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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2009

Helena Carreiras

The integration of women into the armed forces of western democracies reveals a pattern of significant diversity: while some countries have integrated women, granting them…

Abstract

The integration of women into the armed forces of western democracies reveals a pattern of significant diversity: while some countries have integrated women, granting them real (and not only formal) access to a wide range of positions and occupations, other keep women in little more than symbolic spaces.

Among the variety of factors which account for different paths and integration levels – which range from global social-economic conditions, political factors, cultural and historical patterns, military organizational structure, or time effects – there are institutional policies. One rather common assumption is that explicit organizational policies are a crucial factor to promote integration at the organizational level. However, some studies have also reached disappointing conclusions regarding the power of institutional policies to help redress culturally entrenched stereotypes that often function as obstacles to integration.

This paper discusses the impact of organizational policies on gender integration using available empirical data from a comparative study conducted among NATO nations (Carreiras, 2006). It specifically addresses the following questions: what is the impact of organizational policies on gender integration? To what extent does the existence of explicit and active integration policies contribute to promote equality in military forces? Under which conditions are policies effective and under which conditions may their effects be blocked?

It concludes that polices may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for integration – that their impact, while positive on formal integration, may not always be so on social integration – and that conditions for change do not depend strictly on formal policies. A final suggestion is made regarding the need to analyze the specific conditions under which the efficacy of policies might vary.

Details

Advances in Military Sociology: Essays in Honor of Charles C. Moskos
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-893-9

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Soroosh Saghiri and Vahid Mirzabeiki

This paper aims to explore how omni-channel data flows should be integrated by specifying what data, omni-channel agents and information and digital technologies (IDTs…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how omni-channel data flows should be integrated by specifying what data, omni-channel agents and information and digital technologies (IDTs) should be considered and connected.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study method is used with 17 British companies. The studies are supported by 68 interviews with the case companies and their consumers, 5 site visits, 4 focus group meetings and the companies’ archival data and documentations.

Findings

This paper provides novel frameworks for omni-channel data flow integration from consumer and business perspectives. The frameworks consist of omni-channel agents, their data transactions and their supporting IDTs. Relatedly, this paper formalizes the omni-channel data flow integration in the forms of horizontal, vertical and total integrations and explores their contributions to the adaptability of omni-channel, as a complex adaptive system (CAS). It also discusses that how inter-organizational governance mechanisms can support data flow integration and their relevant IDT implementations.

Research limitations/implications

The breadth and depth of the required IDTs for omni-channel integration prove the necessity for omni-channel systems to move toward total integration. Therefore, supported by CAS and inter-organizational governance theories, this research indicates how data flow integration and IDT can transform the omni-channel through self-organization and autonomy capability enhancement.

Originality/value

This research’s recommended frameworks provide a robust platform to formalize data flow integration as the omni-channel's core driver. Accordingly, it moves the literature from a basic description of “what omni-channel is” and provides a novel and significant debate on what specific data should be shared at what levels between which agents of the omni-channel, and with what type of relationship governance mechanism, to assure omni-channel horizontal, vertical and total integrations.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2021

Linbo Yang, Joo Seng Tan and Chenjing Gan

Rapidly changing technological and marketing environments challenge the survival of business organizations. Developing dynamic capability is critical in helping companies…

Abstract

Purpose

Rapidly changing technological and marketing environments challenge the survival of business organizations. Developing dynamic capability is critical in helping companies respond to today's turbulent environments. Thus, fruitful studies on the antecedents of dynamic capability have been conducted. However, in the context of the supply chain, little is known about the factors that can be harmful to dynamic capability. Drawing on the theory of cooperation and competition, the first purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between independent goal interdependence with suppliers and dynamic capability by focusing on the mediating role of supplier integration. Combining the information processing theory and transaction cost economics with the theory of cooperation and competition, the second purpose of this study is to discuss and test the moderating role of internal integration.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a carefully designed questionnaire, a large-scale survey was employed to collect data in China. The senior manager (e.g. president, vice president, chief executive officer [CEO], executive or purchasing manager) of each company was asked to participate in our survey. The final valid sample in our survey consisted of 233 companies. Hierarchical multiple regression statistical analysis and bias-corrected bootstrapping methods were applied to test the correlation, mediation, moderation and moderated mediation relationships between variables.

Findings

The authors found that independent goal interdependence negatively influences dynamic capability through frustrating supplier integration. In addition, the moderated mediation model analysis shows that internal integration weakens the positive direct effect of supplier integration on dynamic capability while neutralizing the negative indirect effect of independent goal interdependence on dynamic capability. The theoretical and managerial implications of these results are discussed.

