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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

K. Thattakkat, S. Jayakumar and N. Sharief

Seeks to assess whether referrals for immunisation as day cases are appropriate and to identify any adverse events following hospital‐based immunisation.

Abstract

Purpose

Seeks to assess whether referrals for immunisation as day cases are appropriate and to identify any adverse events following hospital‐based immunisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Computerised consent forms and the ward registers were used to generate a list of children immunised in the day case ward of Basildon University Hospital between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2003.

Findings

There were 57 referrals for immunisation under medical supervision in the day case ward during the 12‐month period. General practitioners referred 30 cases (53 per cent) followed by eight (14 per cent) referrals each from the Immunisation Coordinator Clinic and health visitors. The commonest reason for referral was previous reaction to vaccine (21 cases, 37 per cent), followed by history of egg allergy (11 cases, 23 per cent). The types of vaccines that were most frequently administered were the MMR first dose (18 cases, 32 per cent) and the second dose of DPT/OPV/HIB/Men C (13 cases, 23 per cent).

Practical implications

A total of 24 (42 per cent) of the referrals were judged to be inappropriate as per the UK Department of Health's guidelines. No adverse events were noticed during hospital‐based immunisation. Definite guidelines exist in the UK for immunisation. However, a large proportion of children who deserved immunisation in the community were referred to the hospital day case unit.

Originality/value

This paper identifies the inappropriateness of hospital‐based immunisation and emphasises the need to create increased awareness regarding the true contraindications to immunisation among healthcare professionals by further education and training. Further, it is expected to stimulate many paediatric departments to look at their own practice and find ways to improve service efficiency and effective use of resources.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Patience Esohe Konwea, Funmilayo Alice David and Seyi Elizabeth Ogunsile

Vaccine preventable diseases are major threats to the health and well-being of children under five years of age. They contribute a great deal to childhood illnesses and…

Abstract

Purpose

Vaccine preventable diseases are major threats to the health and well-being of children under five years of age. They contribute a great deal to childhood illnesses and disabilities, and are accountable for a high percentage of childhood mortality worldwide. In Nigeria, the government has made a lot of effort to provide immunizations against these childhood diseases. It is however sad to note that many children still do not complete their routine immunization. The purpose of this paper is to determine factors which influence mothers’ compliance with childhood immunization.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a descriptive study carried out among 600 mothers of under-five children randomly selected from nine postnatal clinics in Ekiti State between January and August 2016. A self-structured validated questionnaire containing items to explore demographic characteristics of respondents, compliance with child immunization (Cronbach’s α=0.92) and determinants of compliance (Cronbach’s α=0.83) was the instrument for data collection. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify determinants of mothers’ compliance with childhood immunization.

Findings

The level of compliance of mothers with childhood immunization was high (80 percent). The two factors which contributed significantly to mothers’ compliance were the mothers’ knowledge of childhood immunization (β weight= 0.243) and mothers’ educational status (β weight=0.169). Mothers with tertiary education had the highest level of compliance (76.8 percent).

Originality/value

Having good knowledge of childhood immunization and a high educational status positively influence a mothers’ compliance with child immunization.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 January 2021

Sanjeev Singh, Sruti Singha Roy and Kirti Sundar Sahu

Throughout history, pandemics have played a significant role in reshaping human civilizations through mortalities, morbidities, economic losses and other catastrophic…

Abstract

Purpose

Throughout history, pandemics have played a significant role in reshaping human civilizations through mortalities, morbidities, economic losses and other catastrophic consequences. The present COVID-19 pandemic has brought the world to its knees resulting in overstretched healthcare systems, increased health inequalities and disruptions to people’s right to health including life-saving routine immunization programs across the world.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a commentary paper.

Findings

Immunization remains one of the most successful, safe, cost-effective and proven fundamental disease prevention measures in the history of public health. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has effectively thrown the world's immunization practices out of gear, depriving approximately 80 million infants, in rich and poor countries alike, at risk of triggering a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases such as diphtheria, measles and polio. It is estimated that each COVID-19 death averted by suspending immunization sessions in Africa could lead to 29-347 future deaths due to other diseases including measles, yellow fever, polio, meningitis, pneumonia and diarrhoea.

Originality/value

The value of implementing robust immunization policies cannot be underestimated. Risks associated with postponing immunization services and the fact that COVID-19 is now an integral part of human civilization have resulted in several countries making special efforts to continue their immunization services. However, critical precautionary measures are warranted to prevent COVID-19 among healthcare service providers, facilitators, caregivers and children during the immunization sessions.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Ranjan Kumar Prusty and Kunal Keshri

– The purpose of this paper is to understand disparities in child immunization and nutritional status among children by migration status in urban India.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand disparities in child immunization and nutritional status among children by migration status in urban India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized third round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-2006) data, which is the Indian version of Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression models were used to study the levels and factors associated with child nutrition and immunization by migration status.

Findings

Results suggest that malnutrition and no immunization are very high among children of rural-urban migrants and full immunization is lower than urban non-migrants and urban-urban migrants. More than half of the children from marginalized households suffer from the problem of undernutrition among rural-urban migrants. Multivariate results show economic status, age of the mother, education, caste and media exposure are negatively associated with malnutrition and positively associated with immunization. Children from south, north-east and east are found to have lesser chance of being malnourished than north region of India.

