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Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Sven Laumer and Christian Maier

Social media usage, especially social networking sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, Twitter, WhatsApp, YouTube, and LinkedIn provide lots of benefits to…

Abstract

Social media usage, especially social networking sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, Twitter, WhatsApp, YouTube, and LinkedIn provide lots of benefits to their users, including fun, information from significant others, and a distraction from real-life problems. In parallel, the authors see that there are also negative consequences, such as stress when using SNS. In 2012, research started to talk about SNS-use stress as a specific form of technostress. Since that early study, 62 articles have been published in peer-reviewed outlets that explain why SNS-users perceive stress. Our literature review uses the transactional model of stress to integrate these articles to propose a transactional model of SNS-use stress. The model indicates social and technical SNS-stressors that trigger psychological, physiological, and behavioural reactions, named SNS-strains. Our findings suggest there are more social SNS-stressors than technical ones. In terms of SNS-strain, research has mainly focussed on psychological, e.g. exhaustion or dissatisfaction, and behavioural, e.g. discontinuous usage intention or distraction, SNS-strains. Based on those results, the authors identify research gaps and provide implications for research, SNS-users, SNS-providers, organisations, and parents. With that, the authors aim to provide a conceptual summary of the past and, simultaneously, a starting point for further research.

Details

Information Technology in Organisations and Societies: Multidisciplinary Perspectives from AI to Technostress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-812-3

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

C. Ken Weidner II and Lisa A.T. Nelson

Given the substantial resources of the United States, the failure of the American federal response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been both tragic and…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the substantial resources of the United States, the failure of the American federal response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been both tragic and avoidable. The authors frame this response as an artifact of power-addiction among administration officials and examine the US federal response to the COVID-19 pandemic through the lens of maladaptive denial by government officials, including President Trump.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use qualitative research methods for this study by analyzing key events, public statements by administration officials from multiple credible media reports and US federal government websites. The authors analyzed these data using Weidner and Purohit's (2009) model describing maladaptive denial in organizations and power-addiction among leaders.

Findings

The authors' analysis identifies maladaptive denial – and the concomitant power-addiction – as significantly contributing to the Trump administration's failed response to COVID-19. Maladaptive denial and power-addiction characterized Trump as a candidate and for the three years of his presidency preceding the COVID-19 crisis. Whatever normative “guardrails” or checks and balances existed in the American system to restrict the administration's behavior before the crisis were ill-equipped to significantly prevent or alter the failed federal response to the pandemic.

Originality/value

The article applies the model of maladaptive denial in organizations (Weidner and Purohit, 2009) to the public sector, and explores the lengths to which power-addicted leaders and regimes can violate the public's trust in institutions in a crisis, even in the US, a liberal democracy characterized by freedom of political expression. While organizations and change initiatives may fail for a variety of reasons, this case revealed the extent to which maladaptive denial can permeate a government – or any organization – and its response to a crisis.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Richard England

Children with disabilities that exhibit maladaptive behaviors as a result of abuse and neglect require consideration of a more comprehensive, alternative method of…

Abstract

Children with disabilities that exhibit maladaptive behaviors as a result of abuse and neglect require consideration of a more comprehensive, alternative method of assessment to determine the source and patterns of the behaviors. The need exists to go beyond an assessment of the current level of intellectual functioning, individual academic achievement, and functional behavior to a more ethological approach that considers the dynamics in the home and social settings that influence development. The careful analysis of the child’s social and academic records; patterns and frequency of movement for those in out-of-home placements; interviews and records of primary care givers; along with the intellectual and academic assessments enables special educators, social workers, school staff, and health care professionals to more effectively address the individual needs of the child. This paper discusses assessment methods that utilize a more comprehensive approach to determine the factors that lead to high levels of maladaptive behavior in special needs children. Additionally, alternative intervention strategies are recommended that include establishing the child’s perceived primary care giver with the most stable environment to facilitate the child’s development of more appropriate behaviors.

