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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2017

Palitha Konara and Vikrant Shirodkar

The possibility of institutional distance exerting an asymmetric effect on the entry strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) has attracted recent scholarly…

Abstract

The possibility of institutional distance exerting an asymmetric effect on the entry strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) has attracted recent scholarly attention. In this context, we re-examine the relationship described by Hernandez and Nieto (2015) on the effect of the direction of regulatory institutional distance on MNEs’ choice of entry mode in host countries. We extend this research by (1) focussing on the context of emerging markets and (2) accounting for a greater variety of MNEs as well as institutions by including both large and small firms, and a larger set of home and host countries. In contrast to Hernandez and Nieto’s study, we find that, in the context of emerging markets, institutionally distant MNEs are more likely to choose the full-ownership mode when they originate from an institutionally stronger country in comparison to the host (emerging) country, and they are more likely to choose the joint-ownership mode when they originate from an institutionally weaker country. We discuss our findings with respect to Hernandez and Nieto’s study, which explores this relationship more generally (i.e. beyond emerging-market contexts), however in the context of small and medium enterprises.

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Distance in International Business: Concept, Cost and Value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-718-0

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2010

Jin-Hyun Bae and Robert Salomon

Understanding institutional distance – i.e., the difference in institutional context between countries – is critical for firms whose operations span national boundaries…

Abstract

Understanding institutional distance – i.e., the difference in institutional context between countries – is critical for firms whose operations span national boundaries. Institutional distance impacts the relative attractiveness of country markets, trade-offs among foreign market entry strategies, the management of subsidiaries abroad, and ultimately, firm performance. Although scholars in various disciplines have made great advances in defining and measuring the institutional characteristics of nations, we contend that many of these advances have occurred in a parallel fashion. Moreover, extant empirical studies focus disproportionately on the impact of different subsets of the identified institutional characteristics. We suggest that it is time to find common ground across the disparate literatures. Doing so would allow us to view differences in institutional contexts more holistically, and refine our understanding of their implications for multinational corporations.

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The Past, Present and Future of International Business & Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-085-9

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2021

Dut Van Vo, Yusaf H. Akbar and Loc Dong Truong

This study aims to investigate the moderating effects of subsidiary size on the association between institutional distance and subsidiary’s access to complementary local…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the moderating effects of subsidiary size on the association between institutional distance and subsidiary’s access to complementary local assets (ACLA) in a transition economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of 1,027 subsidiaries located in Vietnam were extracted from the survey of General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Hausman’s test shows that random effect model is appropriate to estimate the moderating effects of subsidiary size on the association between the institutional distance and subsidiary’s ACLA.

Findings

The findings revealed that the greater formal and informal institutional distances between home and host countries, the lower a subsidiary’s ACLA in a transition economy. In addition, larger subsidiaries’ ACLA in a more formal and informal institutional distant country are higher than smaller subsidiaries.

Research limitations/implications

Multinational enterprise (MNEs) have a continuous need to use their foreign subsidiaries operating in host countries, particularly those with transition economies, to overcome institutional differences to ACLA in a transition economy. In addition, subsidiaries should be invested with greater resources to collaborate with local partners to serve for accessing to complementary local assets in transition economy characterized by an uncertainty institutional environment.

Originality/value

By integrating the institutional theory and the resource-based view, the study developed a theoretical model about the moderating role of subsidiary size on the association between institutional distance and subsidiary’s ACLA in transition economy. The findings confirmed that simultaneously applying the institutional theory and the resource-based view to investigate location-specific advantages exploitation of subsidiaries is relevant not only in developed economies but also in a transition economies.

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Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2021

Hongxia Zhang and Huixin Yang

To reconcile the existing contradictory conclusions on the relationship between cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and innovation, this paper aims to propose a…

Abstract

Purpose

To reconcile the existing contradictory conclusions on the relationship between cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and innovation, this paper aims to propose a theoretical model of the impact of cross-border M&As on technological innovation and explore the moderating role of institutional distance from the perspective of springboard theory and new institutional theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Through the use of the two-way fixed effect model and the U-test method, the authors test the hypotheses based on a sample of cross-border M&A events of Chinese manufacturing enterprises during the period from 2006 to 2019.

