Search results

1 – 10 of over 84000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Rick Lines

This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to…

Abstract

This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non‐binding or so‐called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Jiehua Lu and Yun Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the changes and consequences of the patterns of Chinese elderly population’s living arrangements. It contains information that can…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the changes and consequences of the patterns of Chinese elderly population’s living arrangements. It contains information that can be considered for future policy making for the elderly and to gain a better understanding of the social transition in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the analysis of the population census data in 2000 and 2010, the authors examined the changes and trends of the living arrangements of the elderly Chinese population. Furthermore, the authors analyzed factors influencing the Chinese elderly’s living arrangements according to the data acquired from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey.

Findings

First, the proportion of the elderly people living with children has been decreasing. Second, the proportions of elderly people “living alone” and “living with spouse independently” has largely increased. Third, the changes and trends showed differences between urban and rural regions.

Originality/value

By looking at the characteristics among elderly people with different living arrangement patterns, those that are “living alone” are typically in disadvantaged conditions, and thus special attention should be paid with regards to related research and policies for the elderly who are “living alone.”

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 November 2007

Lisa Harker

Despite the significant amount of time that children spend in the home, relatively little attention has been paid to the direct impact of housing conditions on children's…

Abstract

Despite the significant amount of time that children spend in the home, relatively little attention has been paid to the direct impact of housing conditions on children's development. A literature review of over 100 research studies was undertaken to examine evidence of a ‘housing effect’ on children's health, learning, safety and behaviour. The results found strong evidence of a relationship between poor housing conditions and children's health and some evidence that growing up in sub‐standard housing affects children's performance at school. While children's safety is clearly linked to the quality of their home environment, further research is necessary to understand the apparent link between poor housing conditions and children's behavioural problems. The review suggests that growing up in poor housing has a profound and long‐term effect on children's life chances and that public policy should play closer attention to this relationship. Nevertheless, the volume of high‐quality research in this area is surprisingly limited and there is a need for more comprehensive studies.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 May 2017

Bojan Bojan Grum

This paper aims to focus on how participants link the degree of satisfaction regarding the living conditions and the level of maintenance of facilities. The authors were…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on how participants link the degree of satisfaction regarding the living conditions and the level of maintenance of facilities. The authors were interested in cross-cultural comparison between Slovenia and Serbia.

Design/methodology/approach

The main instrument for measuring the participants’ level of satisfaction is a questionnaire formed by the authors. The study of the questionnaire was conducted in two phases. Statistical analysis of the first phase covering factor analysis of the questionnaire and analysis of the reliability of the questionnaire (Cronbach’s alpha) in the second phase, descriptive statistics and analysis of variance were used. The study involved 1,006 Slovenian and 385 Serbian participants. Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance.

Findings

The results show that the Slovenian and Serbian participants express a statistically significant difference in the degree of satisfaction regarding the level of maintenance of the living environment, namely, with regard to the location of the real estate, the size of housing units, central heating and a sense of social belonging to the neighborhood. The overall picture shows that Slovenian participants have a considerably higher degree of satisfaction regarding the living conditions in the neighborhood and regarding the level of maintaining facilities than Serbian participations.

Research limitations/implications

These are potential risks of error arising from the use of assumptions, limited sample size and data from the secondary resources.

Practical implications

The results show that the law must clearly define the obligations of professional managers who will have to hold licenses to manage buildings. The residential community could be put into receivership if it is not organized in compliance with the law until it is regulated. That leads to efficient and streamlined maintenance costs and results in a better-quality living environment where users expect to reflect a higher degree of sense of security, a sense of social belonging to the neighborhood and consequently a higher degree of satisfaction.

Social implications

In this study, the authors were interested in how the participants link the level of satisfaction with the living conditions and the level of facilities maintenance. In doing so, the authors were also interested in living environment parameters, such as location, size, illumination, noise and old apartments, old neighborhoods, internet access, central heating and a sense of security in the neighborhood, a sense of social belonging and a sense of living environment and suitable economic status.

Originality/value

The major contributions of this paper are as follows: the law must clearly define the obligations of professional managers who will have to hold a license to manage the building. The adoption of the “Facilities Maintenance Law” helped promote the overall legal and economic climate in the country, which led to the increase of investments in all areas of economic and social life, as well as to a higher level of residential “well-being” (sense of security, sense of social belonging to the neighborhood and consequently a higher level of satisfaction).

