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Book part
Publication date: 3 July 2007

Sean Chabot and Stellan Vinthagen

The emerging synthesis between nonviolent action and contentious politics studies has yielded important insights. Yet it also reproduces the dichotomy between politics and…

Abstract

The emerging synthesis between nonviolent action and contentious politics studies has yielded important insights. Yet it also reproduces the dichotomy between politics and culture that continues to haunt both fields. Extending recent work by Jean-Pierre Reed and John Foran, our contribution introduces the political cultures of nonviolent opposition concept to forge a new synthesis, one that recognizes the politics of nonviolent culture and the culture of nonviolent politics. We apply our theoretical framework to two empirical cases, the Indian independence movement and the Landless Workers Movement in Brazil (known as Movimento Sem Terra or MST), and conclude with ideas for further research on political cultures of nonviolent opposition.

Details

Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1318-1

Book part
Publication date: 3 December 2014

Débora Franco Lerrer and Leonilde Servolo de Medeiros

Major pillar of Via Campesina in Brazil, the Landless WorkersMovement (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra – MST) political platform combines land reform and…

Abstract

Major pillar of Via Campesina in Brazil, the Landless WorkersMovement (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra – MST) political platform combines land reform and agro-ecology, claiming for a profound change in the hegemonic agriculture model in the country, hoisting the ‘food sovereignty’ flag. However, this was not a linear trajectory. Focusing on events that took place in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the birthplace of the MST, this chapter aims to analyse the different path followed by MST there in order to consolidate the ‘conquered’ settlements. The organization approached, initially, a network of technicians and social organizations critics of the technological package of the Green Revolution in Brazil. Afterwards, choose to support the deployment of conventional agriculture in the agrarian reform settlements, prioritizing collective organization of labour through cooperatives of production, practicing an agriculture based in the intensive use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers and commercial seed varieties. Thanks to the growing international connections of the MST, that paved the way for the creation of Via Campesina, and to the proximity to ‘militant technicians’ coming mainly from the agronomy student movement, in the end of the 1990s, MST resumed its dialogue with alternative agriculture strands, particularly with agro-ecology, campaigning for an agriculture based on principles of environmental conservation and valorization of the peasant way of life.

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Alternative Agrifood Movements: Patterns of Convergence and Divergence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-089-6

Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Marle Aparecida Fidéles de Oliveira Vieira and Valdete Côco

In this article, we discuss the issue of the right to education of young children, focusing on the Institution of Early Childhood Education (EIC in Portuguese), of views…

Abstract

In this article, we discuss the issue of the right to education of young children, focusing on the Institution of Early Childhood Education (EIC in Portuguese), of views with legal markers and educational indicators of a Brazilian State. From a research that approached Early Childhood Education (EI in Portuguese) in settlements of the Landless Rural Workers Movement (MST in Portuguese) and making use of the Bakhtinian framework we highlight the processes of inequality that devastate childhood in the rural settings. The data reiterate the need to not only combat the logics of precariousness that affect the service given but also to guide the specificity of Children’s education field, within a framework of the effectiveness of primary school attendance. Hence, we call one’s attention to the debate of the ways of setting up institutions, with a view to serving children, urging the regulations related to the right to education, particularly, the right to Early Childhood Education in the peasant’s context, particularly in settlements.

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Human Rights for Children and Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-047-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Claudia Job Schmitt

The chapter seeks to reflect on the dynamics of the reconstruction of family farming and peasant agriculture in agrarian reform settlements (“assentamentos”) in Brazil…

Abstract

The chapter seeks to reflect on the dynamics of the reconstruction of family farming and peasant agriculture in agrarian reform settlements (“assentamentos”) in Brazil, exploring the limits and potential of government food purchases from family farming, particularly the Food Acquisition Program (Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos – PAA), in the creation of alternative paths of rural development. The work analyzes the different strategies through which farmers and their organizations mobilize public policy instruments and market connections, expanding their room for maneuver and agency capacity. Research was conducted in the Baixo Sul Territory of the state of Bahia, focusing the heterogeneous web of social organizations involved in the implementation of the Food Acquisition Program in this setting.

Details

Constructing a New Framework for Rural Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-622-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 December 2014

Peter M. Rosset and María Elena Martínez-Torres

In this chapter we focus on food sovereignty and agroecology, in the transnational peasant social movement La Via Campesina, as issues which help us analyze mechanisms of…

Abstract

In this chapter we focus on food sovereignty and agroecology, in the transnational peasant social movement La Via Campesina, as issues which help us analyze mechanisms of internal convergence in rural social movements. We examine such convergence through the building of collective processes, and in the construction of mobilizing frames for collective action. In particular, we analyze the encounter and diálogo de saberes (dialog among different knowledges and ways of knowing) between different rural cultures (East, West, North, and South; peasant, indigenous, and rural proletarian; etc.) that take place within it. This dialog among the “absences” left out by the dominant monoculture of ideas, has led to a process of convergence that has yielded important “emergences,” which range from mobilizing frames for collective action – like the food sovereignty concept – to social methodologies for the spread of agroecology among peasant families.

