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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Shekhar Mishra and Sathya Swaroop Debasish

This study aims to explore the linkage between fluctuations in the global crude oil price and equity market in fast emerging economies of India and China.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the linkage between fluctuations in the global crude oil price and equity market in fast emerging economies of India and China.

Design/methodology/approach

The present research uses wavelet decomposition and maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT), which decompose the time series into various frequencies of short, medium and long-term nature. The paper further uses continuous and cross wavelet transform to analyze the variance among the variables and wavelet coherence analysis and wavelet-based Granger causality analysis to examine the direction of causality between the variables.

Findings

The continuous wavelet transform indicates strong variance in WTIR (return series of West Texas Instrument crude oil price) in short, medium and long run at various time periods. The variance in CNX Nifty is observed in the short and medium run at various time periods. The Chinese stock index, i.e. SCIR, experiences very little variance in short run and significant variance in the long and medium run. The causality between the changes in crude oil price and CNX Nifty is insignificant and there exists a bi-directional causality between global crude oil price fluctuations and the Chinese equity market.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, very limited work has been done where the researchers have analyzed the linkage between the equity market and crude oil price fluctuations under the framework of discrete wavelet transform, which overlooks the bottleneck of non-stationarity nature of the time series. To bridge this gap, the present research uses wavelet decomposition and MODWT, which decompose the time series into various frequencies of short, medium and long-term nature.

Details

Vilakshan - XIMB Journal of Management, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0973-1954

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 December 2017

Maher Asal

This paper aims to assess the long-run drivers and short-term dynamics of real house prices in Sweden for 1986Q1 to 2016Q4. More specifically, the author examines the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the long-run drivers and short-term dynamics of real house prices in Sweden for 1986Q1 to 2016Q4. More specifically, the author examines the extent to which real house prices are determined by affordability, demographics and asset price factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The author conducts a cointegration analysis and applies a vector autoregression model to examine the long- and short-run responsiveness of Swedish real house prices to a number of key categories of fundamental variables.

Findings

The empirical results indicate that house prices will increase in the long run by 1.04 per cent in response to a 1 per cent increase in household real disposable income, whereas real after-tax mortgage interest and real effective exchange rates show average long-term effects of approximately – 8 and – 0.7 per cent, respectively. In addition, the results show that the growth of real house prices is affected by growth in mortgage credit, real after-tax mortgage interest rates and disposable incomes in the short run, whereas the real effective exchange rate is the most significant determinant of Swedish real house appreciation.

Originality/value

The impact of the two lending restrictions been implemented after the financial crisis – the mortgage cap in October 2010 and the amortization requirement in June 2016 – are ineffective to stabilize the housing market. This suggests that macroprudential measures designed to ease pressure on housing prices and reduce risks to financial stability need to focus on these fundamentals and address the issues of tax deductibility on mortgage rates and the gradual implementation of debt-to-income limits to contain mortgage demand and improve households’ resilience to shocks.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Amanjot Singh and Manjit Singh

This paper aims to attempt to capture the intertemporal/time-varying risk–return relationship in the Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) equity markets after the global…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to attempt to capture the intertemporal/time-varying risk–return relationship in the Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) equity markets after the global financial crisis (2007-2009), i.e. during a relative calm period. There has been a significant increase in advanced economies’ equity allocations to the emerging markets ever since the financial crisis. So, the present study is an attempt to account for the said relationship, thereby justifying investments made by the international investors.

Methodology

The study uses non-linear models comprising asymmetric component generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic model in mean (CGARCH-M) (1,1) model, generalised impulse response functions under vector autoregressive framework and Markov regime switching in mean and standard deviation model. The span of data ranges from 1 July 2009 to 31 December 2014.

Findings

The ACGARCH-M (1,1) model reports a positive and significant risk-return relationship in the Russian and Chinese equity markets only. There is leverage and volatility feedback effect in the Russian market because falling returns further increase conditional variance making the investors to expect a risk premium in the expected returns. The impulse responses indicate that for all of the BRIC markets, the ex-ante returns respond positively to a shock in the long-term risk component, whereas the response is negative to a shock in the short-term risk component. Finally, the Markov regime switching model confirms the existence of two regimes in all of the BRIC markets, namely, Bull and Bear regimes. Both the regimes exhibit negative relationship between risk and return.

Practical implications

It is an imperative task to comprehend the relationship shared between risk and returns for an investor. The investors in the emerging economies should understand the risk-return dynamics well ahead of time so that the returns justify the investments made under riskier environment.

