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Book part
Publication date: 21 April 2010

Ananya Mukherjea

Purpose – This chapter considers the social politics of H5N1 (“avian influenza”), the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, and the response to it within the context of the history of…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter considers the social politics of H5N1 (“avian influenza”), the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, and the response to it within the context of the history of pandemic influenzas and the continuing need for robust preventative public health systems more generally. In particular, the author considers how the borders between nations, species, and individuals are thrown into relief and called into question by influenza outbreaks and their management.

Methodology/approach – This work relies on literature review, media research, and critical and interpretative sociological methods.

Findings – While panic surrounding new and potentially highly virulent influenza strains is reasonable, such panic is not sustainable and belies the fact that every year presents the danger of a pandemic. This chapter argues that, if public health systems only respond to immediate panic and fail to consider how quickly airborne diseases can cross all sorts of borders, they do not attend to the real need for far-seeing, long-term, internationally collaborative disease prevention and disaster preparedness.

Contribution to the field – The author offers a critical and wellness- and prevention-oriented perspective on what priorities should be emphasized in the rapidly growing fields of disaster studies and disaster preparedness, which, by their nature, tend to be crisis oriented and focused on the micro-term, with planning done on a case-by-case basis. Such a narrow focus can render preventative health systems inflexible and unable to rise to the challenge of a disease that can spread easily through casual contact.

Details

Understanding Emerging Epidemics: Social and Political Approaches
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-080-3

Abstract

Details

American Life Writing and the Medical Humanities: Writing Contagion
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-673-0

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2021

Kim Abildgren

The Spanish Flu 1918–1920 saw a high degree of excess mortality among young and healthy adults. The purpose of this paper is a further exploration of the hypothesis that…

Abstract

Purpose

The Spanish Flu 1918–1920 saw a high degree of excess mortality among young and healthy adults. The purpose of this paper is a further exploration of the hypothesis that high mortality risk during The Spanish Flu in Copenhagen was associated with early life exposure to The Russian Flu 1889–1892.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on 37,000 individual-level death records in a new unique database from The Copenhagen City Archives combined with approximate cohort-specific population totals interpolated from official censuses of population, the author compiles monthly time series on all-cause mortality rates 1916–1922 in Copenhagen by gender and one-year birth cohorts. The author then analyses birth cohort effects on mortality risk during The Spanish Flu using regression analysis.

Findings

The author finds support for hypotheses relating early life exposure to The Russian Flu to mortality risk during The Spanish Flu. Some indications of possible gender heterogeneity during the first wave of The Spanish Flu – not found in previous studies – should be a topic for future research based on data from other countries.

Originality/value

Due to lack of individual-level death records with exact dates of birth and death, previous studies on The Spanish Flu in Denmark and many other countries have relied on data with lower birth cohort resolutions than the one-year birth cohorts used in this study. The analysis in this paper illustrates how archival Big Data can be used to gain new insights in studies on historical pandemics.

Details

Information Discovery and Delivery, vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6247

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2021

Kenneth Eunhan Kim

This study aims to examine how the relative importance of a search versus a credence attribute, strategically addressed in a flu vaccination advertisement, varies as a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how the relative importance of a search versus a credence attribute, strategically addressed in a flu vaccination advertisement, varies as a function of message sidedness. A search attribute was designed to highlight the affordability of flu shots, and a credence attribute addressed the potential health benefits of flu vaccination.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were designed to explore how the relative persuasiveness of search versus credence attributes varies as a function of message sidedness in the context of flu vaccination advertising. In Experiment 1, the search–credence attribute type was manipulated by addressing either the affordability (e.g. “Get free flu shots”) or indirect health benefits of flu vaccines (e.g. “Improve herd immunity/community health”). In Experiment 2, an individual-level credence attribute (e.g. “Strengthen your immune system”) was created and compared to the other two attribute conditions used in Experiment 1: a search versus a societal credence versus an individual credence attribute.

Findings

Experiment 1 (N = 114) revealed the relative advantage of a search attribute (free flu shots) in the two-sided persuasion. Experiment 2 (N = 193) indicated that the persuasive impact of a societal credence attribute (herd immunity/community health) was greater in the two-sided message condition (vs one-sided message condition).

