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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2012

Gabriele Ballarino and Cristiano Vezzoni

Purpose – In order to study how religious behaviour is evolving in contemporary societies, the chapter looks at the relation between the individuals' position in social…

Abstract

Purpose – In order to study how religious behaviour is evolving in contemporary societies, the chapter looks at the relation between the individuals' position in social stratification and their participation to the weekly mass, and at its evolution in contemporary Italy.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The data come from the Italian National Election Study (ITANES) database, including national representative surveys from 1968 to 2006, and are analyzed with logit models.

Findings – Weekly mass participation has decreased from 1968 to 2006. The trend was rapid in the 1960s and 1970s, has slowed in the 1980s, but it has started again in the 1990s. Ceteris paribus, the upper class, shows a consistently more religious behaviour than the intermediate and the lower ones, and that the least educated are more religious. There is also evidence of a strong and consistent cohort effect, persisting across the considered period. Each cohort does not change much its participation to the weekly mass over time, but each new cohort shows a lower level of participation.

Research limitations/Implications – The findings give support to the classical secularization thesis, despite the many critiques addressed to it since the 1990s. Given that Italy is one of the most religious Western countries, this is a quite important finding. Some support is also given to the hypothesis of religion as an ‘instrumentum regni’, according to which it is in the interest of the higher social strata to be more religious, as religion supports and legitimates existing patterns of social inequality. Findings concerning cohorts point to socialization as the actual mechanism changing behaviours and attitudes.

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Religion, Work and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-347-7

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2017

Marion Coddou

Scholars have long argued that churches play a critical role in mobilizing communities marginal to the political process, primarily by pooling resources, disseminating…

Abstract

Scholars have long argued that churches play a critical role in mobilizing communities marginal to the political process, primarily by pooling resources, disseminating information, and providing opportunities for members to develop community networks, leadership, and civic skills. However, recent research suggests that churches only serve as effective mobilizing institutions when they engage in direct political discussion and recruitment. Even so, churches may face economic, legal, and institutional barriers to entering the political sphere, and explicit political speech and action remain rare. Through an analysis of two years of ethnographic fieldwork following faith-based community organizers attempting to recruit Spanish speakers throughout a Catholic Archdiocese into a campaign for immigrant rights, this paper explores the institutional constraints on church political mobilization, and how these are overcome to mobilize one of the most politically marginal groups in the United States today: Hispanic undocumented immigrants and their allies. I argue that scholars of political engagement must look beyond the structural features of organizations to consider the effects of their institutionalized domains and practices. While churches do face institutional barriers to political mobilization, activists who specialize their recruitment strategy to match the institutional practices of the organizations they target can effectively overcome these barriers to mobilize politically alienated populations.

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On the Cross Road of Polity, Political Elites and Mobilization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-480-8

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Frank den Hond, Frank G.A. de Bakker and Patricia de Haan

Activist groups apply a range of tactics in order to improve labour conditions in the global sports and apparel industry. The accumulation of these tactics leads to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Activist groups apply a range of tactics in order to improve labour conditions in the global sports and apparel industry. The accumulation of these tactics leads to the build‐up of pressure on firms within this industry (brands, retailers) to change their policies and activities on labour issues in their supply chains. The purpose of this paper is to explore how activist groups instigate change within an industry.

Design/methodology/approach

By re‐examining a series of previously published accounts, eight conflict situations in the global sports and apparel industry, involving Nike, Reebok and Adidas, were analysed.

Findings

The paper demonstrates how an industry‐level approach is helpful in understanding how the sequential patterning of tactical choices evokes change in an industry. Studying activist groups’ tactics from this approach provides a richer understanding.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the growing literature on activists’ influence strategies in conflicts with firms and speaks to current attempts at bringing together social movement and organization theories.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 30 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Abstract

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Recognising Students who Care for Children while Studying
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-672-6

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Liangjun Zhou, Jerred Junqi Wang, Xiaoying Chen, Beth Cianfrone and Nathan David Pifer

Since 2014, “sport for all” has been promoted as a new national strategy in China, which injects powerful dynamism and vitality for its development in numerous aspects…

Abstract

Purpose

Since 2014, “sport for all” has been promoted as a new national strategy in China, which injects powerful dynamism and vitality for its development in numerous aspects. However, there has been very little feedback on sport service provision in community, and the satisfaction level of community participants is largely unmeasured. To promote physical and mental health of residents and form a stronger foundation of sport culture, more attention should be directed to community sports. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of community-sport service provisions on participants’ satisfaction and, in turn, on their sport participation behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Community-sport program participants in China (n=576) responded to a survey measuring the proposed concepts.

Findings

Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that community-sport services in the areas of sport facility, grassroots sport organizations and sport activity programs had strong influences on participant satisfaction and, in turn, their desire for participation, which highlighted the demand for high-quality sport service provision by community.

Originality/value

The study contributed to the literature by proposing two clear dimensions (core sport service and peripheral sport service) for the measurement of public sport service provision in community sports. A second theoretical contribution of the study relates to the clarification of the relationship between the two dimensions of community-sport service provision (both core and peripheral services) and community participants’ satisfaction levels.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Qurat Ul Ain, Xianghui Yuan and Hafiz Mustansar Javaid

This study investigates the impact of board gender diversity and foreign ownership on innovation in Chinese firms.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the impact of board gender diversity and foreign ownership on innovation in Chinese firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use data for Chinese manufacturing firms listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges, for a sample over the period 2008–2017. Ordinary least square (OLS) is used as the baseline methodology, with cluster OLS, two-stage Heckman test, Blau index and Shannon index used to address endogeneity issues.