Originality/value

The present study contributes to the literature in three senses. First, the data relate to a period especially after the global financial crisis (2007-2009). Second, the study has used a relatively newer version of GARCH based model [ACGARCH-M (1,1) model], generalised impulse response functions and Markov regime switching model to account for the relationship between risk and return. Finally, the study provides an insightful understanding of the risk–return relationship in the most promising emerging markets group “BRIC nations”, making the study first of its kind in all the perspectives.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 59 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 May 2012

Kevin Jones

Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) is a nonprofit regional transmission organization (RTO) that oversees electricity production and transmission…

Abstract

Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) is a nonprofit regional transmission organization (RTO) that oversees electricity production and transmission across 13 states and 1 Canadian province. MISO also operates an electronic exchange for buying and selling electricity for each of its five regional hubs.

MISO oversees two types of markets. The forward market, which is referred to as the day-ahead (DA) market, allows market participants to place demand bids and supply offers on electricity to be delivered at a specified hour the following day. The equilibrium price, known as the locational marginal price (LMP), is determined by MISO after receiving sale offers and purchase bids from market participants. MISO also coordinates a spot market, which is known as the real-time (RT) market. Traders in the RT market must submit bids and offers by 30minutes prior to the hour for which the trade will be executed. After receiving purchase and sale offers for a given hour in the RT market, MISO then determines the LMP for that particular hour.

The existence of the DA and RT markets allows producers and retailers to hedge against the large fluctuations that are common in electricity prices. Hedge ratios on the MISO exchange are estimated using various techniques. No hedge ratio technique examined consistently outperforms the unhedged portfolio in terms of variance reduction. Consequently, none of the hedge ratio methods in this study meet the general interpretation of FASB guidelines for a highly effective hedge.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-752-9

Book part
Publication date: 26 April 2014

Panayiotis F. Diamandis, Anastassios A. Drakos and Georgios P. Kouretas

The purpose of this paper is to provide an extensive review of the monetary model of exchange rate determination which is the main theoretical framework on analyzing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an extensive review of the monetary model of exchange rate determination which is the main theoretical framework on analyzing exchange rate behavior over the last 40 years. Furthermore, we test the flexible price monetarist variant and the sticky price Keynesian variant of the monetary model. We conduct our analysis employing a sample of 14 advanced economies using annual data spanning the period 1880–2012.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical background of the paper relies on the monetary model to the exchange rate determination. We provide a thorough econometric analysis using a battery of unit root and cointegration testing techniques. We test the price-flexible monetarist version and the sticky-price version of the model using annual data from 1880 to 2012 for a group of industrialized countries.

Findings

We provide strong evidence of the existence of a nonlinear relationship between exchange rates and fundamentals. Therefore, we model the time-varying nature of this relationship by allowing for Markov regime switches for the exchange rate regimes. Modeling exchange rates within this context can be motivated by the fact that the change in regime should be considered as a random event and not predictable. These results show that linearity is rejected in favor of an MS-VECM specification which forms statistically an adequate representation of the data. Two regimes are implied by the model; the one of the estimated regimes describes the monetary model whereas the other matches in most cases the constant coefficient model with wrong signs. Furthermore it is shown that depending on the nominal exchange rate regime in operation, the adjustment to the long run implied by the monetary model of the exchange rate determination came either from the exchange rate or from the monetary fundamentals. Moreover, based on a Regime Classification Measure, we showed that our chosen Markov-switching specification performed well in distinguishing between the two regimes for all cases. Finally, it is shown that fundamentals are not only significant within each regime but are also significant for the switches between the two regimes.

Practical implications

The results are of interest to practitioners and policy makers since understanding the evolution and determination of exchange rates is of crucial importance. Furthermore, our results are linked to forecasting performance of exchange rate models.

Originality/value

The present analysis extends previous analyses on exchange rate determination and it provides further support in favor of the monetary model as a long-run framework to understand the evolution of exchange rates.

Details

Macroeconomic Analysis and International Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-756-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 April 2020

Alexander Chudik, M. Hashem Pesaran and Kamiar Mohaddes

This chapter contributes to the growing global VAR (GVAR) literature by showing how global and national shocks can be identified within a GVAR framework. The usefulness of…

Abstract

This chapter contributes to the growing global VAR (GVAR) literature by showing how global and national shocks can be identified within a GVAR framework. The usefulness of the proposed approach is illustrated in an application to the analysis of the interactions between public debt and real output growth in a multicountry setting, and the results are compared to those obtained from standard single country VAR analysis. We find that on average (across countries) global shocks explain about one-third of the long-horizon forecast error variance of output growth, and about one-fifth of the long-run variance of the rate of change of debt-to-GDP. Evidence on the degree of cross-sectional dependence in these variables and their innovations are exploited to identify the global shocks, and priors are used to identify the national shocks within a Bayesian framework. It is found that posterior median debt elasticity with respect to output is much larger when the rise in output is due to a fiscal policy shock, as compared to when the rise in output is due to a positive technology shock. The cross-country average of the median debt elasticity is 1.45 when the rise in output is due to a fiscal expansion as compared to 0.76 when the rise in output follows from a favorable output shock.

