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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Hung-Chieh Chao, Alastair M. Morrison and Bihu Wu

The purpose of this paper is to construct and test an antecedent relationship path model for the leisure involvement of Taiwan expatriate managers working in Mainland…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to construct and test an antecedent relationship path model for the leisure involvement of Taiwan expatriate managers working in Mainland China. A leisure temporal-spatial involvement (LTSI) was developed.

Design/methodology/approach

Burnout, perceived freedom in leisure and leisure coping strategies were proposed in the conceptual model as antecedents of leisure involvement. A questionnaire survey gathered information on the characteristics of respondents, including demographic/socio-economic details, expatriate profile and leisure activity participation. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used in this research to measure the relationships among the four scale variables (job burnout, perceived freedom in leisure, leisure coping strategies and leisure involvement).

Findings

The expatriate managers experienced high burnout levels, particularly in the form of exhaustion. Their leisure involvement was mainly influenced by perceived freedom in leisure.

Research limitations/implications

This work contributes to the research on leisure and expatriation in several ways. It is one of the first empirical studies to examine prominent leisure concepts (freedom, coping and involvement) within the milieu of expatriation. The findings provide further support to the notion of the “presumed cultural similarity paradox,” in that expatriates of Chinese ethnicity still had significant adjustment difficulties in Mainland China. The research again confirms the challenges of Mainland China as an expatriation destination.

Practical implications

The research results have significant practical value and may assist Taiwan-capital enterprises in improving expatriates’ leisure life management. The section on Managerial and policy implications outlines the implications for the actors involved.

Social implications

This work has social implications since the Taiwan expatriate managers are not effectively adjusting to their work–life environments in Guangzhou. Greater social contact between locals and these managers is recommended in the future.

Originality/value

A new scale for leisure involvement (LTSI), expressed in temporal and spatial dimensions, is developed to fit the particular situations faced by expatriates. This is also one of only a few empirical research studies to consider leisure involvement within an expatriation framework.

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Zhi Li, Yuemeng Ge, Zegang Su and Xiaohua Huang

This study aims to analyze the basic information of visitors of the Macau Science Center to assess their leisure involvement, satisfaction and behavioral intention, along…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the basic information of visitors of the Macau Science Center to assess their leisure involvement, satisfaction and behavioral intention, along with the interaction of these factors. Suggestions are made for museum policy modifications to improve visitor experience quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis methods used in this study included reliability, descriptive statistics, independent-samples t test, ANOVA, correlation analysis and regression analysis.

Findings

The results showed that there was no significant relationship between gender and satisfaction, involvement of leisure or behavioral intention; age and educational level had significant impacts on satisfaction, leisure involvement and behavioral intention; significant differences were found in terms of visitors’ point of geographic origin, namely, local residents, mainland residents and Hong Kong residents; occupation was found to have no significant impact on satisfaction, leisure involvement or behavioral intention; monthly income was found to have no significant impact on leisure involvement and behavioral intention, but did have a significant impact on satisfaction; number of visits had no significant impact; there was no significant difference in leisure involvement and behavioral intention among different types of visitors, but there was a significant difference in terms of satisfaction; and significant correlations were found between leisure involvement and behavioral intentions.

Originality/value

The value of this study is to identify problems and offer potential solutions for the improvement of the Macau Science Center by studying the leisure involvement, satisfaction and behavioral intention of museum visitors. The proposed measures can improve the visibility and quality of the science museum, attract additional visitors and improve Macau’s branding through promoting science education and tourism.