Originality/value

Relatively little research has examined how consumers respond to strategic flu prevention and vaccination messages promoting either credence or search attributes. Motivated by the need to investigate the relative effectiveness of stressing “herd immunity” versus “free flu shots” in flu vaccination advertising, this study examines how the effects of these distinct attributes on flu vaccination judgments differ between two-sided (e.g. “No vaccine is 100% effective”) and one-sided persuasion.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Lauren Alex O’ Hagan

This paper aims to use the advertisements of three major brands – Chymol, Formamint and Lifebuoy Soap – to examine how advertisers responded to the 1918–1919 influenza

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use the advertisements of three major brands – Chymol, Formamint and Lifebuoy Soap – to examine how advertisers responded to the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in Great Britain influenza pandemic. It looks particularly at the ways in which marketing strategies changed and how these strategies were enacted in the lexical and semiotic choices (e.g. language, image, colour, typography, texture, materiality, composition and layout) of advertisements.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 120 advertisements for the three brands were collected from the British Newspaper Archive and analysed using the theory and analytical tools of multimodal critical discourse analysis. The general themes and semiotic structures of the advertisements were identified, with the aim of deconstructing the meaning potentials of verbal and visual resources used to convey ideas about the pandemic, and how they work to shape public understanding of the products and make them appear as effective and credible.

Findings

Each brand rapidly changed their marketing strategy in response to the influenza pandemic, using such techniques as testimonials, hyperbole, scaremongering and pseudoscientific claims to persuade consumers that their products offered protection. Whilst these strategies may appear manipulative, they also had the function of fostering reassurance and sympathy amongst the general public in a moment of turmoil, indicating the important role of brands in building consumer trust and promoting a sense of authority in early twentieth-century Britain.

Originality/value

Exploring the way in which advertisers responded to the 1918‐1919 influenza pandemic reminds us of the challenges of distinguishing legitimate and illegitimate medical advice in a fast-moving pandemic and highlights the need to cast a critical eye to the public health information, particularly when it comes from unofficial sources with vested interests.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 13 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Niyi Awofeso and William D. Rawlinson

Repeated influenza outbreaks are surprisingly rare in prison settings worldwide, a factor that has made it superfluous, to date, to develop contingency plans for…

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Abstract

Repeated influenza outbreaks are surprisingly rare in prison settings worldwide, a factor that has made it superfluous, to date, to develop contingency plans for responding to prison‐based influenza epidemics. However, the influenza outbreak that occurred in an Australian prison in 2000 has highlighted the appropriateness of developing an outbreak plan, not least because of the security implications of a widespread prison influenza epidemic. Using reported attack rates and morbidity profiles of the 2000 Australian prison influenza outbreak to develop scenarios, the authors estimated the cost ‐ benefit of mass vaccination and antiviral chemotherapy approaches for the control of hypothetical widespread influenza outbreaks in New South Wales prisons, occurring at an average frequency of once every 10 years. It was concluded that, from the perspectives of maintaining prison security as well as health care services’ provision to prisoners, early antiviral chemotherapy for symptomatic individuals will have more favourable cost ‐ benefit ratios than a mass vaccination approach for controlling prison‐based influenza outbreaks that occur in line with this model.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Sameer Kumar

The author aims to assess the spread of avian flu, its impact on businesses operating in the USA and overseas, and the measures required for corporate preparedness.

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Abstract

Purpose

The author aims to assess the spread of avian flu, its impact on businesses operating in the USA and overseas, and the measures required for corporate preparedness.

Design/methodology/approach

Six Sigma DMAIC process is used to analyze avian flu's impact and how an epidemic could affect large US business operations worldwide. Wal‐Mart and Dell Computers were chosen as one specializes in retail and the other manufacturing.

Findings

The study identifies avian flu pandemic risks including failure modes on Wal‐Mart and Dell Computers global operations. It reveals the factors that reinforce avian‐flu pandemic's negative impact on company global supply chains. It also uncovers factors that balance avian‐flu pandemic's impact on their global supply chains.

Research limitations/implications

Avian flu and its irregularity affect the research outcomes because its spread could fluctuate based on so many factors that could come into play. Further, the potential cost to manufacturers and other supply chain partners is relatively unknown. As a relatively new phenomenon, quantitative data were not available to determine immediate costs.

Social implications

In this decade, the avian influenza H5N1 virus has killed millions of poultry in Asia, Europe and Africa. This flu strain can infect and kill humans who come into contact with this virus. An avian influenza H5N1 outbreak could lead to a devastating effect on global food supply, business services and business operations.

