Search results

1 – 10 of 560
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 12 August 2017

Amy Kroska, James Daniel Lee and Nicole T. Carr

We test the proposition that criminal sentiments, which we define as a negative and potent view of a juvenile delinquent (JD), moderate the effect of a delinquency…

Abstract

Purpose

We test the proposition that criminal sentiments, which we define as a negative and potent view of a juvenile delinquent (JD), moderate the effect of a delinquency adjudication on self-sentiments. We expect criminal sentiments to reduce self-evaluation and increase self-potency among juvenile delinquents but have no effect on self-sentiments among non-delinquents. We also examine the construct validity of our measure of criminal sentiments by assessing its relationship to beliefs that most people devalue, discriminate against, and fear JDs.

Methodology

We test these hypotheses with self-administered survey data from two samples of college students and one sample of youths in an aftercare program for delinquent youths. We use endogenous treatment-regression models to identify and reduce the effects of endogeneity between delinquency status and self-sentiments.

Findings

Our construct validity assessment shows, as expected, that criminal sentiments are positively related to beliefs that most people devalue, discriminate against, and fear JDs. Our focal analyses support our self-evaluation predictions but not our self-potency predictions.

Practical implications

Our findings suggest that the negative effect of a delinquency label on JDs’ self-esteem depends on the youths’ view of the delinquency label.

Originality/value

This study is the first to test a modified labeling theory proposition on juvenile delinquents.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Sesha Kethineni and Tricia Klosky

How delinquent, dependent/neglected, and abused children are treated by criminal justice agencies is a concern that crosses geographical boundaries. Do the courts sentence…

Abstract

How delinquent, dependent/neglected, and abused children are treated by criminal justice agencies is a concern that crosses geographical boundaries. Do the courts sentence juveniles too leniently or, conversely, too harshly? Around the world some of the most serious questions involve the placement of juveniles in penal institutions. There are some clearly recognized problems. First, many countries still house delinquents and non-delinquent children in the same institutions, despite nation-wide reforms or legislation specifically prohibiting such practices. Second, many juveniles, regardless of their status, are held in jails and detention facilities built or administered for adult populations that greatly outnumber the younger inmates. Third, efforts at reform, while ambitious, have been ineffective in changing objectionable practices and/or aiding children in need. Fourth, left unresolved is the question as to whether the problems noted above in developed countries are present to a greater or lesser degree in developing countries.

Details

Suffer The Little Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-831-6

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 October 2009

Peer van der Helm, Marian Klapwijk, Geert Stams and Peter van der Laan

The Dutch juvenile justice system locks up an increasing number of adolescent boys and girls at a cost of approximately €250,000 for each inmate annually (Boone &…

Abstract

The Dutch juvenile justice system locks up an increasing number of adolescent boys and girls at a cost of approximately €250,000 for each inmate annually (Boone & Moerings, 2007; Tonry, 2005). Questions have been raised, however, about the cost‐effectiveness of treatment in closed institutions. This study, with a sample of 49 adolescents residing in a Dutch youth prison, examined the role of group climate in establishing and maintaining treatment effects. Results show that an open group climate, with group workers paying more attention to the psychological needs of the adolescents and giving them ‘space’ to experiment, led to inmates feeling that they were ‘being understood by the group workers’. This perception of being understood was associated with greater treatment motivation and higher internal locus of control. Positive prison workers in the living group turned out to be a key factor in building an open group climate and subsequently higher internal locus of control and greater treatment motivation.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Deborah Shade Adekeye and Paul Emmanuel

Delinquency as well as juvenile recidivism cuts across all nations in the world with its negative consequences on individuals, social and economic phases of life. Despite…