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2018

Seohee Chang and Gi Eun Chung

Individuals’ daily leisure activities undertaken close to home often appear in tourism contexts when individuals are away from home. Previous studies have suggested that…

Abstract

Purpose

Individuals’ daily leisure activities undertaken close to home often appear in tourism contexts when individuals are away from home. Previous studies have suggested that such leisure-tourism connection behaviors are enhanced by leisure involvement and leisure habits. However, few studies have examined if such a connection may have variations by life stage and gender. Therefore, this study aims to examine the roles of life stage and gender in consistency between leisure and tourism, in consideration of involvement and habit. The study samples were university graduates (n = 681) who had graduated from a university in the United States and were currently working and university students (n = 706) who were enrolled and taking classes at a university in the United States.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, exploratory factor analysis, t-test, two-way ANOVA and multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The findings revealed differences in the effects of leisure involvement and habit factors on the leisure-tourism connection behaviors by life stage and gender. More details are presented in this paper.

Originality/value

This study is the first study to examine the leisure-tourism connection behaviors in consideration of life stage and gender.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Pieter de Rooij

The purpose of this paper is to describe and understand dimensions of cultural activity involvement and the relationship between cultural activity involvement and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and understand dimensions of cultural activity involvement and the relationship between cultural activity involvement and behavioural loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 47 customers of a theatre were held.

Findings

The study shows that the concept of cultural activity involvement consists of six dimensions: attraction, centrality, self-expression, social bonding, cultural transmission and financial contribution. Three customer segments are taken into consideration according behavioural loyalty levels: incidental spectators, interested participants and the core audience. There are large differences between the three customer segments regarding cultural activity involvement.

Research limitations/implications

Introspection might have decreased the reliability. As the study is a case study, problems with external validity are recognised.

Practical implications

Given the decline of subsidies in the arts world, it becomes more important to attract more visitors and to increase spending. Performing arts organisations might attract more visitors in case they provide additional services which enable cultural transmission. Moreover, the study shows that certain visitors are willing to contribute additional money to the arts.

Originality/value

Current studies about leisure involvement focus on recreation and distinguish four dimensions of involvement. This study focuses on cultural activity involvement and explores these four dimensions, but also shows there are two new dimensions. This study contributes to a further understanding of the relationship between cultural activity involvement and behavioural loyalty.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

You-De Dai, Fei-Hsin Huang, Kuan-Yang Chen, Wei-Jen Chen and Tzung-Cheng Huan

Recreational scuba diving is one of the fastest growing tourism industries around the world and has become a popular activity in Taiwan. Few studies focus on enduring…

Abstract

Purpose

Recreational scuba diving is one of the fastest growing tourism industries around the world and has become a popular activity in Taiwan. Few studies focus on enduring involvement with a high risk or difficult activity specialization, so this study aims to explore the causal relationship between enduring involvement and specialization and seeks to explain sustained involvement in scuba diving activity as a recreation specialization.

Design/methodology/approach

This research selects four diving sites in Taiwan as survey locations, specifically Yeliou, Longdong, Kenting and Green Island. The questionnaire consists of three sections, including demographic information, enduring involvement and specialization. By analyzing the data collected from 810 scuba divers in Taiwan, structural equation modeling is used to examine the causal relationships among the variables.

Findings

The primary findings of this study are as follows: attraction positively affects divers’ commitment and lifestyle through joy, relaxation and sharing diving experiences; the results indicate that self-expression is associated with past experience of participating in scuba diving activity; and centrality indicates that participants’ daily life and recreation are related to each other and become central to their life. Results show that most theoretical hypotheses are supported, but there is no significant evidence of attraction impacting past experience or self-expression influencing commitment and lifestyle.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine the causal influence of enduring involvement and specialization in the scuba diving context. The findings provide a solid theoretical basis for the study of sustained involvement motivation and behavior on specialization. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

水肺潜水作为一种特殊的旅游方式:台湾经验

目的

休闲水肺潜水是全球发展最快的旅游业之一, 已成为台湾的热门活动。很少有研究关注持续涉入高风险或困难活动的专门化, 因此本研究探讨持续涉入和专门化之间的因果关系, 并试图解释持续参与水肺潜水活动作为休闲专门化。

设计/方法/步骤

这项研究选择了台湾的四个潜水地点作为调查地点, 特别是野柳, 龙洞, 垦丁和绿岛。问卷分为三个部分, 包括人口统计信息, 持续参与和专门化。通过分析从台湾810名潜水员那里收集的数据, 使用结构方程模型检查变量之间的因果关系。

