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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 23 November 2016

Mohamed S. Mahfouz, Abdulwahab Aqeeli, Anwar M. Makeen, Ramzi M. Hakami, Hatim H. Najmi, Abdullkarim T. Mobarki, Mohammad H. Haroobi, Saeed M. Almalki, Mohammad A. Mahnashi and Osayd A. Ageel

The issue of mental health literacy has been widely studied in developed countries, with few studies conducted in Arab countries. In this study we aimed to investigate…

Abstract

The issue of mental health literacy has been widely studied in developed countries, with few studies conducted in Arab countries. In this study we aimed to investigate mental health literacy and attitudes towards psychiatric patients among students of Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate students using a validated Arabic-version questionnaire. A total of 557 students were recruited from different Jazan university colleges. The majority of students (90.3%) have intermediate mental health literacy. Regarding the etiology of mental illness, students agreed that genetic inheritance (45.8%), poor quality of life (65%) and social relationship weakness (73.1%) are the main causes of mental illness. The majority thought that mentally ill people are not capable of true friendships (52.5%) and that anyone can suffer from a mental illness (49.4%). Students' attitudes towards psychiatric patients were mixed, with 68.7% reporting that they could maintain a friendship with a mentally ill person and that people with mental illness should have the same rights as anyone else (82.5%). Mental health literacy among university students was intermediate. There is an urgent need for health educational programs to change the attitudes of students regarding this important health issue.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Shannon C. King, Amanda L. Rebar, Paul Oliveri and Robert Stanton

Australian paramedics regularly encounter patients experiencing mental illness. However, some paramedics hold negative attitudes towards the use of emergency services in…

Abstract

Purpose

Australian paramedics regularly encounter patients experiencing mental illness. However, some paramedics hold negative attitudes towards the use of emergency services in providing care for these patients. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the mental health literacy (MHL) of Australian paramedic students, and the training and experiential factors associated with MHL.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional online survey was delivered to paramedic students across Australia. A total of 94 paramedic students completed the survey examining MHL, mental health first aid (MHFA) intentions, confidence in providing help, personal and perceived stigma and willingness to interact with a person experiencing mental illness.

Findings

Participants generally had poor MHFA intentions in spite of good recognition of mental health disorders and good knowledge about mental health. Participants also demonstrated low stigmatising attitudes towards mental illness; however, they expressed a lack of willingness to interact with a person experiencing mental illness.

Originality/value

Our findings propose a combination of work-based experience and specific MHFA training may be beneficial to paramedic students to improve care for patients experiencing mental illness.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Tara Walker

This study aims to examine how experience with mental illness influences perceptions of stigma and realism in a specific direct-to-consumer advertisement (DTCA) for…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how experience with mental illness influences perceptions of stigma and realism in a specific direct-to-consumer advertisement (DTCA) for bipolar depression.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey had participants watch a 90 s advertisement for a prescription bipolar depression drug and then answer 24 questions about stigma, mental illness experience and the realism of the portrayals in the advertisement.

Findings

Findings show that people who identify as having experience with mental illness tend to see the ad as more stigmatizing and less realistic. Additionally, people who expressed more stigmatizing beliefs also tended to see more stigma present in the ad. Finally, the study reconfirms conclusions of previous research that people who have experience with mental health conditions possess fewer stigmatizing beliefs overall regarding mental illness.

Research limitations/implications

The sample population, while diverse in age and somewhat diverse in location, were highly educated, suggesting that they were not representative of the general population. Future studies may want to use more representative samples. A more nuanced approach to understanding experience is needed. While the sample in this study was purposively derived from communities with a higher rate of mental illness, a comprehensive experience scale to measure degrees of experience with mental illness would enhance understanding of this construct. Researchers may also want to look more deeply into the emotional responses of consumers who view these ads. To develop a greater understanding of the trajectory of DTCA, studies of online advertising for psychiatric drugs are needed.

Practical implications

The results of the study suggest that respondents with experience with mental illness may find ads that sell psychiatric medications unrealistic. This study presents the topic of realism in DTCA as an important construct for determining how consumers may perceive portrayals of disorders.

Social implications

The fact that people who have experience with mental illness found the Latuda ad to be generally unrealistic suggests that DTCA may be failing to represent mental illness in a way that demonstrates care for patients. Additionally, this research confirms that people who have had exposure to and experience with mental illness tend to hold less stigmatizing beliefs, (Link and Cullen, 1986; Corrigan et al., 2001; Angermeyer et al., 2004) a finding which supports the continuing project of increasing mental health literacy and awareness in the general population.