Abstract

Purpose

Delinquency as well as juvenile recidivism cuts across all nations in the world with its negative consequences on individuals, social and economic phases of life. Despite various interventions, strategies, the rate of recidivism has been on the increase. This calls for concern and a need to find a solution to the menace. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nexus between early release of inmates and juvenile recidivism using Barnawa Borstal Training Institute, Kaduna, as case study and to identify other pre-disposing factors that contribute to juvenile recidivism in the society.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a survey research design and used the questionnaire as the main instrument of data collection. The sample for the study consisted of 210 juvenile inmates from the Institute. Simple percentile and frequency distribution were used to analyze the data collected from the juvenile, while χ2 was used to test the only hypothesis formulated for the study. The χ2 result ( χ c 2 =1.409; df=3; α level=0.05; χ t 2 =7.815) showed that there is no significant relationship between early release and juvenile recidivism, and rather lack of proper reformation, stigmatization and lack of parental care are some of the important factors causing juvenile recidivism in Nigeria.

Findings

Based on the findings, it was recommended that government should, through the Borstal homes all over the country, ensure proper and adequate rehabilitation of inmates and provide adequate public enlightment for the safe and total re-absorption of inmates without stigmatization.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of the work is the fact that the Borstal Institute in Kaduna has only male inmates, so there is no opportunity to consider the effect of gender on juvenile recidivism.

Practical implications

The practical implications is that the result of this study can be added to the field of criminal justice in Nigeria. The result also bring to the fore the fact that rehabilitation and success rate of re-integration of juvenile delinquents back into the society is everybody’s business.

Social implications

The social implication of the study is that the study will go a long way in assisting policy makers in government and the prison authority to design and implement policies that will bring about proper reformation and rehabilitation of inmates.

Originality/value

The research was carried out among juvenile delinquents, some of who have been in and out of the Borstal home many times. So the researchers were able to collect first-hand information from the delinquents that serve as the respondents for this research. Moreover, the research setting was located in the northern part of Nigeria, whereas some of the earlier studies were carried out in the southern part of the country.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2014

Serkan Tasgin

In this chapter, I examine the juvenile justice system and incarceration practices in Turkey. The study focuses on the basic agents and the legislation of the juvenile

Abstract

Purpose

In this chapter, I examine the juvenile justice system and incarceration practices in Turkey. The study focuses on the basic agents and the legislation of the juvenile justice system and the current status of juvenile incarceration. This study also reveals the problems of the functionality of the system. I conclude with policy recommendations for successful implementation of the juvenile justice system and prevention of recidivism.

Design/methodology/approach

I discuss concepts in the juvenile justice system of Turkey and highlight the function and problems of each agent of the system. I focus on problems of the juvenile justice system and its reflection on high rates of recidivism of juveniles.

Findings

Overall, the leniency of the juvenile justice system is associated with high rates of juvenile recidivism in Turkey. Infrastructure insufficiencies have limited the standardization of services and practices. The delayed response and perceived leniency of the justice system promoted juveniles’ continuation on a crime trajectory.

Originality/value

Few scholars have examined the functionality of the juvenile justice system, its problems, and its reflection on high rates of juvenile recidivism in the Turkish case.

Details

Punishment and Incarceration: A Global Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-907-2

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Chad Trulson and Jon Caudill

The purpose of this paper is to examine and explain the recidivism outcomes of a large cohort of juvenile homicide offenders three years following their release from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine and explain the recidivism outcomes of a large cohort of juvenile homicide offenders three years following their release from institutional confinement.

Design/methodology/approach

Retrospective data were utilized to examine demographic, background, and institutional behavior variables on post-release recidivism of 247 juvenile homicide offenders. Analyses distinguish between capital and non-capital juvenile homicide offenders.

Findings

Descriptive analyses demonstrated a 50 percent recidivism rate among the sample of juvenile homicide offenders. Bivariate analyses revealed few significant differences between capital and non-capital homicide offending juveniles. Logistic regression analyses revealed that youth who were neglected prior to state institutionalization were significantly more likely to recidivate. Logistic regression also revealed that longer lengths of incarceration were associated with decreased odds of recidivism, while participating in assaultive behaviors against peers while confined aggravated the odds of recidivism.

