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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2009

Helena Carreiras

The integration of women into the armed forces of western democracies reveals a pattern of significant diversity: while some countries have integrated women, granting them…

Abstract

The integration of women into the armed forces of western democracies reveals a pattern of significant diversity: while some countries have integrated women, granting them real (and not only formal) access to a wide range of positions and occupations, other keep women in little more than symbolic spaces.

Among the variety of factors which account for different paths and integration levels – which range from global social-economic conditions, political factors, cultural and historical patterns, military organizational structure, or time effects – there are institutional policies. One rather common assumption is that explicit organizational policies are a crucial factor to promote integration at the organizational level. However, some studies have also reached disappointing conclusions regarding the power of institutional policies to help redress culturally entrenched stereotypes that often function as obstacles to integration.

This paper discusses the impact of organizational policies on gender integration using available empirical data from a comparative study conducted among NATO nations (Carreiras, 2006). It specifically addresses the following questions: what is the impact of organizational policies on gender integration? To what extent does the existence of explicit and active integration policies contribute to promote equality in military forces? Under which conditions are policies effective and under which conditions may their effects be blocked?

It concludes that polices may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for integration – that their impact, while positive on formal integration, may not always be so on social integration – and that conditions for change do not depend strictly on formal policies. A final suggestion is made regarding the need to analyze the specific conditions under which the efficacy of policies might vary.

Details

Advances in Military Sociology: Essays in Honor of Charles C. Moskos
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-893-9

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2022

Sara Rankohi, Mario Bourgault and Ivanka Iordanova

Recent construction literature has been focusing more on integrative contracting approaches such as integrated project delivery (IPD). However, conceptual studies on…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent construction literature has been focusing more on integrative contracting approaches such as integrated project delivery (IPD). However, conceptual studies on integration in IPD literature are scattered and fragmented, that is, most of the studies only focused on the segmented dimension of integration. A systemic understanding of the concepts of integration in IPD project-based context is still lacking. To fill this gap, this paper analyzes two aspects of integration (dimensions and directions) in IPD literature and explores their extent in construction projects.

Design/methodology/approach

Grounded theory review and focus group discussion approaches were employed to perform a thorough conceptual review of the literature, frame the research into the theory and increase the fundamental understanding of the concept of integration in IPD literature.

Findings

In this study, IPD integrating techniques were identified and their integration dimensions and directions were discussed. Results show that integration in the project-based environment of IPD is a multidimensional construct. Based on organizational, contractual and operational characteristics of IPD projects, twenty-four integration mechanisms were identified and framed into seven clusters. The integration directions over project life-cycle were demonstrated in three contexts: (1) an on-site construction project, delivered traditionally, (2) an on-site construction project, delivered with IPD and (3) an off-site construction project, delivered with IPD.

Originality/value

This paper gathers the segments of integration into a comprehensive overview, which can help researchers and practitioners explore elements of IPD project success more precisely. A theoretical framework of integration clusters is developed, based on IPD literature. The impact of IPD on on-site versus off-site construction is illustrated from an integration direction perspective. Finally, future areas of studies for researchers and practitioners about the concept of integration in an IPD context are discussed. This paper provides a point of departure for future theoretical and empirical explorations.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2022

Yanan Yang

This paper aims to examine how Chinese multinational enterprises’ (CMNEs) autonomy-style post-merger integration (PMI) modes of managing developed-market targets evolve…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how Chinese multinational enterprises’ (CMNEs) autonomy-style post-merger integration (PMI) modes of managing developed-market targets evolve into actual-form integration through the lens of ambidexterity.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts multi-case comparisons with content analysis. A data set was collected from 37 conversations by in-depth interviewing 29 respondents regarding four cases of Chinese acquisitions in the German market.

Findings

This study develops a three-stage framework that theorised CMNEs’ autonomy PMIs’ evolution to actual-form integration over time and the effect on acquisition value based on structural, temporal and contextual ambidexterity manifestations. The findings divide the evolutionary trajectory into two sub-trajectories, from great autonomy to autonomy-integration balanced or full integration, to illuminate the effect of different degrees of actual-form integration on value creation or value destruction.

Originality/value

The existing literature on CMNEs’ PMI discovered that CMNEs frequently grant ample autonomy when managing targets acquired from developed markets. However, long-term acquisition benefit is dependent on combining autonomy and actual-form integration; insights into how this can be accomplished are limited. The research is unique in that it reveals the evolutions of CMNEs’ PMIs on developed-market targets, from autonomy to actual-form integration through the lens of ambidexterity.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2022

Yang Liu, Wei Fang, Taiwen Feng and Na Gao

Based on organizational information processing theory, this research explores how big data analytics capability (BDAC) contributes to green supply chain integration (GSCI…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on organizational information processing theory, this research explores how big data analytics capability (BDAC) contributes to green supply chain integration (GSCI) and the contingency role that data-driven decision culture plays.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the two-wave survey data collected from 317 Chinese manufacturing firms, the authors validate the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that big data managerial capability has positive impacts on three dimensions of GSCI, while big data technical capability has positive impacts on green internal and customer integration. Moreover, green internal integration mediates the impacts of big data technical capability and managerial capability on green supplier and customer integration. Finally, data-driven decision culture alleviates the positive impacts of big data technical and managerial capability on green internal integration.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that firms can leverage big data technical and managerial capability to enhance information processing capability for achieving a higher degree of GSCI. Further, the critical role of data-driven decision culture in affecting the link between BDAC and GSCI should not be overlooked.

