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Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2015

Brendan H. O’Connor and Layne J. Crawford

While bilinguals frequently mix languages in everyday conversation, these hybrid language practices have often been viewed from a deficit perspective, particularly in…

Abstract

While bilinguals frequently mix languages in everyday conversation, these hybrid language practices have often been viewed from a deficit perspective, particularly in classroom contexts. However, an emerging literature documents the complexity of hybrid language practices and their usefulness as an academic and social resource for bilingual students. This chapter examines hybrid language practices among English- and Spanish-speaking high school students in an astronomy/oceanography classroom in southern Arizona. Microethnography, or fine-grained analysis of video recordings from long-term ethnographic observation, is used to reveal what bilingual students accomplished with hybrid language practices in the classroom and to outline implications for teachers who want to engage their students’ hybrid repertoires. Specifically, the analyses reveal that careful attention to hybrid language practices can provide teachers with insights into students’ academic learning across linguistic codes, their use of language mixing for particular functions, and their beliefs about language and identity. The research is necessarily limited in scope because such in-depth analysis can only be done with a very small amount of data. Nevertheless, the findings affirm that hybrid language practices can enrich classroom discourse, academic learning, and social interaction for emergent bilinguals. The chapter highlights a teacher’s story in order to offer practical guidance to other teachers who seek to capitalize on the promise of hybrid language practices in their own classrooms.

Details

Research on Preparing Inservice Teachers to Work Effectively with Emergent Bilinguals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-494-8

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Mohammadali Zolfagharian, Fuad Hasan and Pramod Iyer

Focused on multicultural service encounters, this paper aims to argue that the interplay between customer language preference, employee choice and use of language affects…

Abstract

Purpose

Focused on multicultural service encounters, this paper aims to argue that the interplay between customer language preference, employee choice and use of language affects perceived interaction quality, which in turn influences loyalty, customer brand identification and positive word-of-mouth.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Mexican Americans (Spanish) as the focal ethnic group (language), a 3 (contexts: Fast food-English; Post office-English; Post office-Spanish) × 4 (scenarios: customer language preference adhered to; adapted to; mixed; ignored) between-subject scenario-based experiment was conducted.

Findings

Customers perceive a higher, or at least equal, level of interaction quality when the employee choice of language adheres to their preference than when the employee switches to their preferred language after missing it initially. Both of these scenarios lead to significantly higher interaction quality compared to when the employee ignores customer language preference or combines elements from two languages throughout the interaction. The adverse effects of ignoring customer preferred language or mixing it with another language are accentuated among customers with low ethnic identification and those with low level of bilingualism. Prior findings regard the interplay among interaction quality, and the remainder of outcomes variables were also corroborated.

Research limitations/implications

The findings add to the literature that examines the dynamics of intercultural service encounters and draws attention to employee choice and use of language and its impact on a host of service outcomes, with interaction quality serving as a key mediator.

Practical implications

This study highlights the need for service firms to consider customer language preferences and train and empower employees to meet customer expectations. To the extent that the increasingly viable segments of minority customers remain underserved in most developed markets, this study provides insights into cultivating a profitable customer segment.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates the role of employee choice and use of language and its consequences.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2016

Suzanne C. Hopf, Sharynne McLeod and Sarah H. McDonagh

Fiji is a multicultural and linguistically multi-competent country. Historical ethnic divisions have socialised students into language friendships based around common…

Abstract

Purpose

Fiji is a multicultural and linguistically multi-competent country. Historical ethnic divisions have socialised students into language friendships based around common languages. Recent changes to educational policy, specifically the mandating of students learning all three of the Standard languages of Fiji (Fijian, Hindi, and English), have been introduced in hope that cross-linguistic understanding will encourage a greater sense of national identity amongst all Fijians regardless of ethnicity. This study explores one multilingual school environment considering students’ language use, attitudes and friendships in light of these policies.

Methodology/approach

A convergent mixed-methods research design using surveying, artefact collection, students’ drawing and observation was employed.

Findings

The majority of students reported some proficiency in the language of their inter-ethnic peers; however, students’ inter-ethnic friendships predominantly relied on English language use. It was observed that most friendships amongst these Fijian primary school students were still established according to main language use at home; however, inter-ethnic peer interaction in English was observed to be friendly and respectful. These language use patterns and friendship behaviours were potentially reinforced by individual and societal multilingualism, in addition to the school environment.

Originality/value

The chapter presents the first research linking Fijian primary school students’ language choices and friendship development.