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Bisharat Hussain Chang, Muhammad Saeed Meo, Qasim Raza Syed and Zahida Abro

The purpose of this paper is of twofold: first, to empirically examine the short-run and long-run impact of macroeconomic variables such as industrial production, foreign…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is of twofold: first, to empirically examine the short-run and long-run impact of macroeconomic variables such as industrial production, foreign direct investment (FDI), trade balance (TB), exchange rate, interest rate (IR) and consumer price index (CPI) on stock prices (SP) of KSE-100 index; and second, to examine whether this relationship changes as a result of the financial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses an autoregressive distributed lag model by using the full sample period data from 1997Q3 to 2018Q2 and the post-crisis period data from 2008Q3 to 2018Q2. Moreover, it uses variance decomposition analysis to examine the importance of each variable in explaining SP.

Findings

The findings of the full sample period indicate that in the long run, TB, exchange rate and IR negatively affect SP whereas CPI and industrial production positively affect SP. However, the post-crisis period data indicate that only CPI positively affects the SP in the long run. Finally, variance decomposition analysis indicates 30 percent variance in SP is explained by its own shock.

Practical implications

The study findings suggest that macroeconomic variables have a significant role and can be considered important for taking investment and/or policy decisions. Especially, Governments and other regulators may need to take measures to increase the TB since it can help to increase the performance of the Pakistani stock market. Furthermore, investors may consider that findings change when the financial crisis has been taken into consideration.

Originality/value

This study uses two additional variables, namely FDI and TB by using the robust technique in the context of emerging countries like Pakistan. Furthermore, it takes into account the impact of the financial crisis on the underlying variables.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1997

Arjan P.J.M. Van Bussel

Analyses the empirical relation between the one‐month interest rate, the long‐term interest rate and the motgage rate in The Netherlands. To study the dynamic interactions…

1275

Abstract

Analyses the empirical relation between the one‐month interest rate, the long‐term interest rate and the motgage rate in The Netherlands. To study the dynamic interactions between these variables, vector autoregressive techniques are used. Concentrates on the question of whether the mortgage rate dynamics can correctly be described by a one‐factor interest rate model. One‐factor interest rate models allow mathematical derivations of deterministic equations to price interest rate derivatives. Finds, however, that a single factor does not correctly describe the interest rate term structure. Hence, to model the mortgage rate dynamics accurately more factors should be included.

Details

Journal of Property Finance, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0958-868X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

G.C. Lim and Vance L. Martin

Provides a framework for understanding the relationships betweenalternative cointegrating estimators with special attention given tosingle equation procedures. The…

753

Abstract

Provides a framework for understanding the relationships between alternative cointegrating estimators with special attention given to single equation procedures. The approach consists of augmenting the longrun model with general short‐run dynamic specifications and identifying the specific assumptions implied by each of these estimators about the short‐run dynamics. Understanding this hierarchical structure between estimators is important since it shows the conditions when consistent and asymptotically efficient parameter estimates may be obtained from standard econometric packages. Since the alternative estimators are shown to be nested in a general framework, this suggests that general‐to‐specific methodology may be adopted to test between these alternative specifications. To highlight the salient characteristics of the alternative estimators, the framework is related to two theoretical economic models: stock prices and money demand; and applied to the demand for imports and testing of the crowding out hypothesis.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Ailie Heather Charteris and Barry Strydom

The purpose of this paper is to model the volatility of treasury bill (T-bill) rates in five Sub-Saharan capital markets to investigate whether or not differences in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to model the volatility of treasury bill (T-bill) rates in five Sub-Saharan capital markets to investigate whether or not differences in capital mobility affect volatility.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data was collected from weekly T-bill auctions in five Sub-Saharan countries and was analysed using a range of Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) models in order to determine the volatility characteristics of each of these instruments. Differences in the institutional arrangements for each market are used to interpret the results of the econometric analysis.

Findings

Evidence is presented that indicates that the size and financial liberalisation of capital markets affect volatility. While the markets with the greatest exposure to international investors exhibit greater volatility in the long-run, the presence of non-residents in the market appears to contribute to more efficient pricing of these instruments.

Research limitations/implications

The limited sample restricts the ability to generalise these findings, however, the finding that differences exist in the volatility of these markets even though they are geographically similar indicates the value of this methodological approach.

Practical implications

The finding that greater capital mobility may result in increased volatility and greater efficiency has significant policy implications for governments and market regulators who have to weigh the costs and benefits of financial liberalisation.

Originality/value

The paper employs a unique data set to model the volatility characteristics of the selected T-bills to improve the understanding of the behaviour of these important instruments in Sub-Saharan frontier markets. More specifically the study provides a novel empirical approach to addressing the question of whether capital mobility is linked to increased volatility. The finding that capital mobility is linked to greater market efficiency offers a fresh insight to this debate.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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