Originality/value

This research contributes to literature on green supply chain management by revealing the role of BDAC in improving GSCI.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 September 2022

Qiyan Zeng and Xiaofu Chen

Development of urban-rural integration is essential to fulfill sustainable development goals worldwide, and comprehension about urban-rural integration types has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Development of urban-rural integration is essential to fulfill sustainable development goals worldwide, and comprehension about urban-rural integration types has been highlighted as increasingly relevant for an efficient policy design. This paper aims to utilize an unsupervised machine learning approach to identify urban-rural integration typologies based on multidimensional metrics regarding economic, population and social integration in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The study introduces partitioning around medoids (PAM) for the identification of urban-rural integration typologies. PAM is a powerful tool for clustering multidimensional data. It identifies clusters by the representative objects called medoids and can be used with arbitrary distance, which help make clustering results more stable and less susceptible to outliers.

Findings

The study identifies four clusters: high-level urban-rural integration, urban-rural integration in transition, low-level urban-rural integration and early urban-rural integration in backward stage, showing different characteristics. Based on the clustering results, the study finds continuous improvement in urban-rural integration development in China which is reflected by the changes in the predominate type. However, the development still presents significant regional disparities which is characterized by leading in the east regions and lagging in the western and central regions. Besides, achievement in urban-rural integration varies significantly across provinces.

Practical implications

The machine learning techniques could identify urban-rural integration typologies in a multidimensional and objective way, and help formulate and implement targeted strategies and regionally adapted policies to boost urban-rural integration.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to use an unsupervised machine learning approach with PAM for the identification of urban-rural integration typologies from a multidimensional perspective. The authors confirm the advantages of this machine learning techniques in identifying urban-rural integration types, compared to a single indicator.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2022

Tingting Liu and Shufen Tang

Improving the agricultural products market integration is conducive to developing provincial comparative advantage, optimization of agricultural and industrial…

Abstract

Purpose

Improving the agricultural products market integration is conducive to developing provincial comparative advantage, optimization of agricultural and industrial organization and enhanced competitiveness. The relationship between the emergencies and the agricultural products market integration in the production and consumption provinces is of great significance for stabilizing market prices and improving the efficiency of agricultural resource allocation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors reviewed the literature on the market integration of agricultural products. Then, they adopted a two-way fixed effect model to investigate the impact of emergencies on the poultry market integration in the production and consumption provinces in China.

Findings

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused abnormal fluctuations in the poultry market price and decreased the poultry market integration. The negative impact of HPAI on poultry market integration was strengthened in the main production provinces and weakened in the main consumption provinces.

Originality/value

This is the first study that applies empirical analysis to identify the emergencies’ impact on the poultry market integration considering production and consumption characteristics. The results indicate that the impact of avian influenza is more serious in production provinces than in consumption provinces. Due to the heterogeneity of production and consumption provinces, the government implements precise compensation policies to resume production quickly after the disaster. It can be conductive to market integration and promote the development of agricultural products market.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2022

Nadia Hanif, Jianfeng Wu and Kenneth A. Grant

The purpose of this study is to test a model for cross-border technological acquisitions (CBTAs) focusing on the level of ownership acquired in the target firm and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to test a model for cross-border technological acquisitions (CBTAs) focusing on the level of ownership acquired in the target firm and the acquiring firm's post-acquisition innovation performance (PAIP), with the degree of integration as a mediator, based on the dynamic capability perspective of the resource-based view. This study further concludes the role of the country-of-origin effect (COE) (when emerging economies' acquiring firms purchase technological resources from developed economies' target firms) on the success of the acquiring firms in CBTAs.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on CBTAs initiated by 542 acquiring firms was quantified from four high technology industries from 1995 to 2015 for the empirical investigation of the research hypotheses. Hierarchical fixed year effect negative binomial regression technique was used to analyze the proposed model for the success of CBTAs.