Findings

The research shows that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between cross-border M&As and technological innovation. Furthermore, formal institutional distance moderates the inverted U-shaped relationship in such a way that it reaches its turning point at a smaller scale of cross-border M&As, and the inverted U-shaped relationship is steeper when formal institutional distance is relatively high. The informal institutional distance moderates the inverted U-shaped relationship in such a way that it reaches its turning point at a larger scale of cross-border M&As and the inverted U-shaped relationship is flatter when the informal institutional distance is relatively high.

Originality/value

The research conclusions integrate heterogeneous views of the existing research, further clarify the influence mechanism and boundary conditions between cross-border M&As and technological innovation, identify the different moderating roles of formal institutional distance and informal institutional distance and enrich the literature on knowledge transfer and recombinant innovation during post-merger integration.

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Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Book part
Publication date: 21 October 2019

João Neves de Carvalho Santos, Manuel Portugal Ferreira and José Carlos Rodrigues

Research suggests that context matters for MNEs’ international business strategy. MNEs’ strategies vary when different intertwined contexts interact with each other. While…

Abstract

Research suggests that context matters for MNEs’ international business strategy. MNEs’ strategies vary when different intertwined contexts interact with each other. While International Business scholars understand well the influence of the institutional environments on firms’ international strategies and operations, some contextual differences are less understood as is the case involving African countries and firms. In this study we investigate how different institutional contexts and legitimacy challenges combine to impact ownership strategic choices of African firms in their cross-border acquisitions (CBAs). Specifically, we study the influence of the host country institutional development and two institutional dimension distances: administrative distance and knowledge distance. Methodologically, we use a sample of 314 CBAs made by acquirers from 24 African countries in 71 host countries worldwide to test a number of theoretically driven hypotheses. This study contributes to our understanding of how foreign investors from less institutionally developed countries that are more likely to face higher legitimacy barriers use ownership strategies to achieve legitimacy abroad.

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International Business in a VUCA World: The Changing Role of States and Firms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-256-0

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Abstract

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Internationalization of Firms: The Role of Institutional Distance on Location and Entry mode
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-134-6

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2017

Michael J. Mueller, Guus Hendriks and Arjen H.L. Slangen

In this chapter, we aim to shed more light on the role of formal institutional distance in firms’ foreign entry mode choices by accounting for the direction of that…

Abstract

In this chapter, we aim to shed more light on the role of formal institutional distance in firms’ foreign entry mode choices by accounting for the direction of that distance. Specifically, we distinguish between foreign entries where the host country is institutionally less developed than the investing firm’s home country (negative institutional distance) and those where the host country’s institutions are comparatively more developed (positive institutional distance), and explore whether these different types of entries are implemented through different equity-based modes. We take an information economics perspective to develop hypotheses on the effects of positive and negative formal institutional distance on firms’ choices between greenfields and acquisitions, and between full and partial ownership of greenfield and acquired subsidiaries. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 1,070 foreign entries made by 796 emerging market multinationals originating from 14 countries. Controlling for the host country’s formal institutional quality and other factors, we find that negative institutional distance increases the likelihood that a foreign entry takes the form of a greenfield investment rather than an acquisition and that positive institutional distance decreases that likelihood. We also find that negative institutional distance increases the chances that firms choose greenfield joint ventures over wholly owned greenfields and full over partial acquisitions. Finally, we find that positive institutional distance does not affect firms’ ownership stake choices, neither for greenfields nor for acquisitions. Overall, these findings argue for a nuanced, contingency view of the role of formal institutional distance in foreign entry mode choices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to use information economics to construct a holistic picture of firms’ equity-based entry mode choices, taking into account both establishment and ownership modes.

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Distance in International Business: Concept, Cost and Value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-718-0

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Fatemeh Askarzadeh, Hamed Yousefi and Mahdi Forghani Bajestani

Focusing on the direction of foreign acquisition, this study aims to differentiate the effect of institutional distance on the level of ownership. The authors identify…

Abstract

Purpose

Focusing on the direction of foreign acquisition, this study aims to differentiate the effect of institutional distance on the level of ownership. The authors identify several theoretical and methodological issues that might account for the inconsistencies in the literature and provide remedies accordingly. Specifically, the authors propose perceived institutional distance as a conceptualization of distance that controls for asymmetric uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test the framework with ordinary least squares regression for a sample of 14,192 firm-entries in 115 target countries over 2007–2017.

