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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

James L. Price

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool…

Abstract

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Kyungyeol Anthony Kim, Senyung Lee and Kevin K Byon

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of each item in the Sport Spectator Identification Scale (SSIS) (Wann and Branscombe, 1993) using the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of each item in the Sport Spectator Identification Scale (SSIS) (Wann and Branscombe, 1993) using the item response theory (IRT) and to provide evidence for modifications in the scale.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 635 spectators of US professional sports responded to the seven-item SSIS on an eight-point semantic differential scale. The general partial credit model was fitted to the data.

Findings

The results revealed that four items (Items 1, 2, 3 and 5) provide a relatively high amount of information, whereas three items (Items 4, 6 and 7) provide a low amount of information, indicating different levels of measurement precision among the items. Furthermore, the results showed that some low-level response options were rarely selected by participants, indicating that it may not be necessary to include response options as many as eight within each item.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies examining the psychometric properties of the SSIS as a whole, the present study provides information about the usefulness of each item of the SSIS in measuring individuals' team identification. Based on the findings, the authors identified some issues with the three problematic items, including the wording of the items and the link between the question and the target construct. The authors make several suggestions for researchers and practitioners in improving individual item quality and in making informed decisions when using the SSIS in the future.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Michael J. Zickar

The purpose of this chapter is to provide researchers a summary of some of the latest developments in item response theory (IRT), and to help these groups realize that…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to provide researchers a summary of some of the latest developments in item response theory (IRT), and to help these groups realize that psychometric tools can now be used for theory testing in addition to the traditional role of improving construct measurement. The author first reviews some of the fundamental tenets of classical test theory to contrast with IRT. He then describes recent advances in goodness-of-fit tests that have helped turn IRT into a model-testing tool. Finally, the author reviews several new test models that provide new flexibilities, summarizing summarize several examples of research that has used these new models in organizational research. At the end of this review, the author provides suggestions to help researchers better use these new IRT tools. Although there have been significant advances in IRT in the past decade, there has not been a systematic review of these developments. This review places those developments in context to provide readers a real appreciation of these breakthroughs.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-172-4

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2011

Leonidas A. Zampetakis

The present chapter addresses a topic that is of growing interest – namely, the exploration of alternative item response theory (IRT) models for noncognitive assessment…

Abstract

The present chapter addresses a topic that is of growing interest – namely, the exploration of alternative item response theory (IRT) models for noncognitive assessment. Previous research in the assessment of trait emotional intelligence (or “trait emotional self-efficacy”) has been limited to traditional psychometric techniques (e.g., classical test theory) under the notion of a dominance response processes describing the relationship between individuals' latent characteristics and individuals' response selection. The present study, presents the first unfolding IRT modeling effort in the general field of emotional intelligence (EI). We applied the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model (GGUM) in order to evaluate the response process and the item properties on the short form of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire (TEIQue-SF). A sample of 866 participants completed the English version of the TEIQue-SF. Results suggests that the GGUM has an adequate fit to the data. Furthermore, inspection of the test information and standard error functions revealed that the TEIQue-SF is accurate for low and middle scores on the construct; however several items had low discrimination parameters. Implications for the benefits of unfolding models in the assessment of trait EI are discussed.

Details

What Have We Learned? Ten Years On
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-208-1

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Carlo Caponecchia and Daniel S.J. Costa

The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of how workplace bullying is identified by the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R), with a focus on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of how workplace bullying is identified by the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R), with a focus on the appropriateness of its response scale using item response theory (IRT).

Design/methodology/approach

IRT, in which the probability of a particular item response reflects an underlying latent variable, was used to examine NAQ-R responses from a sample of 1,173 Australian public servants (Study 1), and a representative UK data set (n=3,494; Study 2).

Findings

Results indicated that problems with the response scale appear to be due to the inclusion of the abstract “now and then” option amongst concrete time options (“never”, “now and then”, “monthly”, “weekly” and “daily”). These results were replicated in Study 2, providing evidence of the robustness of the findings, and suggesting the observations are not sample specific.

Research limitations/implications

This work has implications for methods employed to identify and measure workplace bullying in research and organisational practice. Inconsistent endorsement of response scale options is a concern when total scores are calculated, or when a number of behaviours being experienced with a particular frequency on the response scale are taken as an indication of bullying having occurred.

