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Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Jennifer Pearson, Lindsey Wilkinson and Jamie Lyn Wooley-Snider

Purpose: Sexual minority youth are more likely than their heterosexual peers to consider and attempt suicide, in part due to victimization experienced within schools…

Abstract

Purpose: Sexual minority youth are more likely than their heterosexual peers to consider and attempt suicide, in part due to victimization experienced within schools. While existing research suggests that rates of school victimization and suicidality among sexual minority students vary by school and community context, less is known about variation in these experiences at the state level.

Methodology: Using data from a large, representative sample of sexual minority and heterosexual youth (2017 Youth Risk Behavior States Data, n = 64,746 high school students in 22 states), multilevel models examine whether differences between sexual minority and heterosexual students in victimization and suicide risk vary by state-level policies.

Findings: Results suggest that disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual boys in bullying, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt are consistently smaller in states with high levels of overall policy support for LGBTQ equality and nondiscrimination in education laws. Sexual minority girls are more likely than heterosexual girls to be electronically bullied, particularly in states with lower levels of LGBTQ equality. Disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual girls in suicide ideation are lowest in high equality states, but state policies are not significantly associated with disparities in suicide attempt among girls.

Value: Overall, findings suggest that state-level policies supporting LGBTQ equality are associated with a reduced risk of suicide among sexual minority youth. This study speaks to the role of structural stigma in shaping exposure to minority stress and its consequences for sexual minority youth's well-being.

Details

Sexual and Gender Minority Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-147-1

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2012

Maurice N. Gattis

Purpose – This chapter discusses a study that examined outcomes between homeless sexual minority youths and their heterosexual counterparts regarding family, peer…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter discusses a study that examined outcomes between homeless sexual minority youths and their heterosexual counterparts regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health (suicide risk and depression), stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors.

Methodology – Structured interviews were conducted with individuals ages 16–24 at three drop-in programs serving homeless youths in downtown Toronto (N=147).

Findings – Bivariate analyses indicate statistically significant differences between homeless sexual minorities (n=66) and their heterosexual counterparts (n=81) regarding all parameters except school engagement, including family communication, peer behaviors, stigma, discrimination, mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Specifically, homeless sexual minority youths fared more poorly than their heterosexual counterparts.

Implications – Improving family communication may be a worthwhile intervention for the youths who are still in contact with their families. Future research should focus on victimization in the context of multiple systems.

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Health Disparities Among Under-served Populations: Implications for Research, Policy and Praxis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-103-8

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2020

Ivy Hammond, Sarah Godoy, Mikaela Kelly and Eraka Bath

The available research on specialized interventions for youth experiencing commercial sexual exploitation almost exclusively focuses on the impact and efficacy related to…

Abstract

Purpose

The available research on specialized interventions for youth experiencing commercial sexual exploitation almost exclusively focuses on the impact and efficacy related to cisgender girls, despite the inclusion of youth who identify as transgender in these programs. This paper aims to present a case study on the experience of a transgender adolescent girl who experienced commercial sexual exploitation and provides a narrative of the multifarious challenges she faced while involved in institutional systems of care.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conducted an in-depth case review of all records on “Jade,” a white adolescent transgender girl who experienced commercial sexual exploitation, from a specialty court program in the juvenile justice system between 2012 and 2016. Her experiences throughout childhood exemplify many of the unique challenges that transgender girls and young women with histories of exploitation or trafficking may encounter within service delivery and socioecological systems. This paper applied concepts adapted from the gender minority stress theoretical model to understand how minority gender identity can shape the experiences and outcomes of the youth impacted by commercial sexual exploitation.

Findings

Jade’s narrative underscores the interplay of gender-based sexual violence, heteronormative structural barriers, transphobia and their intersectional impact on her experience while receiving specialized care. The intersectional hardships she experienced likely contributed to adverse biopsychosocial outcomes, including high rates of medical and behavioral health diagnoses and expectations of further rejection.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the extraordinary challenges and barriers faced by an often under-recognized and overlooked subset of the youth impacted by commercial sexual exploitation, who may receive services that do not account for their unique needs related to gender expression and identity. This paper exemplifies how internalized stigma along with expectations of further rejection and victimization have implications for clinical and multidisciplinary intervention settings. Jade’s case underscores the need for improved access to supportive services for youth with minority gender identities, including peer community-building opportunities. Finally, this paper identifies a critical gap in US legislation and social policy. This gap contributes to the structural harms faced by transgender and gender-nonconforming youth receiving services during or following experiences of commercial sexual exploitation.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1984