研究结果

这项研究的主要发现是:(1)吸引力通过愉悦, 放松和分享潜水经历积极影响潜水员的承诺和生活方式; (2)结果表明自我表达与过去参加水肺潜水活动的经历有关(3)中心性表示参与者的日常生活和娱乐彼此相关, 并成为他们生活的中心。结果表明, 大多数理论假设均得到支持, 但没有显着证据表明吸引力会影响过去的经历或自我表达影响承诺和生活方式。

独创性/价值

据我们所知, 本研究是第一个研究在潜水环境中持续涉入和专门化的因果关系影响的研究。研究结果为专门化持续参与动机和行为的研究提供了坚实的理论基础。 讨论了对未来研究的影响和建议。

El buceo recreativo como una forma especial de turismo: lecciones de Taiwán

Objetivo

El buceo recreativo es una de las industrias turísticas de más rápido crecimiento en todo el mundo y se ha convertido en una actividad popular en Taiwán. Pocos estudios se centran en la participación duradera con una especialización de actividad difícil o de alto riesgo, por lo que este estudio explora la relación causal entre la participación duradera y la especialización y busca explicar la participación sostenida en la actividad de buceo como una especialización recreativa.

Diseño/Metodología/Enfoque

Esta investigación selecciona cuatro sitios de buceo en Taiwán como lugares de estudio, específicamente Yeliou, Longdong, Kenting y Green Island. El cuestionario consta de tres secciones, que incluyen información demográfica, participación duradera y especialización. Al analizar los datos recopilados de 810 buzos en Taiwán, se utiliza un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales para examinar las relaciones causales entre las variables.

Resultados

Los hallazgos principales de este estudio son: (1) la atracción afecta positivamente el compromiso y el estilo de vida de los buceadores a través de la alegría, la relajación y el intercambio de experiencias de buceo, (2) los resultados indican que la autoexpresión está asociada con la experiencia pasada de participar en actividades de buceo., y (3) la centralidad indica que la vida diaria y la recreación de los participantes están relacionadas entre sí y se vuelven centrales en su vida. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de las hipótesis teóricas están respaldadas, pero no hay evidencia significativa de que la atracción afecte la experiencia pasada o la autoexpresión que influya en el compromiso y el estilo de vida.

Originalidad/Valor

Hasta donde sabemos, este estudio es el primero en examinar la influencia causal de la participación y la especialización duraderas en el contexto del buceo. Los hallazgos proporcionan una base teórica sólida para el estudio de la motivación y el comportamiento de participación sostenida en la especialización. Se discuten las implicaciones y recomendaciones para futuras investigaciones.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2010

Colleen C. Bee and Mark E. Havitz

Consumer loyalty has long been recognised as a key consideration of marketing strategies focused on customer retention. While the importance of the loyalty construct is…

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1383

Abstract

Consumer loyalty has long been recognised as a key consideration of marketing strategies focused on customer retention. While the importance of the loyalty construct is widely recognised, the conditions and variables that foster consumer loyalty for a specific service may vary. This paper explores the variables that influence fan attendance at a professional sporting event. It extends prior research by conceptualising both a behavioural and an attitudinal component of loyalty, as well as considering fan involvement with the sport and attraction to the sport. The findings suggest that psychological commitment and resistance to change mediate the effect of fan attraction and involvement on behavioural loyalty in a professional sports context.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2010

Kyriaki (Kiki) Kaplanidou and Mark E Havitz

Situational involvement (SI) and enduring involvement (EI) are important predictors of spectator sports tourist behaviours. For this study, onsite and web surveys were…