Originality/value

This study investigates the reactions of people who identify as having some experience with mental illness to see if they accept the portrayals of mental illness in DTCA or resist them by challenging their realism or identifying stigmatizing elements.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2004

Marjorie L. Baldwin

Mental disorders are common and associated with substantial levels of work disability. Relative to persons with most types of physical impairments, persons with mental

Abstract

Mental disorders are common and associated with substantial levels of work disability. Relative to persons with most types of physical impairments, persons with mental disorders have lower employment rates and lower mean wages, and experience greater discrimination in the workplace (Baldwin, 1999, 2000; Baldwin & Johnson, 1995, 2000). Persons with mental disorders have lower socioeconomic status, on average, and greater risk of living in poverty, than persons with physical disorders (Dohrenwend et al., 1992). By 1999, mental disorders had supplanted back cases as the health condition most frequently cited in employment discrimination charges filed under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Moss et al., 1999).

Details

Research on Employment for Persons with Severe Mental Illness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-286-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Sandy Herron and Dennis Trent

Mental health services in Great Britain are built predominately upon a bipolar perspective of mental health. That is, mental health is seen to exist on the opposite end of…

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Abstract

Mental health services in Great Britain are built predominately upon a bipolar perspective of mental health. That is, mental health is seen to exist on the opposite end of the same continuum as mental illness. The existence or degree of mental health is therefore dependent upon the existence or degree of mental illness and mental health is seen as a ‘secondary’ concept to mental illness. The aim of this paper is to review critically both the conceptual and the pragmatic implications of this position. This is achieved through an exploration of the differing (and often competing) ontological assumptions about mental illness. Second, the pragmatic repercussions that this has for mental health promotion are presented. The paper culminates by discussing the possible benefits of viewing mental health from within a two‐continua model — on both conceptual and pragmatic grounds.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 30 January 2012

Bawo Onesirosan James, Joyce Ohiole Omoaregba and Esther Osemudiamen Okogbenin

Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness are commonly reported among health professionals. Familiarity with mental illness has been reported to improve…

Abstract

Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness are commonly reported among health professionals. Familiarity with mental illness has been reported to improve these attitudes. Very few studies have compared future medical doctors' attitudes toward types of mental illness, substance use disorders and physical illness. A cross-sectional survey of 5th and 6th year medical students as well as recently graduated medical doctors was conducted in April 2011. The 12-item level of contact report and the Attitude towards Mental Illness Questionnaire were administered. Partici -pants endorsed stigmatising attitudes towards mental illness; with attitudes more adverse for schizophrenia compared to depression. Stigmatising attitudes were similarly endorsed for substance use disorders. Paradoxically, attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were positive and similar to diabetes mellitus. Increasing familiarity with mental illness was weakly associated with better attitudes towards depression and schizophrenia. Stigmatising attitudes towards depression and schizophrenia are common among future doctors. Efforts to combat stigma are urgently needed and should be promoted among medical students and recent medical graduates.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Zexin Ma

Mental illness has become an important public health issue in society, and media are the most common sources of information about mental illnesses. Thus, it is important…

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Abstract

Purpose

Mental illness has become an important public health issue in society, and media are the most common sources of information about mental illnesses. Thus, it is important to review research on mental illnesses and media. The purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative review of studies on mental illnesses in the media and identifies important research gaps.

Design/methodology/approach

A combination of searching key databases and examining reference lists of selected articles was used to identify relevant articles. In total, 41 empirical studies published in the last 12 years were reviewed.

Findings

The review found that substantial research had been done to investigate media portrayals of mental illnesses and the effects of such portrayals might have on the public. Media still portray mental illnesses negatively in general, which contributes to the ongoing mental illness stigmatization. Nonetheless, discussions of mental illnesses in direct-to-consumer advertisements and social media tend to be more objective and informative. These objective portrayals could help improve mental health literacy and reduce stigma. More importantly, media can also reduce the stigma if used strategically. Research has found that entertainment-education programs and web-based media have strong potential in reducing mental illness stigma. Recommendations for future research are also discussed.

Practical implications

Findings can guide future efforts to use media to educate the public about mental illnesses and reduce mental illness stigma.

Originality/value

This study reviews the most recent research on mental illnesses in the media and provides important references on the media representation of mental illnesses, media effects of such representation, and using media to reduce stigma.