Details

Friendship and Peer Culture in Multilingual Settings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-396-2

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Hengyi Fu

With the increasing number of online multilingual resources, cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) has drawn much attention from the information retrieval (IR…

Abstract

Purpose

With the increasing number of online multilingual resources, cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) has drawn much attention from the information retrieval (IR) research community. However, few studies have examined how and why multilingual searchers seek information in two or more languages, specifically how they switch and mix language in queries to get satisfying results. The purpose of this paper is to focus on Chinese–English bilinguals’ intra-sentential code-switching behaviors in online searches. The scenarios and reasons of code-switching, factors that may affect code-switching, the patterns of mixed language query formulation and reformulation and how current IR systems and other search tools can facilitate such information needs were examined.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth semi-structured interviews were used as the research method. In total, 30 participants were recruited based on their English proficiency, location and profession, using a purposive sampling method.

Findings

Four scenarios and four reasons for using Chinese–English mixed language queries to cover information needs were identified, and results suggest that linguistic and cultural/social factors are of equivalent importance in code-switching behaviors. English terms and Chinese terms in queries play different roles in searches, and mixed language queries are irreplaceable by either single language queries or other search facilitating features. Findings also suggest current search engines and tools need greater emphasis in the user interface and more user education is required.

Originality/value

This study presents a qualitative analysis of bilinguals’ code-switching behaviors in online searches. Findings are expected to advance the theoretical understanding of bilingual users’ search strategies and interactions with IR systems, and provide insights for designing more effective IR systems and tools to discover multilingual online resources, including cross-language controlled vocabularies, personalized CLIR tools and mixed language query assistants.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 71 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Elena Nichele

– This paper aims to explore the country-of-origin effect, specifically its potential impact on beer labeling, from a linguistic perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the country-of-origin effect, specifically its potential impact on beer labeling, from a linguistic perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for an exploratory study using Sebba’s framework for multilingual texts (2012). Briefly, analysis developed through the observation, the use of notes taken during the phase of data collection and their comparison.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights on how beer labels appear to signal some interesting occurring trends. First, this investigation seems to suggest a link between languages used and their potential to recall country images that producers may be willing to stimulate and enhance. Second, data appeal to products’ countries of origin, using official languages, texts and visual elements strictly interrelated with local cultures.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen approach, results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to apply this framework or explore the same phenomena in other product categories and geographical markets too. Finally, deeper insights on the topic could be reached taking into consideration other financial data, for example market performance.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for the development of further research regarding brand image and reputation, in general, and the country-of-origin effect, specifically.

Originality/value

This project is innovative for two main reasons: first, its methodological approach and, second, its combination of linguistics and marketing-related aspects. Hence, exploring possible links across the two disciplines, ultimately trying to examine potential reasons underlying their use, was the final objective of this paper. Finally, no existing publications appear to use Sebba’s framework to analyze beer labels from a linguistic perspective. Consequently, no researchers seem to have explored potential interrelations among this analysis and marketing concepts and strategies.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2020

Jagroop Kaur and Jaswinder Singh

Normalization is an important step in all the natural language processing applications that are handling social media text. The text from social media poses a different…

Abstract

Purpose

Normalization is an important step in all the natural language processing applications that are handling social media text. The text from social media poses a different kind of problems that are not present in regular text. Recently, a considerable amount of work has been done in this direction, but mostly in the English language. People who do not speak English code mixed the text with their native language and posted text on social media using the Roman script. This kind of text further aggravates the problem of normalizing. This paper aims to discuss the concept of normalization with respect to code-mixed social media text, and a model has been proposed to normalize such text.

Design/methodology/approach

The system is divided into two phases – candidate generation and most probable sentence selection. Candidate generation task is treated as machine translation task where the Roman text is treated as source language and Gurmukhi text is treated as the target language. Character-based translation system has been proposed to generate candidate tokens. Once candidates are generated, the second phase uses the beam search method for selecting the most probable sentence based on hidden Markov model.

Findings

Character error rate (CER) and bilingual evaluation understudy (BLEU) score are reported. The proposed system has been compared with Akhar software and RB\_R2G system, which are also capable of transliterating Roman text to Gurmukhi. The performance of the system outperforms Akhar software. The CER and BLEU scores are 0.268121 and 0.6807939, respectively, for ill-formed text.

Research limitations/implications

It was observed that the system produces dialectical variations of a word or the word with minor errors like diacritic missing. Spell checker can improve the output of the system by correcting these minor errors. Extensive experimentation is needed for optimizing language identifier, which will further help in improving the output. The language model also seeks further exploration. Inclusion of wider context, particularly from social media text, is an important area that deserves further investigation.