Abstract

Situational involvement (SI) and enduring involvement (EI) are important predictors of spectator sports tourist behaviours. For this study, onsite and web surveys were utilised to help understand how SI and EI levels, with both event and destination, may vary according to the primary and secondary trip purpose of a spectator sports tourist. Results revealed differences between the two groups only within certain aspects of SI and EI with the destination.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Vasco Santos, Paulo Ramos, Bruno Sousa, Nuno Almeida and Marco Valeri

This paper aims to present a content analysis of two major constructs among tourism settings, namely involvement and emotions, strictly related to tourist behaviour, due…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a content analysis of two major constructs among tourism settings, namely involvement and emotions, strictly related to tourist behaviour, due to the fact that there are still some critical gaps in the knowledge about tourists' emotions and involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

An in-depth content analysis of involvement and emotions was adopted as the methodological approach. This methodology addressed an amalgam of different definitions, frameworks, mixed theoretical and practical applications and approaches, results, comparisons as well as a blend of a set of scales of involvement and emotions by confrontating of authors.

Findings

The major findings state that emotions and involvement demonstrate greater progress and scientific development to the level of tourism, marketing and consumer behaviour, representing an important issue for the integrated tourism experiences.

Originality/value

This study presents a critical reflection on the importance of emotions and involvement in specific contexts of leisure and tourism.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Kostas Alexandris

The purpose of this paper is to test: the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality model in the context of mountain running races; and the influence of event…

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1519

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test: the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality model in the context of mountain running races; and the influence of event personality on event involvement and loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 177 runners (n=177) at two mountain running races participated in the study and filled the brand personality (Aaker, 1997) and leisure involvement (Kyle et al., 2004a, b) questionnaires.

Findings

The confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the factorial validity of the brand personality and event involvement models. The analysis confirmed also the structural model. Four of the five personality facets (excitement, competence, ruggedness and sincerity) significantly influenced the three dimensions of event involvement, which in their turn influenced event loyalty (intention to participate and W-O-M communications).

Practical implications

The topic of brand personality is important for building brand equity and guiding market positioning in the growing running races sector. The current study provides event organizers with a tool for measuring the personality of their events. Furthermore, it explains how event personality influences the development of event involvement, which is an important variable for the development of event loyalty.

Originality/value

It contributes to the academic literature in two ways: first, the construct of brand personality has not been previously applied in the context of outdoor sport events and especially mountain running races; and second, while it has been theoretically proposed (Aaker, 1997; Keller, 2008) and empirically supported (Eisend and Stokburger-Sauer, 2013) in the general marketing literature that brand personality is associated with positive behavioral and attitudinal (e.g. brand loyalty and brand involvement) outcomes, there has been no published research to test the relationships among brand personality, involvement and loyalty in the context of outdoor sport events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2014

Eliza Hixson

This paper aims to explore the social impact that two events, the Adelaide Fringe Festival and the Clipsal 500, have on young residents (16-19 years old) of Adelaide. The…

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6119

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the social impact that two events, the Adelaide Fringe Festival and the Clipsal 500, have on young residents (16-19 years old) of Adelaide. The purpose of this paper is to examine how young people participate in these events and how this affects their sense of involvement in the event and contributes to their identity development.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed methods approach was adopted in which focus groups and questionnaires were conducted with secondary school students. As an exploratory study, focus groups (n=24) were conducted in the first stage of the research. The results of the focus groups were used to develop a questionnaire that resulted in 226 useable responses. The final stage of the research explored one event in further depth in order to determine the influence of different participation levels.

Findings

This study found that young people demonstrated more involvement in the Adelaide Fringe Festival and their identities were more influenced by this event. Further investigation of the Adelaide Fringe Festival also indicated that level of participation affects the social outcomes gained, with those participating to a greater degree achieving higher involvement and increased identity awareness. This is demonstrated through a model which aims to illustrate how an event impact an individual based on their role during the event.

Originality/value

This paper applies two leisure concepts in order to analyse the impact of events. Activity involvement is a concept which examines the importance of the activity in the participant's life. Also of importance to young people is how activities contribute to their identities, especially because they are in a transitional period of their lives.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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