Findings

The authors find that institutional distance shows a negative effect on equity ownership in all-inclusive global samples, while there are two imbalanced opposite effects if direction is considered. This casts doubt on the validity of studies that ignore direction. The authors suggest that multinational enterprises entering countries with lower-quality institutions tend to perceive more pronounced distance effects than those expanding the other way around. Hence, the authors argue that “perceived institutional distance” better explains the functional role of distance than simple distance.

Practical implications

This study better delineates the link between distance and uncertainty and enhances managerial insights for entry mode selection. For policy-making purposes, the authors also show that improvement in institutional quality has a different effect on foreign resource commitment in developed and developing countries.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that considers both directionality and imbalance in institutional distance and proposes a measure to control for non-linear asymmetric relationship between distance and ownership. The authors extend the institutional theory and show the superiority of perceived institutional distance in predicting ownership implications.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Beth Davis-Sramek, Ayman Omar and Richard Germain

The purpose of this paper is to utilize middle-range theorizing to examine whether a US manufacturer can leverage supply chain orientation (SCO) to garner responsiveness…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to utilize middle-range theorizing to examine whether a US manufacturer can leverage supply chain orientation (SCO) to garner responsiveness from a global supplier. To capture the interplay of macro-level institutional environments, the authors examine the moderating effect of institutional distance on the SCO–supplier responsiveness relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary survey data collected from US manufacturers are utilized to measure SCO and supplier responsiveness. Two secondary data sets (EIU and GLOBE) capture formal and informal distance at the institutional level and are used to test the moderating effect of institutional distance.

Findings

The research finds that SCO can facilitate global supplier responsiveness. A post hoc exploratory analysis reveals a three-way interaction, where the SCO–supplier responsiveness relationship is strengthened when formal and informal institutions are either very similar or very different.

Research limitations/implications

The research offers a more nuanced understanding of manufacturer–supplier relationships in global supply chains by demonstrating how country-level (macro) characteristics can influence firm-level (micro) supply chain phenomena. It extends research on SCO by illustrating how institutional distance interacts with a manufacturer’s ability to leverage SCO to enable supplier responsiveness.

Practical implications

Manufacturers should increase their attentiveness to institutional distance. When both formal and informal distances are different (i.e. high distance), SCO can create a powerful lever to improve global supplier responsiveness. Likewise, when formal and informal institutions are similar (i.e. low distance), SCO reinforces joint efforts and collaboration to create additive benefits, whereby suppliers are incentivized to be responsive to unexpected environmental changes.

Originality/value

This research addresses the growing call for more empirical studies that examine how country-level institutions influence firm-level phenomena. It also utilizes secondary data to serve as a proxy for formal and informal institutional distance.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Ying Zheng, Daying Yan and Bing Ren

This paper aims to propose an integrated framework combining the cost-reduction rationale and the institution-leveraging rationale to explain how institutional distance

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose an integrated framework combining the cost-reduction rationale and the institution-leveraging rationale to explain how institutional distance, both formal and informal, influences emerging multinational enterprises (EMNEs)’ foreign direct investment (FDI) location choice. This paper also explores the moderating role of EMNEs’ FDI experience and strategic intent on value chain positioning as a reflection of firm heterogeneities, on the link between institutional distance and location choice.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper tests the hypotheses based on a firm-level longitudinal data set of FDI by Chinese EMNEs. The unique data are manually collected from Chinese companies listed on Shenzhen and Shanghai Stock Exchanges, composed of 250 FDI entries of 122 manufacturing firms from 2006 to 2010. The conditional logit model is used to estimate the proposed main effect and moderating effect.

Findings

Cultural distance does not deter Chinese EMNEs’ entrance in general, but firms investing in low value-added manufacturing subsidiaries are more likely to choose culturally similar countries than those investing in high value-added subsidiaries such as in upstream R&D and downstream marketing. Formal institutional distance with positive direction promotes Chinese EMNEs’ entrance, and this effect is enhanced when firms have less FDI experience and have the strategic intent to invest in high value-added subsidiaries.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the current literature by identifying a holistic view of the institutional influences on FDI location choice of EMNEs and revealing how firm-level heterogeneities, particularly FDI experience and strategic intent of subsidiary value chain positioning, shape the boundary conditions of the institutional effects in different ways.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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