Findings

The analysis of the CBTAs confirmed that acquiring firms who opt for a higher level of acquired ownership strategy increase the degree of integration of the target firm's technological resource stock. The level of acquired ownership improves the PAIP of the acquiring firms; however, the degree of integration positively accelerates the relationship between the acquired ownership and the PAIP. Considering the COE, acquiring firms that initiated CBTAs from emerging economies to purchase technological resources from developed economies' targets have firm-specific technological capability holes to execute the integration, which negatively impacts the emerging economies acquiring firm's PAIP.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the CBTAs literature by exploring the enabling role of the degree of integration between the level of acquired ownership and the PAIP of the acquiring firms. Further, this study put forward empirics on the COE of the acquiring firms for their integrative capability to integrate the target firm's resource stock and subsequent innovation performance.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2022

Feiqiong Chen, Wenjing Wang and Jieru Zhu

Post-merger integration (PMI) is driven by coevolving processes. By integrating the literature on acquisitions with that of knowledge networks, this paper highlights…

Abstract

Purpose

Post-merger integration (PMI) is driven by coevolving processes. By integrating the literature on acquisitions with that of knowledge networks, this paper highlights different reconstruction mechanisms for dual knowledge networks during PMI – namely, internal knowledge network coupling and external knowledge network embeddedness. This paper aims to examine their coevolutionary relationships with PMI.

Design/methodology/approach

A coevolutionary framework is tested using a latent growth model and cross-lagged models. The analysis is based on longitudinal data collected from 116 Chinese technology-sourcing overseas merger and acquisition firms.

Findings

This paper unearths a novel idea that variations in post-merger reconstruction of dual knowledge networks can explain why some acquirers increase the degree of integration faster than the others. The results show that the internal knowledge network coupling leads to more knowledge similarity and, in turn, causes a higher degree of integration. The external knowledge network embeddedness also causes higher relative network status of the acquirer, which consequently leads to a higher degree of integration. Furthermore, results from cross-lagged models confirm that an increase in the degree of integration positively influences subsequent changes in the internal knowledge network coupling and external knowledge network embeddedness, thus forming a coevolutionary relationship over time.

Originality/value

This paper responds to recent calls for more insights into the dynamics of PMI. By highlighting different reconstruction mechanisms for internal and external knowledge networks during PMI, this paper explains why it is important to understand PMI dynamics from a dual knowledge network perspective. This paper is the first to adopt a coevolutionary perspective and provide a more comprehensive dynamic framework between PMI and reconstruction of dual knowledge networks. Besides, this paper contributes to the research on emerging market multinational corporations’ cross-border merger and acquisition integration from a dynamic perspective, revealing the time effects of traditionally favored light-touch integration.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2022

Jia Cheng, Songzheng Zhao, Taiwen Feng and Hongyan Sheng

This study aims to examine the impacts of the novelty-centered business model design (NBMD) and efficiency-centered business model design (EBMD) on mass customization…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impacts of the novelty-centered business model design (NBMD) and efficiency-centered business model design (EBMD) on mass customization capability (MCC), as well as the mediating role of supply chain integration.

Design/methodology/approach

Using survey data from 277 Chinese manufacturing firms, we test the hypothesized relationships by conducting structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results indicate that both NBMD and EBMD have significantly positive impacts on product-oriented MCC and service-oriented MCC. In addition, three dimensions of supply chain integration play different mediating roles in the relationship between BMD and MCC. Specifically, relational integration partially mediates the impacts of NBMD and EBMD on service-oriented MCC, information integration partially mediates the impact of NBMD on product-oriented MCC and service-oriented MCC and operational integration partially mediates the impact of NBMD and EBMD on product-oriented MCC.

Originality/value

This study opens the “black box” in the relationship between business model design and MCC, which offers insights on the complex process of supply chain integration and considers business ecosystem for operational performance.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2022

Kofi Dadzie, Charlene Dadzie, Wesley J. Johnston, Evelyn Winston and Haizhong Wang

This study aims to draw on the strategy–structure–performance framework to investigate baseline supply chain (BSC) practices as a function of how firms structure logistics…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to draw on the strategy–structure–performance framework to investigate baseline supply chain (BSC) practices as a function of how firms structure logistics and marketing mix activities to achieve market share in the emerging market (EM) supply chain ecosystems.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors validate the study’s conceptual framework with survey data collected in two contrasting EM supply chain ecosystems. They include supply chains in EM economies with an advanced logistics/distribution infrastructure such as China and those in economies with poor logistics/distribution infrastructure such as Ghana. The authors use ordinary least squares regression and structural equation modeling analysis to examine the relative market share outcomes of different configurations of logistics-marketing practices (logistics-affordability marketing, logistics-accessibility marketing, logistics-acceptability marketing, logistics-and awareness and full integration into BSC).

Findings

Key findings confirm that the integration of logistics with marketing activities into BSC practice is more pervasive in EMs with high logistics performance index, such as China than in firms in EMs with low logistics performance index, such as Ghana. Moreover, the authors confirm that integrating logistics and marketing into BSC generates higher market share performance than logistics- or marketing-only practices in China and Ghana. These differences are driven more by the firm’s strategic orientation than the demands of competitive market conditions.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on BSC integration activities in the logistics and marketing functions because researchers have not updated this issue for the past two decades.

Practical implications

The study results provide managers with much-needed empirical evidence of the strategic benefit of BSC integration under different supply chain ecosystems in the EMs.

Originality/value

Linking BSC activities in logistics management and marketing management mix activities within the 4As marketing mix framework provides evidence to support the argument that the 4As marketing mix is an appropriate planning framework for EMs’ unique ecosystems.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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