Details

Alternative Agrifood Movements: Patterns of Convergence and Divergence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-089-6

Book part
Publication date: 3 December 2014

Douglas H. Constance, William H. Friedland, Marie-Christine Renard and Marta G. Rivera-Ferre

This introduction provides an overview of the discourse on alternative agrifood movements (AAMs) to (1) ascertain the degree of convergence and divergence around a common…

Abstract

This introduction provides an overview of the discourse on alternative agrifood movements (AAMs) to (1) ascertain the degree of convergence and divergence around a common ethos of alterity and (2) context the chapters of the book. AAMs have increased in recent years in response to the growing legitimation crisis of the conventional agrifood system. Some agrifood researchers argue that AAMs represent the vanguard movement of our time, a formidable counter movement to global capitalism. Other authors note a pattern of blunting of the transformative qualities of AAMs due to conventionalization and mainstreaming in the market. The literature on AAMs is organized following a Four Questions in Agrifood Studies (Constance, 2008) framework. The section for each Question ends with a case study to better illustrate the historical dynamics of an AAM. The literature review ends with a summary of the discourse applied to the research question of the book: Are AAMs the vanguard social movement of our time? The last section of this introduction provides a short description of each contributing chapter of the book, which is divided into five sections: Introduction; Theoretical and Conceptual Framings; Food Sovereignty Movements; Alternative Movements in the Global North; and Conclusions.

Details

Alternative Agrifood Movements: Patterns of Convergence and Divergence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-089-6

Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Júlio Emílio Diniz-Pereira

Narrative inquiry and life history are privileged methods for studying people's lives, experiences, and identity construction. In this article, I argue that critical life…

Abstract

Narrative inquiry and life history are privileged methods for studying people's lives, experiences, and identity construction. In this article, I argue that critical life history inquiry is especially suitable for studies of those, who have actively involved in progressive social and cultural movements and have developed an identity as activist educators.

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Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-931-9

Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2005

Norman Long and Bryan Roberts

The chapter identifies key components of the new patterns of farming and rural livelihoods emerging in Latin America in the twenty-first century. By the beginning of the…

Abstract

The chapter identifies key components of the new patterns of farming and rural livelihoods emerging in Latin America in the twenty-first century. By the beginning of the millennium, most rural areas of Latin America had become integrated into global agricultural commodity networks that curtail the opportunities for small-scale, family-based farming and result in two predominant types of production, the corporate large-scale enterprise suited to oils seeds and their derivatives, cattle or vegetables for processing and the smaller commercially oriented farm producing market garden products, fruits and wine. Both types of farms often form part of commodity networks organized by domestic intermediaries, large-scale supermarket chains, such as Wal-Mart and Carrefour, and foreign food marketers. In addition to the multiplication of external commercial linkages, high levels of urbanization have increasingly blurred the distinction between the rural and the urban. Off-farm work, including international labor migration, is now an important source of rural livelihoods. This context means that research needs to address the multiple interfaces that now connect the different types of rural inhabitants with a wide range of external actors.

Details

New Directions in the Sociology of Global Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-373-0

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2007

Asbjorn Osland and Joyce S. Osland

The purpose of this case study is to illustrate the global risks facing an award‐winning company known for best practices in sustainability and HRM that, nevertheless, is…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this case study is to illustrate the global risks facing an award‐winning company known for best practices in sustainability and HRM that, nevertheless, is challenged by a contentious land dispute with indigenous communities and numerous stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a case study based primarily on secondary sources, such as reports and web sites of the company and its stakeholders.

Findings

Aracruz Celulose SA, a Brazilian pulp company founded by a Norwegian, owns legal title to land claimed by indigenous communities. As a result, they face a complex array of additional stakeholders with contradictory perspectives: local and international non‐governmental organizations, various Brazilian and Norwegian Government entities, the World Bank, and investors. The company runs the risk of losing land and assets, reputation, and investors. There are few simple solutions to the dilemma of unresolved property rights and agrarian reform problematic in much of Latin America. Even Aracruz's hoped – for court ruling may not guarantee an end to conflict without a creative solution.

Research limitations/implications

The controversy is ongoing and the outcomes are not yet determined. Based on one case, limited generalizations can be made.

Originality/value

Numerous best practices in the operational areas under a company's control cannot completely protect firms from risks related to larger societal dilemmas and the need to negotiate win‐win solutions with stakeholders.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Expert briefing
Publication date: 13 January 2015

Abreu's comments triggered a torrent of criticism, particularly from environmental and land reform groups. Moreover, numerous media outlets have since cited data…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB195969

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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