Details

Facilities, vol. 35 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 December 2020

Anna Matel and Jacek Marcinkiewicz

The elderly seem to be more subject to housing problems due to lower income, older age of the housing stock and lower mobility. Nonetheless, housing deprivation (HD) is…

Abstract

Purpose

The elderly seem to be more subject to housing problems due to lower income, older age of the housing stock and lower mobility. Nonetheless, housing deprivation (HD) is commonly analysed amongst the general population. Less is known about the differences between age clusters, which seems to be a crucial issue in countries like Poland due to population ageing. What is more, the current literature usually analyses only the occurrence of HD, while also an accumulation of its indicators seems to be substantial. The aim of this article is to identify the differences in HD (its occurrence and accumulation) amongst elderly and non-elderly households and to diagnose the risk factors behind those phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

The HD index was calculated and compared. Next, the multinomial logit models were used to assess risk factors of HD.

Findings

The study showed that, surprisingly, HD in Poland occurs more frequently amongst non-elderly households. The elderly ones suffered more from housing cost overburden, while non-elderly from the overpopulation. In large part, analysed risk factors had a stronger influence on housing conditions of the elderly than non-elderly households.

Social implications

Social policy tools should focus on the situation of single elderly households, especially living in houses, often in villages. This group is particularly affected by problems with the quality of the dwelling and housing cost overburden.

Originality/value

In the paper, the occurrence and accumulation of HD indicators were analysed. The authors applied a methodological framework that is applicable to other European Union (EU) member states based on the EU Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data. It is possible to continue the research study and compare different economies.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Sarah Gibney, Mark Ward and Sinead Shannon

Housing quality across the life course is an important health determinant. The purpose of this paper is to profile the current housing conditions of older adults in…

Abstract

Purpose

Housing quality across the life course is an important health determinant. The purpose of this paper is to profile the current housing conditions of older adults in Ireland, and to investigate the association between housing conditions and heating problems and two types of non-communicable diseases: respiratory health problems and bone and joint conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are from the Healthy and Positive Ageing Initiative Age-friendly Cities and Counties Survey, a random-sample, population representative survey of 10,540 adults aged 55 and older collected in 2015–2016. Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between poor housing (leaks, rot and damp) and poor heating (unable to keep the home adequately warm) and the likelihood of having a respiratory health problem or a bone or joint condition. Results are reported as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals.

Findings

Overall, 10.2 per cent had poor housing and 10.4 per cent had poor heating. Poor housing and poor heating were strongly associated with respiratory health problems and there was a strong association between poor housing and bone and joint conditions. These associations were not explained by health behaviours or socio-demographic characteristics.

Originality/value

Despite a number of publicly funded schemes available to assist in upgrading and maintaining housing, a considerable number of adults aged 55 years and older continue to report problems which are associated with an increased likelihood of respiratory health problem and bone and joint conditions and present a considerable threat to healthy ageing in place.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 September 2020

Hamka Hamka, Ni'matuzahroh Ni'matuzahroh, Tri Astuti, Mein-Woei Suen and Fu-An Shieh

The purpose of this study is to explore the psychological well-being of people living around landfills, which constitutes a preliminary case study localized in Samarinda…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the psychological well-being of people living around landfills, which constitutes a preliminary case study localized in Samarinda city, Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

This current study used a descriptive, participatory case study design. For data collection, interviews and participatory observation were used. Specifically, this case study took place in Samarinda City, Indonesia.

Findings

The psychological well-being of the people living around landfills was indicated very low in the light of psychological well-being such as personal growth, life’s goals and self-acceptance dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

Psychological well-being is part of an attitude of gratitude, thus making individuals happy and satisfied in life. The results of this study point to the fact that people who live around landfills have low psychological well-being due to lack of support from the community and government. In addition, with this research, people who live near landfills are very happy because they feel cared for and care about their condition. People who live near landfills expect the government and surrounding communities to know about their situation so that they become prosperous and well-being. In addition, providing medical team services, sending clean water and providing good solutions can help people who live near landfills. The limitation of this preliminary study was that researchers could deeply explore the lives of people in the next research. Besides, the next research can provide a camera or voice recorder in the state of only observation. In addition, the researcher can analyze more deeply in the next research. The final limitation was that participants could not have enough time to interact with, thus, the researcher could not collect the data to explore further.

Practical implications

Base on the result in this study, the government needs to have the policy to take care of those people who stay near landfills, for example, improving drinking water, establish the health management and giving a right to people to stay near landfills.

Social implications

By improving the growing environment, the people live near landfills can have some changes in their life. In addition, the negative stereotype and prejudice can be decreased and establish a more friendly society and increasing their well-being.