Practical implications

The practical implications of this study are: (1) development of parallel dataset containing Roman and Gurmukhi text; (2) development of dataset annotated with language tag; (3) development of the normalizing system, which is first of its kind and proposes translation based solution for normalizing noisy social media text from Roman to Gurmukhi. It can be extended for any pair of scripts. (4) The proposed system can be used for better analysis of social media text. Theoretically, our study helps in better understanding of text normalization in social media context and opens the doors for further research in multilingual social media text normalization.

Originality/value

Existing research work focus on normalizing monolingual text. This study contributes towards the development of a normalization system for multilingual text.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2020

Johann Enrique Pirela Morillo, Yamely Margarita Almarza Franco and Joel Alhuay-Quispe

The purpose of this study is to present a conceptual analysis to artistic manifestation represented through graphic and multimedia pieces that are available in social…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a conceptual analysis to artistic manifestation represented through graphic and multimedia pieces that are available in social media networks as document-speeches in relation to protests in Venezuela during April-July, 2017. Also, this paper proposes the implementation of digital documentation tool that allows retrieval, organization, systematization and preservation of visual contents.

Design/methodology/approach

Semiotic analysis based on 44 artistic pieces (images and videos) posted on Twitter, Instagram and YouTube to protest in Venezuela against the government of Nicolás Maduro in 2017. The authors defined a metadata group for content creation of multimedia and testing information retrieval from general data, textual contents, file formats and semiotic description using Omeka software.

Findings

The digital documentation of artivism proposed has the potential to sustain over time as documents likely to be studied. It also constitutes an important analysis and a historical reconstruction, which must be taken into consideration to conduct research in the future political and social process of Venezuela.

Social implications

Cyber-artivism, a concept related to online activism, is conceived as an artistic expression mediated by technologies and social media emerging in the context of social environments with a political–demographic character.

Originality/value

Digital preservation of multimedia contents by their semiotic and historic value as artistic cyber-activism.

Details

Digital Library Perspectives, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5816

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Case study
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Emmanuel Silva Quaye and Yvonne Saini

Amongst other things, at the end of this case discussion, the student should be able to: diagnose situational factors that contribute to a brand’s positioning; explore…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

Amongst other things, at the end of this case discussion, the student should be able to: diagnose situational factors that contribute to a brand’s positioning; explore important issues in implementing brand positioning strategies; use relevant models for understanding a firm’s internal and external environments to inform strategic decisions about customers and competition; demonstrate an understanding of target audience; identify the unique attributes of the competition to inform a firm’s positioning and competitive strategy.

Case overview/synopsis

Kaya FM derives its name from the isiZulu word “ikhaya”, which means “home”. The name reflects the mission of the radio station to provide a home for black South Africans who were denied many opportunities during the apartheid era in South Africa. Kaya FM has been broadcasting since 1997, following the deregulation of the media landscape in South Africa. However, by 2018, the radio landscape has become very challenging. Mainstream advertisers still do not consider Kaya FM as a preferred channel to reach their target audience. Overall, radio listenership is dwindling and advertising sales growth is not encouraging. Greg Maloka, Kaya FM’s station manager is considering how to preserve the station’s unique positioning as it competes with both more dominant stations and new entrants so that Kaya FM can truly be a home for Afropolitans for many years to come.

Complexity academic level

Honour’s and master’s level, as well as executive education delegates.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 8: Marketing.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

Mary H. Beaven and Dennis J. Scotti

Argues that a cognitive bias is found in the language used todescribe services, since services are defined in relation tomanufacturing. Proposes that services should be…

Abstract

Argues that a cognitive bias is found in the language used to describe services, since services are defined in relation to manufacturing. Proposes that services should be accurately described as they are very different from manufactured goods. Considers service from an alternative viewpoint, highlighting this perspective′s implications for marketing thought. Draws attention to practical implications with regard to the marketing mix.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Case study
Publication date: 8 August 2008

Anand Kumar Jaiswal and Harit Palan

Radio Mirchi is the flagship brand of Entertainment Network India Limited (ENIL). ENIL is the largest private FM radio broadcaster in India. ENIL was able to gain a…

Abstract

Radio Mirchi is the flagship brand of Entertainment Network India Limited (ENIL). ENIL is the largest private FM radio broadcaster in India. ENIL was able to gain a stronghold in the market due to its strengths of innovativeness and creative content, large operating network, reach among listeners, high quality studio and strong advertisement sales capabilities. The case discusses Radio Mirchi's entry into the Kolkata market in 2003 amidst the competition from three other players—Red FM, Aamar and Power. Kolkata occupied a prime place in the company's growth plans. The case discusses the dilemma faced by the company on developing the entry strategy. Its top management has to decide on the market segment(s) it should target, and the design of the product.

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