprises and global financial markets. Particular attention is given to reforms that curb the practices that led to the global financial crisis.

Findings

Smith's “pure and rational” natural religion has been interpreted as being compatible with the type of competitive market economy that he analyzed in Wealth of Nations. Veblen's natural religion of “Christian morals” had a natural rights analogue in the ethics of a competitive market economy in which market relationships were heavily influenced by production resting heavily on personal skills of craftsmen and trade relying on the honesty of small merchants.

Research limitations/implications

The primary focus is on reforms in those aspects of the financial sector of the modern market system that have been associated with the current global financial crisis. What the two natural religions might suggest in the nature of broader socio‐economic reforms, e.g. corporate governance issues, would require a much larger study.

Social implications

While debates over a “moral capitalism” will be influenced doctrinal stances of institutional religions, sectarian differences may be bridged by considering natural religions that are rational and rest on the principle of fair play and mutual service.

Originality/value

Because of the attention that has been given to Smith's and Veblen's critical commentaries on institutional religions, the paper shows that their perceptions of natural religions and how those religions might relate to the economic order are easily overlooked.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Stephen Jaros

The purpose of this paper was to critically evaluate the existing conception of normative commitment (NC; Meyer and Parfyonova, 2010) as having “two faces”, indebted…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to critically evaluate the existing conception of normative commitment (NC; Meyer and Parfyonova, 2010) as having “two faces”, indebted obligation and moral duty. This paper proposes that NC should be unidimensional, and based on moral content.

Design/methodology/approach

Review and reevaluation of empirical research into NC and its fit with Meyer and Parfyonova's theory were conducted.

Findings

First, existing empirical research is inconsistent with Meyer/Parfyonova's theory of NC, as is their proposed motivational bases for NC having two dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

An important limitation is that NC is likely a culture-specific concept, so cross-cultural research will be essential to fully develop a universally valid concept of morals-based work commitment. A key implication is that despite the lack of construct validity of the currently used NC construct, morals-based commitment is surely a workplace phenomenon; meaning that steps should be taken to rehabilitate the construct, so it can be investigated in substantive research. Therefore, proposals for developing a unidimensional concept of NC that comports with morals-based forms of organizational attachment are developed.

Practical implications

Because of the lack of validity of the currently used NC concept, managers are advised to not rely on research using this concept to manage their employee's commitment, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) or withdrawal behavior.

Practical implications

Organizational members often invest their actions at work with moral meaning. Explicating that meaning via a valid concept of NC could help management researchers understand employee support or lack of support for social responsibility initiatives.

Originality/value

NC is a key construct in the work commitment literature. This paper shows that the currently utilized construct is largely invalid, and develops steps to be taken to develop a valid concept of morals-based work commitment.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Mette Morsing

To engage a critical discussion on the challenges raised for employees as corporate brands increasingly address moral issues.

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Abstract

Purpose

To engage a critical discussion on the challenges raised for employees as corporate brands increasingly address moral issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper links theories on corporate branding informed by marketing with theories on employee identification informed by critical sociology.

Findings

While the move towards corporate branding with a strong emphasis on moral issues provides opportunities for improved employee identification, it may also lead to unintended implications in the sense of uniformity and centralisation of morals and employee demotivation.

Research limitations/implications

While this paper provides theoretical analysis of the potential direness of corporate moral brands in relation to employees, no empirical investigations have been carried out to illustrate and analyse such implications. It is of theoretical as well as managerial interest to provide more research to understand this relation better.

Practical implications

Rather than imposing a corporate brand with moral and ethical visionary statements, managers engage employees in the corporate moral brand exercise.

Originality/value

The paper questions the immediate tendency towards integrating moral issues to the corporate brand based on an untested idea of that this will motivate external and internal stakeholders. Rather the paper suggests that the corporate moral brand may also serve counter‐productive purposes.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 45000