Originality/value

The participants were found to be problematic, primarily in managing their environment and influencing their personal growth. On top of that, the participants appeared to possess a lack exposure of to social interaction with other communities, which might cause them social gap and lack of caring perceived toward the surrounding environment, lack of better life’s goals, the disappointment of current conditions due to low educational and skill backgrounds. Nonetheless, the participants were still of gratefulness upon the situation for they were still granted health for studies to support their families. Besides, the participants did not show any positive attitudes toward themselves because of the disappointment of their condition and personal qualities.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Arya Priya

The purpose of this paper is to undertake a phenomenological study of the working conditions and living standards of private security guards (private police) in New Delhi…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to undertake a phenomenological study of the working conditions and living standards of private security guards (private police) in New Delhi. The focus here is to bring forth their lived experiences as security guards.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper touches briefly upon the theoretical formulations on phenomenological sociology. The principal emphasis here is on the field application of phenomenology as a methodology of social inquiry – how phenomenology was put to use, the research problems encountered and how these research conundrums were navigated. The research makes use of interview as the technique of data collection. The study uses purposive and convenience sampling.

Findings

The research has tried to bring forth the lived experiences of the private security guards as regards to their job and living conditions, by “bracketing off” the author’s biases to the best of the author’s capacity. From the interview responses, some higher level concepts have been formulated, called the “essence” of lived experiences.

Research limitations/implications

As the sample size is small, the research cannot be considered a peremptory account of the “lived experiences” applicable to all the private security guards in Delhi. Such sweeping generalizations need to be avoided.

Practical implications

Besides highlighting the lived experiences of the private security guards, the larger purpose of this paper to solicit critical comments from the readers so that the field application of phenomenology could be better understood and refined further.

Originality/value

This is an original research work carried out by the author. During the fieldwork, “reflexivity” has been the author’s constant companion, where the author has tried best to keep the author’s prejudices at bay. Its value is twofold: first, as phenomenological research works on private security guards are few in India, this study can stimulate further research works in this field and second, the research can carry forward the debate on how to improve further phenomenological research works.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Mario Thomas Vassallo and Manwel Debono

This qualitative study seeks to explore the grounded realities of live-in care workers in Malta. The growing economic affluence in Malta, coupled by an ageing population…

Abstract

This qualitative study seeks to explore the grounded realities of live-in care workers in Malta. The growing economic affluence in Malta, coupled by an ageing population and the lowest fertility rate in the European Union, is resulting in a greater demand for live-in care givers, particularly from the Philippines. Reinforced through public policy wherein families who employ a qualified live-in carer are benefiting from government subsidy to ease burden on the state’s residential homes, Malta appears to be moving from a passive to a more active international recruitment of domestic migrant workers. This inquiry provides an evidence-based contribution to the appeal of the European Economic and Social Committee of the EU calling for more research about the rights of live-in care workers in Europe which has long remained almost invisible to EU and Member State policymakers. The majority of the findings reflect some of the concerns that have already been identified in international literature, like higher levels of precariousness, contractual agreements not being honoured, psychological obligations, fraudulent agents and the lack of separation between work and personal life. Other findings have endogenous characteristics that are closely linked to the island state of Malta, namely its safe environment, Catholic culture, bilingual coexistence of Maltese and English and the competitive nature of Filipino community groups that may discourage further social engagement. The chapter concludes with brief policy suggestions to trigger improvements in the wellbeing and dignity of migrant carers.

Details

Uncertainty and Challenges in Contemporary Economic Behaviour
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-095-2

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 February 2012

Ann Edworthy and Beverly Cole

This paper aims to explore the effectiveness of parental counseling in developing self‐esteem in children with neurological conditions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the effectiveness of parental counseling in developing self‐esteem in children with neurological conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered via 92 questionnaires and 20 semi‐structured interviews with self‐selecting participants. Qualitative data were analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

Findings

The research evidences a correlation between self‐esteem of parents and child. Counselling can help create positive cycles which impact upon a child's self‐esteem. Four over‐arching themes were identified by parents and these take the reader through a process of living with neurological conditions.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the research include a lack of differential between types of neurological conditions and/or identification of families of children who are born with neurological conditions as opposed to children who acquire them. Suggestions for future research include conducting similar research with a more specific cohort. The role of counselling in addressing trauma experienced by parents when a child acquires a neurological condition was also identified as a future research area.

Practical implications

It is suggested that counselling needs to be de‐stigmatised and made more understandable. Accessibility of counselling for parents, who sometimes find it difficult to leave the home, also needs to be addressed.

Social implications

Issues of socialising are explored which could help raise awareness of the impact of public attitudes upon parental/child self‐esteem.

Originality/value

Research on the self‐esteem of children with neurological conditions is limited, as is research into the impact of parental counselling on offspring. This paper explores these under‐researched areas and as such is of value to parents and relevant health professionals.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 84000