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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Erica L. Anthony

Leadership coaching has received increased popularity over the past decade; however, there is a paucity of research that has examined its impact on leader behaviors within…

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3917

Abstract

Purpose

Leadership coaching has received increased popularity over the past decade; however, there is a paucity of research that has examined its impact on leader behaviors within organizations. Drawing upon transformational leadership theory, the purpose of this paper is to understand the benefits provided to followers when leaders experience leadership coaching.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study collected data from 75 mid- to senior-level organizational leaders and 188 followers.

Findings

The results of this study reveal that leadership coaching is positively associated with leaders engaging in individualized consideration toward their followers, and in turn, leaders engage in constructive leadership behaviors (i.e. more delegation and less close supervision).

Research limitations/implications

While this study contributes to our understanding of leadership coaching for organizational leaders, it, however, focuses on a specific set of leadership behaviors and does not examine the practices embedded in the coaching process.

Practical implications

Leadership coaching facilitates the leader’s aspiration to provide their followers with more individual support. Organizations, in turn, need to promote more opportunities and practices for this interaction to continue.

Originality/value

This is the first study to empirically demonstrate the relationship between leadership coaching and constructive leadership behaviors.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Gregory Bott

Positivist deductive research on transformational leadership brings along with it 25 years of researcher presuppositions. Such research not only suggests that a…

Abstract

Purpose

Positivist deductive research on transformational leadership brings along with it 25 years of researcher presuppositions. Such research not only suggests that a transformational leader’s influence is unidirectional but also that transformational leadership theory is a universal theory. In this chapter, I inductively seek to examine board-executive director interactions, free from the shackles of existing theory.

Methodology/approach

The current chapter uses an inductive research approach to the collection and analysis of the empirical material. By being open to surprises in the empirical material, I am able to explore behaviors and relationships, while analyzing a specific context – the nonprofit board-executive director relationship.

Findings

The current study finds evidence that individualized consideration in a governance model frequently occurs in the opposite direction. Despite organizational documents promoting a hierarchical structure, evidence of top-down, collegiality, and bottom-up individualized consideration suggests hierarchical boundaries are commonly crossed in the decision making process.

Research implications

Results of this exploratory study suggest that in a governance context, hierarchical actors do not fit neatly into the boxes defined by 30 years of research on transformational leadership theory, suggesting that the leadership process is more complex than portrayed by current dichotomizations. The findings provide support for recent criticisms of transformational leadership theory.

Practical implications

The findings of this chapter provide evidence of the benefits of eliciting input from organizational actors at multiple hierarchical levels. The empirical evidence provides practitioners with a fresh perspective on board roles and relationship, diverging from the traditional structural prescriptions.

Details

Governance and Performance in Public and Non-Profit Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-107-4

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2007

Heike Bruch and Frank Walter

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate hierarchical impacts on specific transformational leadership (TFL) behaviors (i.e. idealized influence…

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6187

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate hierarchical impacts on specific transformational leadership (TFL) behaviors (i.e. idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration).

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data on TFL, job satisfaction, and hierarchy were collected from 448 managers from a multinational corporation in Sweden.

Findings

Idealized influence and inspirational motivation occurred more frequently among upper rather than middle managers, while there were no differences for intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration. Also, idealized influence, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation were more effective in strengthening subordinates' job satisfaction among upper rather than middle managers, while individualized consideration was similarly effective in both groups.

Research limitations/implications

The cross‐sectional research design precludes causal conclusions and potentially allows for common method bias. With the main research interest pertaining to hierarchical differences in TFL, however, method bias seems unlikely to fully account for the results.

Practical implications

Study results emphasize the necessity to strengthen TFL on lower managerial levels. Organizations might achieve this by cutting administrative constraints and empowering lower level leaders.

Originality/value

The study addresses repeated calls for a consideration of contextual factors in TFL research. It points to the role of hierarchy as a boundary condition of TFL.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2012

Marco Aurélio de Oliveira, Luiz Veriano Oliveira Dalla Valentina and Osmar Possamai

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of leadership style and factors associated with organization agility on project performance.