Originality/value

The study provides guidance on what global business operation managers can do to prepare for such events, as well as how avian flu progression to a pandemic can disrupt such operations. This study raises awareness about avian flu's impact on businesses and humans and also highlights the need to create contingency plans for corporate preparedness to avoid incurring losses.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Jeroen Crijns, Bram Palache and Wim Vanhaverbeke

Major technological innovations are usually associated with central R&D facilities in large companies and leading edge technologies that are key to unlocking business…

Abstract

Purpose

Major technological innovations are usually associated with central R&D facilities in large companies and leading edge technologies that are key to unlocking business opportunities in promising, embryonic markets. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze several factors that determine the success of a major process innovation in a mature but changing industry. The paper furthermore shows that the periphery of a company can be as innovative as headquarters and central R&D‐labs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based upon an in depth case study of the “Business Group Influenza” (BGI) at Solvay, a multinational company in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry based in Brussels. BGI turned a mature business into a growth engine for the company through the development of a cell culture technology. Next, we identified 20 success factors of innovations based on extensive literature research. These factors can be placed in four main categories; strategic factors, market environment factors, development process factors, and organizational factors. In this paper, we apply these key drivers to the renewal of Solvay's influenza vaccine business.

Findings

It is found that a systematic analysis of the case using the 20 key drivers allows us to evaluate the management of this major innovation process. In this way, one can easily spot the drivers that need more attention or require another management approach. We also find that the management of attention of the top‐management is crucial in long‐term innovation projects.

Originality/value

The contribution of this study is twofold. On the one hand, the rejuvenation of Solvay's influenza vaccine business shows that changing markets conditions in combination with a breakthrough process technology can turn a cash cow into a growth business. On the other hand, the systematic analysis of key innovation drivers allows one to identify the strength and weaknesses in the management of a long‐term, breakthrough process innovation.

Details

Journal of Knowledge-based Innovation in China, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Anjali Patwardhan, Kelly Kelleher, Dennis Cunningham, James Menke and Charles Spencer

Children with rheumatic disease, who are infected with influenza, have an increased rate of complications. These complications can be reduced by improving the flu

Abstract

Purpose

Children with rheumatic disease, who are infected with influenza, have an increased rate of complications. These complications can be reduced by improving the flu vaccination rate. This paper's aim is to document the authors' purpose of increasing the influenza vaccination rate through information technology (IT) intervention in this high risk population of patients.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors retrospectively reviewed the electronic health records (EHR) of three yearly cohorts (2007, 2008, and 2009) of rheumatology clinic patients from a large pediatric hospital for evidence of influenza vaccination. They introduced an automatic best practice reminder intervention in patients' EHR from September 2009 to April 2010. Using Clarity Report Write for EPIC, each chart was examined for evidence of influenza vaccination to test for vaccination rate difference among the cohorts. The authors employed logistic regression equations to control for possible confounders using SAS 9.1.3.

Findings

There was a significant difference in the probability of being vaccinated before and after intervention (p value <0.0001).The vaccination rate increased from 5.9 percent in 2007, 7.8 percent in 2008 and to 25.5 percent in 2009. During all three years, individual attending's contribution and ethnicity of patients had significant effects on vaccination rate. Confounders such as age, sex, insurance status and distance travelled from clinic had no effect on the vaccination rate.

Originality/value

EHR‐embedded information in past studies has been only modestly effective in improving care for many chronic conditions. The automatic best practice reminder for flu‐vaccine appears to be effective for changing physician's behaviors and improving the vaccination rate in rheumatology clinics.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

John Overby, Mike Rayburn, David C. Wyld and Kevin Hammond

Epidemiologists are concerned the next deadly global cognition will be a new kind of deadly flu which humans have no resistance. Since the 1960s, their alarm has been…

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Abstract

Epidemiologists are concerned the next deadly global cognition will be a new kind of deadly flu which humans have no resistance. Since the 1960s, their alarm has been focused on a bird (avian) virus (H5N1). This virus is generally harmless in its host species, but it is extremely deadly when contracted by humans. H5N1 mutates quickly and tends to pick up genes from flu viruses that affect other species. The flu is far more contagious and harder to contain than the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) virus. It is projected that 30‐40 per cent of the population would be infected in a H5N1 flu pandemic, and as many as one‐third would die. The 1918 Spanish flu caused 20 to 50 million deaths world wide. One scientist observed that the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic could have caused civilisation to disappear within a few weeks. Currently, more than 50 million chickens have been slaughtered in eight Asian countries in efforts to curb the spread of avian influenza. This article examines the roots and dangers of the potential avian influenza pandemic, examining the business and social ramifications that could ensue if the worst case scenario occurs.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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