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Book part
Publication date: 5 August 2011

Steve Carlton-Ford

Purpose – This chapter examines the impact of armed conflict and three forms of militarization on child mortality rates cross-nationally. Previous theorizing argues that…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter examines the impact of armed conflict and three forms of militarization on child mortality rates cross-nationally. Previous theorizing argues that praetorian militaries create conditions particularly adverse to the well-being of civilians, but the effects of praetorian militarization are likely confounded both by economic and social militarization, and by armed conflict, economic development, and political regime.

Methodology – This study conducts a cross-national panel study of the impact of armed conflict and militarization on civilian life chances using data from 175 countries with populations 200,000 or larger. Analyses employ a fixed-effects model, which controls for stable country characteristics; the analyses also control for time-varying characteristics of countries that influence the impact of armed conflict and militarization on life chances.

Findings – Praetorian militarization appears to increase child mortality, as does social militarization (particularly during years of internationalized internal armed conflict), once stable country effects and other variables are controlled. This chapter is the first to systematically examine the impact of praetorian militarization on social development (indexed by child mortality rates).

Details

The Well-Being, Peer Cultures and Rights of Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-075-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Ashley K. Farmer, Cara E. Rabe-Hemp and Jeruel Taylor

The militarization of police has garnered great attention in recent decades. Bolstered by the wars on drugs and terrorism, police agencies have been receiving military…

Abstract

The militarization of police has garnered great attention in recent decades. Bolstered by the wars on drugs and terrorism, police agencies have been receiving military weapons and equipment since the 1033 Program was authorized by the Department of Défense. A recent American Civil Liberties Union investigation on police raids found that militarization has occurred with almost no oversight. They studied more than 800 paramilitary raids and found that almost 80% were for ordinary law enforcement purposes like serving search warrants in people’s homes; only 7% were for genuine emergencies, such as barricade or hostage situations. Most compelling, the raids disproportionately targeted people of color. This chapter traces the history of police militarization in America, and how it has targeted and adversely affected minority communities.

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Political Authority, Social Control and Public Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-049-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Sam Bieler

The purpose of this paper is to review the state of research of police militarization in the USA to explore the claim that the police are becoming more like the military…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the state of research of police militarization in the USA to explore the claim that the police are becoming more like the military, or “militarized” in order to identify gaps in the research on this topic that require further investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore the state of police militarization, this paper draws on a scan of scholarly papers published on militarization in the American context as well as a select array of gray literature on the topic.

Findings

While the nature of militarization has received substantial scholarly attention, debate on the phenomenon remains and there is little consensus on the definition of what makes a department militarized. The impact of militarization is similarly unclear: some scholars suggest that it has a negative impact on policing because it creates community hostility and encourages police to see force as a central problem-solving tool. However, other scholars suggest militarization is a positive development, as it could promote professionalism and accountability. To date, there has been little empirical work on the impact of militarization on policing that could inform this debate.

Originality/value

This paper suggests that empirical assessments of how militarization affects use of force and legitimacy will be valuable for informing the militarization debate. As scholars on both sides of the debate have suggested that militarization affect policing outcomes in these areas, empirical tests here offer a way to explore both sides’ claims. Such tests could offer new evidence on how militarization is affecting the character and operations of American police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2007

Peter Stokes, Ryan Bishop and John Phillips

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a special issue which looks into how militarization can be seen as an entity from which international business, management and…

4299

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a special issue which looks into how militarization can be seen as an entity from which international business, management and organization can or cannot glean potentially useful lessons.

Design/methodology/approach

Five papers have been used to give a suitable basis for the reconceptualisation and recontextualisation of the military and militarization in relation to international business.

Findings

Several key tasks are achieved in rephrasing the issues of militarization in relation to international business. A wide national and cultural span is covered.

Originality/value

In developing and assembling this collection of papers claim cannot be laid to have answered issues on militarization, ground has been laid and reference points provided for a much needed wider critical debate.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Wendy Koslicki

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test common explanations for the growth of police militarization and to determine whether federal funding, such as Byrne…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test common explanations for the growth of police militarization and to determine whether federal funding, such as Byrne grants, had a significant effect on the growth and normalization of SWAT teams.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from data spanning the years 1986-1998, an interrupted time series analysis is used to assess whether federal funding has a significant influence on the growth of SWAT teams and their mobilization for narcotics grants.

Findings

The findings of this analysis suggest that, at the time where federal funding was at its peak (the year 1990), there was a significant decrease in SWAT team creation compared to the years prior. There was likewise a significant decrease in SWAT mobilization for narcotics warrant in the years following 1990.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is that unmeasured exogenous factors in the year 1990 may have influenced militarization trends. However, given the counterintuitive findings of this study, it is essential that more nuanced research is conducted regarding police militarization to gain a clearer understanding of trends in police culture. As this study finds that militarization is not significantly driven by federal funding, future research must incorporate other factors to explain police organizational change.