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Administering Special Education: In Pursuit of Dignity and Autonomy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-298-6

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Mohd Shaiful Azlan Kassim, Rosnah Ismail, Hanizah Mohd Yusoff and Noor Hassim Ismail

University academicians are struggling to engage in teaching, supervision, research and publication. The purpose of this paper is to determine how academicians cope with…

Abstract

Purpose

University academicians are struggling to engage in teaching, supervision, research and publication. The purpose of this paper is to determine how academicians cope with the various burdens of academia work stressors to overcome burnout.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to July 2017. In total, 327 research university academicians were selected using a proportional stratified randomized sampling. Validated measures were used to collect data on perceived work stressors (teaching, research, interpersonal conflicts and career development), coping strategies (adaptive and maladaptive coping) and perceived burnout (emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization and personal accomplishment (PA)). The data were gathered via computer assisted self-interviewing (CASI). The research statistical model was tested by two-steps of assessment replicating covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) with bootstrapping procedure to generalize the sample to the hypothesized model.

Findings

Overall data fit the hypothesized model well (CMIN/df=1.788, GFI=0.833, CFI=0.921, TLI=0.916, RMSEA=0.047) with various degree of explanatory value for EE, depersonalization and PA were 60, 49 and 22 percent, respectively. Academicians were resilient against the burden of teaching. However, they did adopt coping mechanisms to overcome research challenges and interpersonal conflicts. The effects of research and interpersonal conflicts on tri-dimensional burnout mediated by maladaptive coping (f2 effect size=0.37) had a larger effect than interpersonal conflicts toward burnout mediated by adaptive coping (f2 effect size=0.02).

Practical implications

Academicians adopt maladaptive coping for research and interpersonal conflicts to suppress burnout. An integrative approach at both organization and individual levels is crucial to enhance appropriate coping mechanism to curb with burnout among the academicians of a research university.

Originality/value

This is the first study in Malaysia which uniquely estimate the effects of academician’s work stressors toward burnout with introducing coping strategies as mediators toward work stressors and burnout relationship which has been analyzed via CB-SEM.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Book part
Publication date: 6 June 2006

Matthias Spörrle and Isabell M. Welpe

Adopting the theoretical framework of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994), we examine the cognitive antecedents of functional behavior and adaptive…

Abstract

Adopting the theoretical framework of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994), we examine the cognitive antecedents of functional behavior and adaptive emotions as indicators of emotional intelligence (EI) and test central assumptions of REBT. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more EI than maladaptive emotions, which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behavior. The results of the first study using organizational scenarios in an experimental design confirm central assumptions of REBT and support our hypotheses. In a second correlational study we replicate the connection between rational cognitions and EI by measuring real person data using psychometric scales. Both studies indicate that irrational attitudes result in reduced job satisfaction.

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Individual and Organizational Perspectives on Emotion Management and Display
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-411-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2001

Wayne H. Bovey and Andrew Hede

Observes that the published literature on resistance to organisational change has focused more on organisational issues rather than individual psychological factors. The…

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Abstract

Observes that the published literature on resistance to organisational change has focused more on organisational issues rather than individual psychological factors. The present study investigated the role of both adaptive and maladaptive defence mechanisms in individual resistance. Surveys were conducted in nine organisations undergoing major change and responses were obtained from 615 employees. The results indicate that five maladaptive defence mechanisms are positively correlated with behavioural intention to resist change, namely, projection, acting out, isolation of affect, dissociation and denial. The adaptive defence mechanism of humour was found to be negatively correlated with resistance intention. Identifies two intervention strategies which can be used by management to address the effects of defence mechanisms on resistance during periods of change in organisations.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 16 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

Adela Chen and Nicholas Roberts

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether four motives – conformity, enhancement, social and coping – mediate relationships between four personality types …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether four motives – conformity, enhancement, social and coping – mediate relationships between four personality types – agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism and openness to experience – and social networking site (SNS) addiction. Impulse control is included as a moderator.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a survey to collect data at two points in time from 304 SNS users. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis.

Findings

Empirical results show that conformity, enhancement and coping motives act as mediators between various personality types and SNS addiction. Furthermore, impulse control weakens the effects of two motives – enhancement and social – on SNS addiction.