Originality/value

Examining and refining the manner in which workplace bullying is indexed is important for identifying and managing workplace risks to health, safety and well-being.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Matthias von Davier

Surveys that include skill measures may suffer from additional sources of error compared to those containing questionnaires alone. Examples are distractions such as noise…

Abstract

Purpose

Surveys that include skill measures may suffer from additional sources of error compared to those containing questionnaires alone. Examples are distractions such as noise or interruptions of testing sessions, as well as fatigue or lack of motivation to succeed. This paper aims to provide a review of statistical tools based on latent variable modeling approaches extended by explanatory variables that allow detection of survey errors in skill surveys.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews psychometric methods for detecting sources of error in cognitive assessments and questionnaires. Aside from traditional item responses, new sources of data in computer-based assessment are available – timing data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) and data from questionnaires – to help detect survey errors.

Findings

Some unexpected results are reported. Respondents who tend to use response sets have lower expected values on PIAAC literacy scales, even after controlling for scores on the skill-use scale that was used to derive the response tendency.

Originality/value

The use of new sources of data, such as timing and log-file or process data information, provides new avenues to detect response errors. It demonstrates that large data collections need to better utilize available information and that integration of assessment, modeling and substantive theory needs to be taken more seriously.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2012

Felipe Buchbinder, Rafael Goldszmidt and Ronaldo Parente

Purpose – The purpose is to present item response theory (IRT) as a promising approach to deal with theoretical and methodological challenges which may not be adequately…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose is to present item response theory (IRT) as a promising approach to deal with theoretical and methodological challenges which may not be adequately addressed with linear factor analysis (LFA) techniques.

Approach – We address this limitations and present IRT's approach to counteracting these difficulties. We further present two IRT models in greater detail and make a theoretical comparison between these models and LFA techniques. Then, we illustrate how IRT is applied in practice by analyzing a scale of trust by an IRT and an LFA approach and comparing their results.

Practical implications – Scale properties may vary among countries because some items may function differently in different contexts. Moreover, a scale's reliability depends on the value of the latent variable being assessed, which implies that the scale may discriminate better among certain ranges of the latent trait than among others. The theory we hereby present offers a more adequate approach to dealing with these issues than extant LFA methods.

Originality/value – This chapter presents a methodology of recognized value in other fields of knowledge into the field of strategy and international business, thereby advancing the methodologies available for doing research in these domains.

Details

West Meets East: Toward Methodological Exchange
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-026-0

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Jeovani Schmitt, Maria Inês Fini, Cyntia Bailer, Rosangela Fritsch and Dalton Francisco de Andrade

This study aims at developing an instrument to measure the latent trait propensity to drop out in face-to-face higher education.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at developing an instrument to measure the latent trait propensity to drop out in face-to-face higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on Tinto's student integration theory, a 27-item scale was created to measure student propensity to drop out of undergraduate programs. Item response theory was used to evaluate the psychometric analysis of the items. Furthermore, different methodologies were used to evaluate and provide evidence for content validity, response process validity, internal structure validity and criterion-related validity.

Findings

With the support of specialists in the construct, the interpretation of the scores for the use of the scale was defined in four levels of propensity: high, moderate, low and very low.

Research limitations/implications

The latent trait propensity to drop out in face-to-face higher education allows the inclusion of new items and aspects in the instrument. Thus, it can be adapted to distance education.

Practical implications

The students' propensity to drop out score can be useful for researchers and administration units in colleges and universities in the planning of permanent institutional actions and programs to take preventive measures.

Social implications

Minimize dropout in order to raise the educational level of the population and make better use of the resources invested in education.

Originality/value

This study points out when, why and how propensity to drop out can be measured and how scores can be interpreted in the context of the problem.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Thomas Salzberger and Monika Koller

Psychometric analyses of self-administered questionnaire data tend to focus on items and instruments as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

Psychometric analyses of self-administered questionnaire data tend to focus on items and instruments as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the functioning of the response scale and its impact on measurement precision. In terms of the response scale direction, existing evidence is mixed and inconclusive.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments are conducted to examine the functioning of response scales of different direction, ranging from agree to disagree versus from disagree to agree. The response scale direction effect is exemplified by two different latent constructs by applying the Rasch model for measurement.

Findings

The agree-to-disagree format generally performs better than the disagree-to-agree variant with spatial proximity between the statement and the agree-pole of the scale appearing to drive the effect. The difference is essentially related to the unit of measurement.

Research limitations/implications

A careful investigation of the functioning of the response scale should be part of every psychometric assessment. The framework of Rasch measurement theory offers unique opportunities in this regard.

Practical implications

Besides content, validity and reliability, academics and practitioners utilising published measurement instruments are advised to consider any evidence on the response scale functioning that is available.

Originality/value

The study exemplifies the application of the Rasch model to assess measurement precision as a function of the design of the response scale. The methodology raises the awareness for the unit of measurement, which typically remains hidden.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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