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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2014

Donna Ladkin and Steven S. Taylor

Although within the leadership literature there is a body of research concerning the physical attributes of leaders, close examination reveals that much of it offers a…

Abstract

Although within the leadership literature there is a body of research concerning the physical attributes of leaders, close examination reveals that much of it offers a rather surface level of analysis. A number of studies, for example, attempt to correlate leaders’ height with their success, and attempts have been made to identify a relationship between leaders’ performance and their attractiveness. In this book, a range of scholars from differing perspectives delve below the apparent level of physicality to highlight its paradoxically ‘invisible’ aspects including: the impact of gesture, the way in which the physical is intrinsically interwoven with the social and the contradictory nature of bodily taboos. The book shows how each of these aspects plays an important role in the creation and maintenance of leadership relationships.

This chapter introduces three tussles we and our authors have faced in navigating this territory. Firstly, we have worked hard to find forms of writing which ‘point towards’ the experience of physicality. Realising that written language can never ‘be’ that experience (just as Magritte demonstrates with his painting, ‘Ceci n’est pas une pipe’ that the reproduction of the pipe is not the pipe itself) we have encouraged authors to contribute first-person accounts, in-depth case studies focused on individuals and even activities which involve the reader in order to evoke a sense of the physical. Secondly, we have endeavoured to distinguish the ‘inside-out’ phenomenon of ‘embodiment’ from the ‘outside-in’ occurrence of ‘physicality’. Finally, our authors have worked to reveal the mutual entanglement of social and material worlds, such that paradoxically, the physical reveals itself to be ‘in flow’ and continually in a process of ‘becoming’. After describing how we have sought to resolve these challenges, a taster from each chapter is offered. The chapter concludes by reasserting the importance of recognising the physical nature of the connection at the heart of human relationships experienced as leadership.

Details

The Physicality of Leadership: Gesture, Entanglement, Taboo, Possibilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-289-0

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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2014

David Gilling

Few organisations exhibit the importance of physicality in leadership as explicitly as the symphony orchestra. While usually attributed to the direction of the conductor…

Abstract

Few organisations exhibit the importance of physicality in leadership as explicitly as the symphony orchestra. While usually attributed to the direction of the conductor my own experience suggests that leading in orchestral performance is grounded in physical relations between individuals and among instrumental groups across the orchestra as much as in the interaction between musicians and maestro. In order to further interrogate this experience while enhancing our understanding of onstage relations among orchestral musicians, I recently undertook research that employed an autoethnographic methodology underpinned by the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty (2002, 2004) and the sense-making ideas of Weick (1995, 2001a). Using this method while drawing on ideas such as kinaesthetic empathy (Pallaro, 1995; Parviainen, 2002), the picture presented in what follows is one of leadership embedded in physical interaction among colleagues.

This interaction is, I suggest, based on sense-making and sense-giving activity that occurs in a ‘kinaesthetic loop’ that draws on and is generated by auditory, visual and gestural information given and received by individual musicians. This activity in turn mediates the acoustic space between musicians and thus, ultimately, determines how leadership and coordination in the orchestra are constituted. Rather than being disembodied products of dictatorial direction dispensed through the orchestra’s hierarchy, orchestral performance and leadership emerge in this more nuanced account as co-creative processes in which all the musicians on stage share responsibility.

Details

The Physicality of Leadership: Gesture, Entanglement, Taboo, Possibilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-289-0

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2018

Rebecca O. Scott and Mark D. Uncles

Multisensory stimulation is integral to experiential consumption. However, a gap persists between recognition of the importance of multisensory stimulation and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Multisensory stimulation is integral to experiential consumption. However, a gap persists between recognition of the importance of multisensory stimulation and the research techniques used to study the effects of such stimulation on consumption experiences. This article draws on sensory anthropology to narrow the gap.

Design/methodology/approach

Sensory anthropology has the potential to help consumer researchers understand multisensory stimulation and its effect on consumption experiences. To highlight this potential, ethnographic fieldwork is reported for two related experiential settings: yacht racing and adventure racing.

Findings

It is shown how consumer researchers can apply concepts and data collection techniques from sensory anthropology to derive powerful insights into consumption experiences. A set of guidelines and examples is derived from the embodied concepts associated with sensory anthropology, namely, kinaesthetic schema, bodily mimesis, the mindful body and local biology. These concepts are used to comprehend how consumers experience sensations phenomenologically, understand them culturally and re-enact them socially.

Practical implications

By acknowledging and engaging the senses, researchers can acquire embodied information that would not be evident from the conventional interview, survey or experimental data. Sensory anthropology adds to what is known from psychological, social and cultural sources to enable organisations to differentiate their offerings by means of the senses and sensory expressions, not only in yacht and adventure racing but potentially in many other experiential settings, such as travel, shopping, entertainment and immersive gaming.