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2877

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of leadership style and factors associated with organization agility on project performance.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a case study carried out at a leading corporation driven towards innovation projects. Literature on this subject seems to be mainly focused on the contribution of processes and strategies that lead to agility, and few cases report the influence of people and leadership style on this factor. Upon analysis, a proposed characterization of the relationship between leadership, agility and project performance is presented. A Bayesian Network (BN) model is employed as a modeling tool, enabling both inferences and sensitivity analysis and also visualization and quantification of the propagation of effects between variables.

Findings

The main result of this study is the characterization of under which combination of leadership style, agility and organizational factors the highest project performance can be achieved.

Originality/value

The paper helps clear up the mistaken view that high agility only takes place when all constituent factors display maximum values. The leadership style and people contribution to agility is clearly addressed. This kind of approach is original and helps to answer the question found in the literature of how much agility is needed, through the identification of the individual contributions of each of the system variables. The view offered by the model discussed in this paper enables understanding and visualizing how this takes place, thus allowing for gearing more focused and effective actions towards the key variables.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 61 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Priyanka Banerji and Venkat R. Krishnan

This study looked at the relationship between the four factors of transformational leadership – charisma, inspirational leadership, intellectual stimulation, and…

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5842

Abstract

This study looked at the relationship between the four factors of transformational leadership – charisma, inspirational leadership, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration – and the leader’s preference for unethical behavior. Five ethical scenarios – bribery, endangering the physical environment, lying, personal gain, and favoritism – were studied using a sample of 100 pairs of managers and subordinates from four multinational organizations in India. Relationships between the leader’s ethical preferences and three outcomes – followers’ willingness to put in extra effort, perceived effectiveness, and satisfaction – were also analyzed. Findings indicate that inspirational leadership is negatively related to the leader’s preference for bribery and favoritism, and intellectual stimulation is negatively related to preference for bribery. Charisma and individualized consideration are not related to the leader’s ethical preferences. Followers’ willingness to put in extra effort is also negatively related to the leader’s preference for bribery and favoritism. Results also suggest that organizational culture might moderate the relationship between transformational leadership and ethics.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 21 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Sajjad Nawaz Khan, Siti Mariam Abdullah, Abdul Halim Busari, Muhammad Mubushar and Ikram Ullah Khan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of followership dimensions in the transformational leadership process by reversing the lens from the traditional…

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1631

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of followership dimensions in the transformational leadership process by reversing the lens from the traditional leader-centric perspective to emerging followership perspective and examine the role of trust as a mediating variable in the proposed relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Using quantitative method data were collected through a questionnaire from 506 respondents of the telecom sector in Pakistan. The proposed hypotheses were tested using SPSS V.23 and PROCESS V.3.1.

Findings

The results indicate that followership dimensions (active engagement and independent critical thinking) positively affect all the four constructs of transformational leadership (idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration). Furthermore, trust in leadership partially mediates the direct relationship between followership dimensions and transformational leadership constructs.

Research limitations/implications

This study is conducted in a developing country context which limits its generalizability in other cultural backgrounds. Hence, further investigation could test the role of followership using different samples and methods.

Practical implications

Organizations need to pay more attention to followers’ development to produce better followership outcomes that will ultimately help establish strong relationships with transformational leaders and sustained positive outcomes.

Originality/value

This study empirically tests Shamir’s (2007) “reversing the lens” perspective and extends a distinct theoretical contribution to the social exchange theory that neither followers are passive participants, nor always on the receiving end of the relationship but they actively participate to establish a strong relationship with their leaders.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Noel James Pearse

It is argued that while service requirements are pervasive in organisational contexts, when leading their followers, service has not typically been expected of leaders…

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1341

Abstract

Purpose

It is argued that while service requirements are pervasive in organisational contexts, when leading their followers, service has not typically been expected of leaders. The purpose of this paper is to propose how the service of followers should be constructed as a competency of leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper, which evaluates and builds theory in the form of a framework of service as a leadership competency. This framework is based upon the application of social exchange and leadership-member exchange theories and the use of scholarly sources.