Originality/value

First, starting from the goal interdependence and supply chain management perspectives, this research not only is consistent with remote theoretical research that explains why interdependence among organizations influences the capability to enhance competitive advantage but also incorporates relevant internal and external factors that influence dynamic capability. Second, by proposing an innovative boundary factor – internal integration – this study also contributes to adjusting the predictions of the theory of cooperation and competition. Third, focusing specifically on the negative antecedent of dynamic capability can provide a better understanding of the antecedents that cause companies to have weakened dynamic capability.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Benjamin Tukamuhabwa, Henry Mutebi and Rhona Kyomuhendo

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between supply chain management practices, logistics capabilities, logistics integration and competitive advantage…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between supply chain management practices, logistics capabilities, logistics integration and competitive advantage of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a developing country.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a structured questionnaire survey, cross-sectional data collected from 204 SMEs in Kampala – Uganda were analysed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using AMOS version 26 to validate the theorised relationships.

Findings

The study findings revealed that both supply chain management practices and logistics integration are positively and significantly associated with competitive advantage. Also, both supply chain management practices and logistics capabilities are positively and significantly associated with logistics integration. Additionally, the authors found that logistics integration partially mediates in the relationships between supply chain management practices and competitive advantage, and logistics capabilities and competitive advantage. Conclusively, the three independent variables collectively account for 11% variance in competitive advantage of SMEs.

Originality/value

Given the general observation that SMEs are fundamental to socio-economic development, yet resource constrained, this study uses Resource-based and dynamic capabilities theoretical perspectives to provide an empirical understanding of the supply chain and logistics resources and capabilities necessary for building competitive advantage of SMEs in the context of a developing economy.

Details

Journal of Business and Socio-economic Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2635-1374

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Bruna Caroline Campos, Felicio Bruzzi Barros and Samuel Silva Penna

The aim of this paper is to present a novel data transfer technique to simulate, by G/XFEM, a cohesive crack propagation coupled with a smeared damage model. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to present a novel data transfer technique to simulate, by G/XFEM, a cohesive crack propagation coupled with a smeared damage model. The efficiency of this technique is evaluated in terms of processing time, number of Newton–Raphson iterations and accuracy of structural response.

Design/methodology/approach

The cohesive crack is represented by the G/XFEM enrichment strategy. The elements crossed by the crack are divided into triangular cells. The smeared crack model is used to describe the material behavior. In the nonlinear solution of the problem, state variables associated with the original numerical integration points need to be transferred to new points created with the triangular subdivision. A nonlocal strategy is tailored to transfer the scalar and tensor variables of the constitutive model. The performance of this technique is numerically evaluated.

Findings

When compared with standard Gauss quadrature integration scheme, the proposed strategy may deliver a slightly superior computational efficiency in terms of processing time. The weighting function parameter used in the nonlocal transfer strategy plays an important role. The equilibrium state in the interactive-incremental solution process is not severely penalized and is readily recovered. The advantages of such proposed technique tend to be even more pronounced in more complex and finer meshes.

Originality/value

This work presents a novel data transfer technique based on the ideas of the nonlocal formulation of the state variables and specially tailored to the simulation of cohesive crack propagation in materials governed by the smeared crack constitutive model.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Zhouyang Gu and Fanchen Meng

In the process of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A), the social capital of enterprises is dynamic. In this context, cross-cultural competence plays an important…

Abstract

Purpose

In the process of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A), the social capital of enterprises is dynamic. In this context, cross-cultural competence plays an important role and can affect the transformation process of social capital and further influence the realisation of M&A performance. However, there is still not enough research on the process of social capital transformation and corporate cross-cultural competence. This study aims to explore the influence mechanism of social capital and the cross-cultural competence of enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, four typical manufacturing M&A case studies were analysed and a grounded theoretical analysis process was used to explore the structure of cross-cultural competence and its impact on the dynamic process of social capital.

Findings

The results of this study imply that social capital experiences three stages of transformation in the process of M&A. There are also four dimensions of corporate cross-cultural competence, which are composed of various factors. These all affect the dynamic process of social capital through different influence mechanisms.

Originality/value

According to the results, a mechanism model was composed to determine how corporate cross-cultural ability affects the social capital process. This is of practical significance as it can enhance the performance of M&A integration in a cross-cultural context.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

The purpose of this study follow a process perspective approach to examine post M&A integration studies focusing on HR function and to make the research literature…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study follow a process perspective approach to examine post M&A integration studies focusing on HR function and to make the research literature relevant to HR integration.

Design/methodology/approach

Data is gathered from a systematic literature review of sixty six peer-reviewed empirical and theoretical articles published in forty one journals between 1990 and 2018. These predominantly use qualitative methods and include case studies, conceptual studies, interviews, surveys, literature reviews and mixed methodology. Each paper is then sorted into three areas of research focus, integration, change management and HR strategy, and the main findings noted.

Findings

A conceptual framework for the content and process in HR integration in cross-border M&A’s is presented consisting of three stages : pre-integration (preparation), HR integration and integration outcome.