Originality/value

This article offers distinct and original methodological insights for consumer researchers by focusing on concepts and data collection techniques that assist the study of experiential consumption from an embodied and corporeal perspective.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1972

Operation Vulcan is a survey of the state of the art in training for manual, craft or physical skills. This is the traditional area of training expertise: companies and…

Abstract

Operation Vulcan is a survey of the state of the art in training for manual, craft or physical skills. This is the traditional area of training expertise: companies and countries usually take this aspect of training to a fairly advanced stage before they consider extending their in‐company training activities into other fields such as management training and clerical training. Even today in Britain, this is the only form of training in which some companies engage. When small companies assemble together in group training schemes it is usually for the purpose of pooling their efforts in craft training. Historically craft training precedes technological and technician training by several decades. Here we have, then, the traditional training area. But it is important from another point of view: it is also the biggest training area in the sense that more people are trained in manual and physical skills than in other aspects. These facts make it all the more remarkable that the training revolution in physical skills has yet to happen. We have seen a revolution taking place in management training and, to a less extent, in commercial and clerical training, but in the sphere of physical skills things tend to jog along just as they ever did. We have, it is true, seen ‘Sitting Next to Nellie’ giving way to off‐the‐job training workshops; we have the module system which enables the individual to build up his own unique personal repertoire of skills designed to meet his own needs. We have skills analysis, but this is only vaguely‐comprehended and only partially‐digested. In no way, at present, is skills analysis seen as one of the indispensable fundamentals on which skill training should be built. A great deal of existing training in this field relies on getting yourself a good syllabus and then using this as the basis for instructing by telling and demonstrating. It is almost as though the sheer ponderous dead‐weight of tradition linked with the huge scale of the problem has absorbed whatever electric shocks could be administered by the technical innovators and the reformers. And yet, all the components of a comprehensive, rational and analytical system of skill training exist at this moment. Operation Vulcan is an attempt to collect the scattered and random elements and assemble them in some co‐ordinated form.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

A. Frisoli, E. Sotgiu, C.A. Avizzano, D. Checcacci and M. Bergamasco

This paper analyzes the design of a force‐based impedance control for a haptic interface system characterized by a parallel kinematics. By exploiting the features of…

Abstract

This paper analyzes the design of a force‐based impedance control for a haptic interface system characterized by a parallel kinematics. By exploiting the features of parallel mechanisms, which perform better than the serial ones in terms of dynamic performance, stiffness and position accuracy, and by implementing a closed‐loop force control, the transparency of a haptic master system and the fidelity of resultant force feedback can be consistently improved. Issues for design and control as well as aspects of performance evaluation of haptic interfaces are treated within the paper and some results of the experimental characterization of a haptic interface are presented.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

George K. Stylios

Examines the ninth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

Abstract

Examines the ninth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

George K. Stylios

Looks at the eighth published year of the ITCRR and the research, from far and near, involved in this. Muses on the fact that, though all the usual processes are to the…

Abstract

Looks at the eighth published year of the ITCRR and the research, from far and near, involved in this. Muses on the fact that, though all the usual processes are to the fore, the downside part of the industry is garment making which is the least developed side. Posits that the manufacture of clothing needs to become more technologically advanced as does retailing. Closes by emphasising support for the community in all its efforts.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Joseph Voros

To outline and present a generalised scheme for using “layered methods” in foresight work.

Abstract

Purpose

To outline and present a generalised scheme for using “layered methods” in foresight work.

Design/methodology/approach

A number of different approaches to “layering” in futures studies and foresight work are examined and synthesised into a generalised scheme. The place of layered methods in foresight work is also examined, and the role of perceptual filters in interpretation is discussed.

Findings

A schema of four major “strata”, each potentially containing multiple sub‐layers, is developed. The strata range from, for example, short‐term trends in the shallowest level, through to long‐term macrohistorical forces at the deepest level.

Practical implications

The generalised scheme enables the practitioner to progressively move to greater levels of understanding as new layers of meaning are uncovered or constructed, as appropriate to the specific nature of the particular foresight engagement. The scheme also represents a template from which purpose‐built interpretive frameworks can be constructed, as needed, in foresight processes and work.

Originality/value

This paper provides a new, generalised and integrated approach to the use of interpretive frameworks in foresight work.

Details

Foresight, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Germanico Gonzalez-Badillo, Hugo I. Medellin-Castillo, Theodore Lim, James M. Ritchie, Raymond C.W. Sung and Samir Garbaya

In this study, a new methodology to evaluate the performance of physics simulation engines (PSEs) when used in haptic virtual assembly applications is proposed. This…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, a new methodology to evaluate the performance of physics simulation engines (PSEs) when used in haptic virtual assembly applications is proposed. This methodology can be used to assess the performance of any physics engine. To prove the feasibility of the proposed methodology, two-third party PSEs – Bullet and PhysXtm – were evaluated. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight assembly tests comprising variable geometric and dynamic complexity were conducted. The strengths and weaknesses of each simulation engine for haptic virtual assembly were identified by measuring different parameters such as task completion time, influence of weight perception and force feedback.

Findings

The proposed tests have led to the development of a standard methodology by which physics engines can be compared and evaluated. The results have shown that when the assembly comprises complex shapes, Bullet has better performance than PhysX. It was also observed that the assembly time is directly affected by the weight of virtual objects.

Research limitations/implications

A more comprehensive study must be carried out in order to evaluate and compare the performance of more PSEs. The influence of collision shape representation algorithms on the performance of haptic assembly must be considered in future analysis.

Originality/value

The performance of PSEs in haptic-enabled VR applications had been remained as an unknown issue. The main parameters of physics engines that affect the haptic virtual assembly process have been identified. All the tests performed in this study were carried out with the haptic rendering loop active and the objects manipulated through the haptic device.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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