Gloria Lee and John Wrench

For researchers concerned with the field of youth labour markets the experience in recent years has been one of working on shifting sands. Whilst there has been in the…

Abstract

For researchers concerned with the field of youth labour markets the experience in recent years has been one of working on shifting sands. Whilst there has been in the last few years a considerable decline in demand for labour generally, in the case of young people seeking work, the fall off is even more marked, as illustrated in Table I.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2002

Grace Kao

Abstract

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Schooling and Social Capital in Diverse Cultures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-885-8

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Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2015

LaToya O’Neal Coleman, Timothy M. Hale, Shelia R. Cotten and Philip Gibson

Information and communication technology (ICT) usage is pervasive among present day youth, with about 95% of youth ages 12–17 years reporting use of the Internet. Due to…

Abstract

Purpose

Information and communication technology (ICT) usage is pervasive among present day youth, with about 95% of youth ages 12–17 years reporting use of the Internet. Due to the proliferation of ICT use among this generation, it is important to understand the impacts of ICT usage on well-being. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of ICT usage on psychological well-being among a sample of urban, predominately African American youth.

Methodology/approach

Paper and pencil surveys were administered to fourth and fifth grade students enrolled in 27 elementary schools in the southeastern United States. Relationships between hours using various types of ICTs and the frequency of Internet activities on depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, and belonging were examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression.

Findings

Results indicate that ICT usage has both positive and negative implications for psychological well-being, depending upon the type of ICT use and outcome being examined.

Social Implications

The proliferation of ICT usage among present day youth may actually lessen its impact on psychological well-being. Since the amount of ICT usage does not seem to influence psychological well-being, future research should examine the impact of ICT content on psychological well-being.

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Technology and Youth: Growing Up in a Digital World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-265-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

Adalberto Aguirre

Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States, registering a twenty‐five percent increase from 1973 to 1980 (1). Of the more than thirteen million…

Abstract

Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States, registering a twenty‐five percent increase from 1973 to 1980 (1). Of the more than thirteen million U.S. residents of Hispanic origin, the largest group is Mexicans with nearly eight million persons (2). Some of the more salient features of the Hispanic population are the following (3).

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Pierre-Paul Tellier

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the human rights issues pertinent to adolescents of diverse sexual orientation and gender identities and the health consequences…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the human rights issues pertinent to adolescents of diverse sexual orientation and gender identities and the health consequences resulting for the transgression of these rights. In 1948, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution endorsing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Yet, 73 member states criminalize the activities of these individuals. The other member states do not impose legal penalties on these activities, yet sexual and gender minority youth within these states continue to experience acts of physical and psychological aggression.

Design/methodology/approach

A commissioned position paper grounded in a convenient scholarly literature review on this topic.

Findings

Human rights transgressions by states or individuals lead to minority stress affecting the mental health and physical health of these youth.

Originality/value

The author makes a number of recommendations to address some of the impact resulting from the transgression of human rights in the world.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1983

Gloria L. Lee

The majority of New Commonwealth immigrants to Britain arrived during the 1950s and early 1960s but for them and their children, equal opportunities are not yet a reality…

Abstract

The majority of New Commonwealth immigrants to Britain arrived during the 1950s and early 1960s but for them and their children, equal opportunities are not yet a reality. To understand why this is so, requires some background on the establishment of a multi‐racial society in Britain.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Carol Azungi Dralega and Hilde G. Corneliussen

This chapter reports from a qualitative study on how identity categories, including gender and ethnicity, are experienced and constructed through video gaming among…

Abstract

This chapter reports from a qualitative study on how identity categories, including gender and ethnicity, are experienced and constructed through video gaming among immigrant youth in Norway. The aim here is to explore the manifestations and contestations of gendered power and hegemonic practices among the young immigrant girls and boys. This chapter builds on research about everyday media use especially video games, and our analysis is based on theories of hegemony, power, gender, and ethnicity. Three key findings are observed from the study: (a) video games acting as a bridge between ethnic minority boys (not so much with the girls) and ethnic Norwegians, (b) hegemonic gendered practices, emphasizing the “otherness,” in particular for girls adhering to the category of gamer, and finally, to a lesser degree, (c) marginalization within video games on the basis of being a non-Western youth in a Western context. As such the study simultaneously not only confirms but also challenges dominant discourses on video games by suggesting that, although some positive strides have been made, the claims of a post-gender neutral online world, or celebrations of an inclusive and democratic online media culture, especially video gaming, are still premature.

Details

Media and Power in International Contexts: Perspectives on Agency and Identity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-455-2

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