Practical implications

This framework can be used to help managers and policy makers to profit from potential synergy in this situation, to support HR interventions at all stages of the M&A including screening, planning and negotiation and to deal with some of the more difficult cultural impacts of cross-border M&A’s.

Originality/value

This paper has an original approach as it considers a gap in the research and enables researchers to examine HR as a strategic partner during M&As within an integrated process perspective.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest , vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Lu Yang, Baofeng Huo, Min Tian and Zhaojun Han

Digitalization encourages the manufacturer to engage in inter-organizational technological activities (i.e. supplier IT integration and supply visibility) with its major…

Abstract

Purpose

Digitalization encourages the manufacturer to engage in inter-organizational technological activities (i.e. supplier IT integration and supply visibility) with its major supplier, which influences supply chain (SC) governance. This study tests a moderated mediation model that considers supplier IT integration and supply visibility as mediators between supply-side digitalization and supplier opportunism, and relational ties as a moderator in the relationship between inter-organizational technological activities and supplier opportunism.

Design/methodology/approach

Ordinary least square (OLS) regression is used to examine data from 200 firms in China describing their supply chain management (SCM) practices and perceived relationships with their major suppliers.

Findings

Supply-side digitalization is positively related to supplier IT integration and supply visibility. Supply-side digitalization has a positive indirect effect on supplier opportunism through supplier IT integration but a negative indirect effect through supply visibility. Relational ties weaken the positive effect of supplier IT integration and the positive indirect effect of supply-side digitalization on supplier opportunism. Relational ties also weaken the negative effect of supply visibility and the negative indirect effect of supply-side digitalization on supplier opportunism.

Originality/value

This study enriches understanding of SC governance in the digital age by empirically confirming that digital transformation brings both challenges and opportunities to SC governance and by clarifying the interplay of relational governance and technological activities. In addition, this study contributes to the SC digitalization literature by empirically validating the role of digitalization in promoting inter-organizational technological activities, as well as by revealing its potential dark side.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 41 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2021

Chelinka Rafiesta Sahara and Ammar Mohamed Aamer

Creating a real-time data integration when developing an internet-of-things (IoT)-based warehouse is still faced with challenges. It involves a diverse knowledge of novel…

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318

Abstract

Purpose

Creating a real-time data integration when developing an internet-of-things (IoT)-based warehouse is still faced with challenges. It involves a diverse knowledge of novel technology and skills. This study aims to identify the critical components of the real-time data integration processes in IoT-based warehousing. Then, design and apply a data integration framework, adopting the IoT concept to enable real-time data transfer and sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a pilot experiment to verify the data integration system configuration. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology was selected to support the integration process in this study, as it is one of the most recognized products of IoT.

Findings

The experimentations’ results proved that data integration plays a significant role in structuring a combination of assorted data on the IoT-based warehouse from various locations in a real-time manner. This study concluded that real-time data integration processes in IoT-based warehousing could be generated into three significant components: configuration, databasing and transmission.

Research limitations/implications

While the framework in this research was carried out in one of the developing counties, this study’s findings could be used as a foundation for future research in a smart warehouse, IoT and related topics. The study provides guidelines for practitioners to design a low-cost IoT-based smart warehouse system to obtain more accurate and timely data to support the quick decision-making process.

Originality/value

The research at hand provides the groundwork for researchers to explore the proposed theoretical framework and develop it further to increase inventory management efficiency of warehouse operations. Besides, this study offers an economical alternate for an organization to implement the integration software reasonably.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Xinbo Sun, Donghui Zhao, Dapeng Zhang and Feng Tian

The concept of entrepreneurship in platform enterprises has evolved and developed. The purpose of this paper is to explore how entrepreneurship in platform enterprises can…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of entrepreneurship in platform enterprises has evolved and developed. The purpose of this paper is to explore how entrepreneurship in platform enterprises can be transformed into the sustainable innovation capability of enterprises based on knowledge integration.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a questionnaire survey. The research samples are mainly from well-known domestic platform enterprises, EMBA students and professional online websites, 389 valid questionnaires were collected.

Findings

The results show that entrepreneurship has a positive impact on the sustainable innovation capability of platform enterprises, knowledge integration plays a partial mediating role between entrepreneurship and sustainable innovation capability of platform enterprises. Shared leadership plays a moderating role between entrepreneurship and knowledge integration and knowledge-sharing atmosphere plays a moderating role between knowledge integration and sustainable innovation capability of platform enterprises.

Originality/value

This paper emphasizes the key role of entrepreneurship in platform enterprises on the sustainable innovation capability and discusses the realization path of the sustainable innovation capability of platform enterprises from the perspective of knowledge integration, which is of great significance for developing the research system of entrepreneurship and promoting the construction of sustainable innovation capability of platform enterprises.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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