Findings

The paper defines service as a leadership competency and proposes that it has at least five requisite and interconnected attributes, namely, individualised consideration, compassion, a motivation to serve, humility and integrative thinking to resolve competing stakeholder interests for the greater good. It further argues that when leaders exercise this competency and its associated attributes, it creates social relations with followers, rather than economic ones.

Research limitations/implications

This conceptual paper contains no empirical data.

Practical implications

The paper develops service as a leadership competency and proposes that social dyadic relations between leader and follower may be advanced through its development.

Originality/value

The paper proposes five attributes which would differentiate service as a competency from other leader competencies. It also provides an explanation of the process through which competencies can realise relational outcomes.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Jens Rowold, Lars Borgmann and Mathias Diebig

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive examination of different leadership constructs investigated extensively, namely transformational and transactional…

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1134

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive examination of different leadership constructs investigated extensively, namely transformational and transactional leadership, laissez-faire, consideration, and initiating structure, as well as leader-member-exchange. The theoretical overlap as well as the empirical correlations between these constructs is explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Overall, 735 correlations were analyzed to generate a meta-analytical correlation matrix.

Findings

The meta-analyses revealed highly interrelated leadership constructs (0.26<∣ρ∣<0.74). Results of confirmatory factor analyses suggest a one factor solution of leadership.

Research limitations/implications

The uniqueness and construct validity of leadership constructs is challenged, calling for a revision of the respective leadership theories. Ultimately, an integrative theory of leadership should be developed which accounts for similarities as well as differences between leadership constructs. An integrated theory of leadership would help: researchers to combine their forces and, consequently, organizations across the globe to better select and develop leaders for the future.

Practical implications

By taking a critical, cross-theoretical compare and contrast approach, the present study yielded a comprehensive picture of the interrelationship and partial redundancy of several of the currently researched leadership constructs.

Originality/value

New insights into the overlap between leadership constructs were generated and confirmed by meta-analyses.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

James C. Sarros and Joseph C. Santora

Explores the nature of transformational and transactional leadership among business executives. Comments reveal that most executives believe there are weaknesses as well…

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36095

Abstract

Explores the nature of transformational and transactional leadership among business executives. Comments reveal that most executives believe there are weaknesses as well as strengths with both leadership constructs in practice. Overall, major leadership strengths are in the role modelling, coaching, and consideration behaviors of executives. Major weaknesses are in failure to motivate and challenge workers beyond the expected outcomes. Other facets of each of the four transformational and two transactional leadership behaviors are examined in this article. Lists leadership strategies and approaches for achieving positive results and implications for future research are also provided.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Naceur Jabnoun and Aisha Juma AL Rasasi

This paper investigates the relationship between transformational leadership and service quality in UAE hospitals. The paper first determined the level of satisfaction of…

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7064

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the relationship between transformational leadership and service quality in UAE hospitals. The paper first determined the level of satisfaction of patients with the service quality they received. The paper also analyzed how hospital employees perceived the dimensions of transformational and transactional leadership of their leaders. Finally, the relationship between the dimensions of service quality and those of transformational and transactional leadership was investigated

Design/methodology/approach

Two questionnaires were administered. The first questionnaire addressed service quality using an adapted SERVQUAL. The second one addressed transformational and transactional leadership using the multi‐level leadership questionnaire. The first questionnaire was distributed to patients of six major UAE hospitals while the second one was distributed to employees of the same hospitals. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS.

Findings

The paper found that UAE patients were generally satisfied with the service quality rendered by their hospitals. It however found that hospital employees had a low rating of their leaders in terms of the transformational leadership and contingent reward. Finally, service quality was found to be positively related to all dimension of transformational leadership and the transactional leadership dimension of contingent reward. The two dimensions of active exception and passive avoidant leadership were negatively related to service quality.

Originality/value

This paper bridged an important gap in the literature by addressing the relationship between service quality and transformational leadership. It provided important guidelines for managers on the dimensions of leadership that needed to be enhanced in order to improve service quality.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

Keywords

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