Findings

The results show that gender diversity on the board has a positive effect on corporate innovation as measured by the total number of patent applications, invention patent applications, utility model patent applications and design patent applications. Our findings also provide support for the critical mass participation of female directors on the board being associated with more innovation. They also reveal that innovation output does not vary across state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non-SOEs. These outcomes reveal that SOEs' advantages, such as easy access to funding and more support of government, are likely offset by their disadvantages, such as different goals and having more agency issues. Because of intense political power and networks in Chinese firms, qualified foreign institutional investors (QFIIs) are less motivated to enhance innovation activities.

Practical implications

This study highlights the role of board gender diversity in enhancing innovation among Chinese manufacturing firms. Our findings provide support for regulatory bodies' role regarding women's participation on the board.

Originality/value

This research adds to literature by addressing the largely ignored questions of whether providing a gender-diverse board enhances innovation, whether critical mass participation has a greater effect on improving firm innovation and whether the influence of women directors varies with ownership structure.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Yanling Duan and Bing Liu

The purpose of this paper is to propose and examine an integrated model of spectator satisfaction in mass participant sport events.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and examine an integrated model of spectator satisfaction in mass participant sport events.

Design/methodology/approach

The Wuhan marathon, held in the middle of China, was selected serve for the study to examine the antecedents and consequences of spectator satisfaction at mass participant sport events. Data were collected from 956 spectators of the event on the day of the race. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the research model proposed by this study.

Findings

Structural equation modeling results indicate the following. First, the event image and perceived social impact of the event are important predictive factors of spectator satisfaction. Second, spectator satisfaction is positively associated with behavioral intentions toward the event and the sponsors' product. Third, spectator satisfaction plays a significant mediating role between the antecedents and consequences; specifically, compared to perceived social impacts of the event, event image has greater indirect effects on both event-related behavioral intentions and event sponsors' products.

Originality/value

Until now, there has not been an integrated research study on the sport spectator satisfaction model in the context of mass participant sport events. This paper thus extends the understanding of the spectator satisfaction in the context of mass participant sport events, and the findings provide valuable implications for holding cities and event organizers of mass participant sport events in emerging countries.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2012

Kirstin Hallmann and Pamela Wicker

The purpose of this paper is to identify consumer profiles based on behaviour of runners at marathon races and to determine key drivers for their intention to revisit the marathon.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify consumer profiles based on behaviour of runners at marathon races and to determine key drivers for their intention to revisit the marathon.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants of three marathons in Germany (Cologne, Bonn, Hanover) were invited via e‐mail to take part in an online survey after the race (n=1,370). They were questioned about the trip to the city, the marathon event, and their socio‐demographics.

Findings

The cluster analysis revealed three clusters that are named holidayers, socialisers and marathoners. The results of the logistic regression analysis show that the intention to revisit is determined by the length of the trip, the daily spending in the city, and the satisfaction with the event.

Research limitations/implications

Non‐probability sampling represents a limitation of this study. Questions relating to the involvement and knowledge of running (first timer and repeat participant) could serve as valuable indicators to further differentiate between different types of runners.

Practical implications

It is suggested to offer special packages to the runners when they register for the race. One package could, for example, include the starting fee and two nights at a hotel. Moreover, the event organisers could offer more targeted side events such as athlete workshops on nutrition, training, and medical advice.

Originality/value

This paper offers an insight into different consumer profiles of marathon runners based on their behaviour and spending. Key indicators of the runner's intention to revisit the marathon are presented. This study contributes to close a research gap and allows marketers to better understand their consumers.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Book part
Publication date: 8 July 2010

Shahzad Ansari and Kamal Munir

It has been well established that organizations often need to restructure themselves to meet new technological challenges. We review the organizational impact of a recent…

Abstract

It has been well established that organizations often need to restructure themselves to meet new technological challenges. We review the organizational impact of a recent technological development, sometimes referred to as Web 2.0 that enables users to leverage the Internet and generate “user-generated content” by acting as a supplier, co-producer, or even innovator of products and services. We draw on the social studies of technology, including actor-network theory to develop a conceptual understanding of how this phenomenon is challenging deeply entrenched mental models among managers and management theorists as well as problematizing the way organizational boundaries are conventionally drawn.

Details

Technology and Organization: Essays in Honour of Joan Woodward
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-984-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1991

John E. Elliott and Abu F. Dowlah

This article investigates the intellectual roots of perestroika. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, the architect of perestroika claims that his programmes and policies are…

Abstract

This article investigates the intellectual roots of perestroika. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, the architect of perestroika claims that his programmes and policies are aimed at a revolutionary transformation of the Soviet economy from an overly centralised command system of management to a democratic system based mainly on economic methods and on an optimal combination of centralism and self‐management. To facilitate the restructuring process, Gorbachev simultaneously initiated two sweeping political reforms: glasnost (no “radical change is possible without it”); and demokratizatsiya (”there is no present‐day socialism, nor can there be, without democracy”). Therefore, prominent features envisaged by perestroika would presumably include: an optimal combination between centralism and self‐management, that would imply decentralisation in the economic management of the country; replacement of administrative methods by economic methods, that would emphasise economic incentives and market processes more than machineries of central planning; democratisation and openness in Soviet society, aimed at guaranteeing greater democratic rights for citizens, and pluralism in governmental and political processes.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 18 no. 5/6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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