Details

Health Education, vol. 117 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2019

Terry Krupa, Judith Sabetti and Rosemary Lysaght

The purpose of the present study was to advance a theoretical understanding of the mechanisms by which WISEs can influence the stigma associated with mental illness. Many…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study was to advance a theoretical understanding of the mechanisms by which WISEs can influence the stigma associated with mental illness. Many people with serious mental illnesses want to work, but despite much attention to work entry strategies, unemployment rates remain exceptionally high among this population. Stigma has been identified as a particularly pernicious barrier to the full community participation of people with mental illnesses. If work integration social enterprises (WISE) are to positively impact the full community participation of people with mental illnesses, then addressing stigma will be integral to their operation.

Design/methodology/approach

A comparative case study approach was used to address the following research questions: “How is the stigma of mental illness experienced in the everyday operations of WISE?” and “What influence do WISEs have on the stigma of mental illness within the workplace and beyond?” Five established WISEs that pay workers at minimum wage or better were selected for inclusion. The maximum variation sample included WISEs that varied in terms of geographical location, form of commerce, business size, revenues and degree of connection with mental health systems and local communities. Data analysis was conducted in four stages using qualitative methods.

Findings

The study findings suggest processes by which WISEs can positively impact the stigma of mental illness. Three social processes are associated with the potential of WISE to contribute to stigma reduction: perception of legitimacy, perception of value and perception of competence. Each of these social processes is fueled by underlying tensions in practice that arise in the context of negotiating the dual goals of the business.

Research limitations/implications

This study advances theoretical understanding of the ways in which stigma may be perpetuated or reduced in WISE by revealing the social processes and practice tensions that may be associated with operation choices made by WISEs and their partners. Further research would be required to determine if the processes described actually lead to reduced stigma. Although efforts were made to select WISEs that demonstrate a variety of features, it is likely that some important features were absent. Additional research could further explore the findings identified here with WISEs from other sectors, including youth and workers with transient or less severe forms of illness. This work should be replicated internationally to explore how contextual factors may influence individual and public perceptions.

Practical implications

The findings provide guidance for WISE developers in the mental health sector concerning strategies that may help mitigate the development of stigmatizing features within a social enterprise and by extension improve the work experience and workforce integration of employees. The identification of these processes and tensions can be used to advance the development of consensus principles and standards in the WISE field and contribute to ongoing evaluation and research.

Social implications

WISEs have the potential to reduce stigma, an important goal to support their efforts to improve employment and integration outcomes for people with mental illnesses. Through their business structures and operations they may be able to impact stigma by positively influencing perceptions of legitimacy, value and competence – all issues that have been associated with public assumptions about mental illness that sustain stigma.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is one of the first to specifically focus on stigma in the WISE sector, particularly as it relates to the work integration of persons with mental illnesses. The findings provide a range of theoretical and practical implications for future development in the field and highlight factors that merit consideration more broadly in the sector.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2012

George Giannakopoulos, Haris Assimopoulos, Dimitra Petanidou, Chara Tzavara, Gerasimos Kolaitis and John Tsiantis

High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely…

Abstract

High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents' attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16-18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Dwayne Devonish

The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceptions of private and public sector managers in Barbados regarding the concepts of mental health and illness at work. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceptions of private and public sector managers in Barbados regarding the concepts of mental health and illness at work. It also explored their interactions and experiences with persons with mental illness at work and various forms of support and resources needed to improve the overall management of these persons within the organisational setting.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study used an exploratory research design based on two focus groups of private and public sector managers.

Findings

The findings revealed that both private and public sector managers understood the distinction between the concepts of mental health and mental illness. However, managers believed that high levels of stigma and discrimination exist in both private and public sector workplaces due to a lack of understanding of mental illness, cultural norms, and socialisation in Barbados regarding mental illness and negative stereotypes. However, workplace education and promotion, associated workplace policies, and employee assistance programmes (EAPs) were identified as key strategies for effectively addressing issues of mental health stigma and the management of persons with mental illness at work.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the qualitative approach used and small sample selected based on non-probability sampling, generalising the findings to larger populations is heavily cautioned.

Practical implications

Organisations in both private and public sectors should emphasise workplace mental health interventions such as mental health education and awareness, the development and implementation of supportive and flexible policies, and EAPs. These strategies are likely to help destigmatisation efforts and enhance managers’ understanding of mental health and the management of persons with mental illness.

Originality/value

This study provided a rich and in-depth understanding of mental health and illness from the perspective of private and public sector managers in a small developing country in the Caribbean. The Caribbean region possesses a dearth of empirical research concerning issues of mental health and illness at work.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 12000