Research limitations/implications

Implications related to the role that previous neglect, incarceration time, and institutional behavior can inform policymakers and practitioners on issues related to the treatment of juvenile homicide offenders while confined, and the impact that incarceration time and institutional behavior mean for post-release recidivism risk.

Originality/value

Little research has assessed the recidivism outcomes of juvenile homicide offenders, especially with a larger sample size. None have examined the differences between capital and non-capital homicide offending juveniles. As juvenile jurisdictions continue to retain more homicide offending juveniles (as opposed to their removal to adult systems), there is value to the research to inform policy and practice with such an enriched and problematic groups of offenders.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 12 August 2017

Abstract

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-192-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2007

Johannes Lohner and Norbert Konrad

This article reviews the international literature of the last two decades on self‐injurious behaviour in prisons and jails and introduces the risk factors associated with…

Abstract

This article reviews the international literature of the last two decades on self‐injurious behaviour in prisons and jails and introduces the risk factors associated with this behaviour. Studies from a variety of countries investigated different samples (e.g. in jails or prisons; female or male inmates). We only chose those studies using a control group of inmates without self‐injurious behaviour. The findings on potential risk factors for self‐injurious behaviour are largely contradictory because of the differences in sample selection and dependent variables (deliberate self‐harm without suicidal intent vs. suicide attempts). We also discuss some methodological problems in predicting self‐injurious behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Jacqueline Wientjes, Marc Delsing, Antonius Cillessen, Jan Janssens and Ron Scholte

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and validation of the ProKid risk assessment tool, which was designed to enable Dutch police officers to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and validation of the ProKid risk assessment tool, which was designed to enable Dutch police officers to identify youths with elevated risk of committing violent and/or property crimes.

Design/methodology/approach

The ProKid algorithms were based on the results of logistic regression analyses of police data from a sample of 31,769 adolescents in the former police regions “Amsterdam-Amstelland” and “Gelderland-Midden”. For the validation, logistic regression analyses were performed on police data of youths in the police region “Amsterdam-Amstelland” who had been in contact with the police in 2011 (n=39,977). Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to assess the instrument’s accuracy.

Findings

Results indicated that higher ProKid risk categories were associated with greater odds of being registered as a suspect of either a violent or property offence. The instrument was found to have good predictive accuracy. Area under the curve values ranged from 0.83 to 0.84 for violent offences and from 0.82 to 0.83 for property offences.

Practical implications

The current study demonstrates that ProKid is a valid and accurate tool to be used by police officers to identify youths with elevated risk of future violent and property offending. The automated assessment procedure enables a quick screening of large numbers of both non-offenders and offenders. This study confirms the value of official police records for assessing the risk of future offending for preventive purposes.

Originality/value

The present study demonstrates the validity of a risk assessment tool based on Dutch police records for both non-offenders and offenders.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 August 2008

Arie van Sluis, Lex Cachet and Arthur Ringeling

The purpose of this article is to present the findings of research into the impact of a new performance system for the police in The Netherlands.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to present the findings of research into the impact of a new performance system for the police in The Netherlands.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, the international literature about the effects and side effects of performance steering in the public sector was scanned and more than 150 local stakeholders in five Dutch police regions were interviewed in semi‐open interviews, using a checklist. The study analyzed the specific impact of the results‐based agreements in various branches.

Findings

On the whole, the police do not get isolated as a consequence of the results‐based agreements and they do not disassociate themselves from the societal networks they participated in before. The authors offer several explanations why many of the expected negative effects have not occurred.

Originality/value

Valuable in this article is the focus on the situational context and the implementation context for an adequate assessment of the significance of performance‐based steering of the police in practice. It gives an update of the Dutch state of affairs and recommends another starting point for police performance measurement in the near future.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

1 – 10 of 560