Originality/value

This paper provides an advanced empirical analysis that is one of the first to directly test commonly held explanations for police militarization. This analysis adds complexity to the issue of US police militarization and demonstrates that further research is essential in this area.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2007

Ryan Bishop and John Phillips

This conceptual paper is offered in place of a systematic analysis of militarization in organizations and the wider world. It proceeds on the understanding that…

446

Abstract

Purpose

This conceptual paper is offered in place of a systematic analysis of militarization in organizations and the wider world. It proceeds on the understanding that militarization implies deep historical tendencies that are not easy to simply avoid, especially where one wishes to observe or to analyse phenomena systematically.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper seeks out alternative means of engagement with references to the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud, the critical theory of Theodor Adorno and the poetry of W.H. Auden. The departure, however, is taken in response to a brief and questionable statement by Cardinal Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) about world history and the position of reason since the end of the Second World War.

Findings

Historical analysis, it is argued, is essential for any understanding of processes of militarization but not adequate on its own.

Originality/value

Militarization means, at least in the first instance, the adoption of military modes of organization and engagement in supposedly non‐military environments. But at a deeper level, which is nonetheless manifest in both a developing technology and an increasingly technological attitude, it implies the repetition of basic attitudes to others and to life. Furthermore the very meaning of militarization is likely to undergo metamorphoses as a result of these trends.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Intelligence and State Surveillance in Modern Societies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-171-1

Article
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Michele Bisaccia Meitl, Ashley Wellman and Patrick Kinkade

Domestic law enforcement increasingly utilizes military tools and techniques in traditional policing activities. An increased militaristic approach is not without…

Abstract

Purpose

Domestic law enforcement increasingly utilizes military tools and techniques in traditional policing activities. An increased militaristic approach is not without controversy, given the many high-profile incidents involving such tactics that have resulted in tragedy. We seek to assess specific views of policymakers who implement such strategies by measuring the attitudes of Texas sheriffs on these measures.

Design/methodology/approach

In late 2019 and early 2020, a census was completed with Texas sheriffs to better understand their attitudes about the use of military tactics. A robust return rate captured the views of 142 (56%) respondents from a diverse set of rural and urban counties. Opinions on the appropriateness, effectiveness and necessity of military techniques were measured.

Findings

Results indicate Texas sheriffs strongly support the use of military tools and techniques, believe they protect officer safety and should continue to be taught and utilized by law enforcement when appropriate.

Practical implications

Secondary consequences of police militarization may counteract its desired positive outcomes and lead to significant risks for officers and citizens alike. Strong police support makes the reduction in use of these tactics unlikely, but these results give opportunity for consideration of such policy to all law enforcement agencies.

Originality/value

It is the first study to examine county sheriffs' perceptions of militarization since the events of Ferguson, Missouri and provides a very recent assessment of views from a population of leaders both integrated into policy decisions and intimately accountable for policy implementation.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2007

Peter Stokes

The purpose of this paper is to undertake an analysis of the engagement of organization and management literature with military and militarization themes and issues.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to undertake an analysis of the engagement of organization and management literature with military and militarization themes and issues.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretive, textual literature analysis which identifies a range of international themes and issues in relation to militarization.

Findings

Identifies a modernistic‐managerialist tendency in the organization and management literature which elects to engage with military aspects and issues. This is predicated on a perceived mutual utility between the apparently separable “military” and “non‐military” domains and revolves around a series of commonly invoked texts and sets of popular cultural representations. Also recognises that organization and management commentaries influenced by critical perspectives tend not to engage so readily with military contexts and points up political commitments that might make this the case. Identifies approaches to blurring military/non‐military divides in current militaristic representations.

Research limitations/implications

Provides a considered thematic and paradigmatic reflection on militarization commentary in extant organization and management literature. Identifies and explores methodological challenges in considering militarization and its pervasive effects and delineations.

Practical implications

Maps the organization and management literature in relation to militarization and generates a series of critical platforms from which to embark on a corresponding exploration of militarization.

Originality/value

Conducts a novel consideration of the limitations of management and organization literature's hitherto treatment of military and militarization aspects. Generates a fruitful set of conditions and insights for international critical organization and management approaches to military topics and issues.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2006

Alec Campbell

In this paper, I suggest that prediction is a useful methodological strategy for evaluating political opportunities/political process models of social movements. I…

Abstract

In this paper, I suggest that prediction is a useful methodological strategy for evaluating political opportunities/political process models of social movements. I demonstrate the utility of this theory by analyzing the current political opportunities facing anti-war/interventionist/hegemony/imperialist movements in the contemporary United States. I conclude that the prospects for a mass movement are slim relative to previous wars but that the prospect for alliances with military elites has increased. This conclusion supports Ian Roxborough's position in a recent volume of this journal that sociologists should engage military policy makers.

Details

Political Power and Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-437-9

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