Research limitations/implications

The research model included only four motives. Future research could investigate other motivational mechanisms and moderators. The research method surveyed university students in the USA; thus, results may not generalize to a different user population. The method also included only one SNS, Facebook.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by showing that motives of SNS use connect personality to SNS addiction. This study also shows that self-reflective factors like impulse control can reduce the positive effects of motives on SNS addiction.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Caroline Schaer

The number of poor and informal urban settlers in the world is rapidly growing, and they are increasingly vulnerable to the impacts of a changing climate. Therefore…

Abstract

Purpose

The number of poor and informal urban settlers in the world is rapidly growing, and they are increasingly vulnerable to the impacts of a changing climate. Therefore, understanding the nature and sustainability of locally adopted coping and adaptation strategies are key, yet still under-researched areas.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on ethnographic research conducted in two poor, flood-prone municipalities in Pikine/Dakar, this paper identifies such coping and adaptation strategies and examines their prospects for maladaptation.

Findings

The paper shows that poor urban dwellers are not mere passive spectators of climate change. With the very limited resources they have at their disposal, it is found that local actors respond to perennial flooding with very diverse strategies, which have varying degrees of success and sustainability. A key finding is that local coping and adaptation strategies are mainly maladaptive because they divert risks and impacts in time and space and have detrimental effects on the most vulnerable. Unless there is a broad assimilation of all groups in decision-making processes locally, individual and even collective coping and adaptation strategies may easily put the most vulnerable households at greater risk. The findings reveal that community-based adaptation is not a panacea per se, as it may not, by itself, compensate for the lack of basic services and infrastructure that is forcing the urban poor to cope with disproportionate levels of risk.

Originality/value

The paper, hence, contributes to address a central question in scholarly debates on climate adaptation, vulnerability and disaster risk management: Are local coping strategies a stepping stone towards adaptation or are they on the contrary likely to lead to maladaptation?

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2010

Jan Blacher, Bonnie Kraemer and Erica Howell

The differential impact of young adult diagnosis on families during the period of transition from school to adult life was examined. Participants were parents of 246 young…

Abstract

The differential impact of young adult diagnosis on families during the period of transition from school to adult life was examined. Participants were parents of 246 young adults with severe learning disability aged 18‐26. Young adults were classified into four diagnostic groups: autism (N = 30), Down's syndrome (N = 68), cerebral palsy (N = 95) and an undifferentiated learning disability group (N = 53). Research questions pertained to parent expectations about their young adults' transition to living and working environments post high school. Parental satisfaction and worries were also assessed. The results indicated more community expectations of work for young adults with Down's syndrome, and more restrictive expectations for young adults with autism, including more expectations that young adults with autism would move out of the family home into a residential environment. Parents of young adults with autism also worried significantly more about various aspects of transition than other parent groups.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2018

Narges Adibsereshki, Mahdi Abdollahzadeh Rafi, Maryam Hassanzadeh Aval and Hassan Tahan

Anxiety disorders have a high prevalence in children. Those children with anxious symptoms are more likely to experience significant disruption in their lives. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Anxiety disorders have a high prevalence in children. Those children with anxious symptoms are more likely to experience significant disruption in their lives. This disruption can interrupt or even stop a child from participating in a variety of typical childhood experiences. It is understood that genetic and environmental factors may cause this disorder. The purpose of this paper is to focus on environmental factors, namely, the mediating role of maladaptive schemas in mothers’ child-rearing and childhood anxiety disorders.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used correlation-modeling to assess the analysis. The sample included 326 students (aged 9-12 years old) and their mothers. The parenting style (Baumrind, 1973), Early Maladaptive Schema (Rijkeboer and de Boo, 2010), and anxiety disorders (Muris et al., 2006) questionnaires were used in this study.

Findings

The results showed a relationship between parenting styles of mothers and childhood anxiety disorders, a significant correlation between childhood maladaptive schemas and childhood anxiety disorders, a relation between child-rearing styles and childhood maladaptive schemas, and finally a mediating role on childhood anxiety disorders and mothers’ child-rearing styles for some childhood maladaptive schemas.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the knowledge base of the importance of children’s mental health. The paper analyzes the relationship of mothers’ parenting styles and children’s anxiety. It also focuses on maladaptive schemas as a mediator and its relationship with childhood anxiety disorders.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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