Practical implications

The challenges experienced by rural-urban migrants are reflected over their children and needs a greater attention among policy makers in India.

Originality/value

The finding of this study that children of the rural-urban migrants are in a disadvantageous position in terms of nutrition and immunization. This reflects the precarious condition of rural-urban migrants who initially settles in poor neighbourhoods, which are characterized by lack of adequate sanitation and clean water, poor housing and overcrowding, and difficulty in access to modern health services brought out by many researchers.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

Bryna Sanger and Martin A. Levin

The recent Childhood Immunization Initiative of the Clinton Administration was a dramatic and ambitious policy response to what we will show is a case of significant…

Abstract

The recent Childhood Immunization Initiative of the Clinton Administration was a dramatic and ambitious policy response to what we will show is a case of significant management and implementation failure. Interpreted by the Administration as a policy failure, low rates of early childhood immunization met with an aggressive and targeted policy response which ultimately diverted attention away from significant evidence of fundamental problems of service delivery, infrastructure, and parental knowledge and behavior. Analyzes and seeks to evaluate the reasons for the poor fit between the diagnosis of the problem of existing childhood immunization policy and the ultimate policy prescription of the Clinton Administration which relies almost exclusively on reducing the price of vaccines.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Moneeta Pal, Felicity Goodyear-Smith and Daniel Exeter

– The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature on pertussis immunisations among the Asian population.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature on pertussis immunisations among the Asian population.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review was carried out using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The review performed searches using the keywords: immun*, vaccine* AND whooping cough or Bordetella pertussis OR B pertussis AND Asia*. The search was conducted on four electronic databases, namely, Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Findings

In total, 13 studies of relevance were included in the review after screening 206 articles. The studies were categorised into three literature sections which were: epidemiology of pertussis, vaccine effectiveness studies in Asia and strategies aimed to increase uptake of immunisations against pertussis.

Research limitations/implications

Due to financial constraints, the authors only had access to articles published in the English language and full text articles which may limit the generalisability of the review.

Originality/value

The review is useful in providing insight into the general trends of pertussis immunisations among Asians and in aiding future research in this area.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

David Baxter

Immunization is a key primary prevention activity which hasassisted in the reduction of childhood morbidity and prematuremortality. Uptake rates for two‐year‐old children…

Abstract

Immunization is a key primary prevention activity which has assisted in the reduction of childhood morbidity and premature mortality. Uptake rates for two‐year‐old children are now in excess of 90 per cent throughout the UK and for the vast majority of infants immunization is a routine procedure with a high benefit‐to‐risk ratio. Concerns about particular children, either because of their previous medical history or an adverse vaccine event, have been responded to in various ways. The experiences of a specialist immunization facility established in 1987, which since inception has seen just over 3,000 children are described. The clinic operates four sessions a week, with two held in the District General Hospital and two in community clinics; the resource requirements for the clinic are identified. A parent satisfaction survey for the first 1,700 attenders was undertaken in 1992 and the results are reported; their comments led to changes in the method of service delivery. A study of GPs′ views was also undertaken at the same time; their satisfaction with the service is reflected in the continuing level of referrals. It is believed that all provider units should consider developing a similar facility for five reasons. First, it provides a source of expert advice for both professionals and parents; second, it facilitates the immunization of children with problem histories; third, it enables the investigation of serious post‐vaccination adverse events; and fourth, the clinic provides a means of co‐ordinating and delivering neonatal immunizations (including BCG, HBV, Varicella zoster and the vaccination of pre‐term infants). And finally the clinic offers training for health care staff involved in primary immunization programmes and travel vaccination services.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Dheeraj Chandra and Dinesh Kumar

Delivering vaccines to the children who need them requires a supply chain that is efficient and effective. In most of the developing countries, however, the unknown and…

Abstract

Purpose

Delivering vaccines to the children who need them requires a supply chain that is efficient and effective. In most of the developing countries, however, the unknown and unresolved supply chain issues are causing inefficiencies in distributing vaccines. There is, therefore, a great need in such countries to recognize the issues that cause delays in vaccine delivery. With this purpose, the present study aims to identify and analyze the key issues in the supply chain of basic vaccines required to immunize children in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a field survey of three states of India, in-depth review of relevant literature and experts’ opinions, 25 key issues were recognized as factors of the vaccine supply chain (VSC) and categorized into five main domains. Using integrated interpretive structural modeling and fuzzy analytic network process approaches, the issues have been prioritized to determine their relative importance in the VSC. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to investigate the priority stability of the issues.

Findings

The results of the analysis show that among the five domains of VSC issues, the economic domain with a weight of 0.4262 is the most important domain, followed by the management (0.2672), operational (0.2222), environmental (0.0532) and social (0.0312).

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on the prioritization of VSC issues; therefore, the results of the present study can provide direction to the decision-makers of immunization programs of developing countries in driving their efforts and resources on eliminating the most important obstacles to design successful vaccination programs.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this paper is first to provide a direction to the decision-makers in identifying and managing important issues through the use of an analytical approach.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Holly B. Schuh, Maria W. Merritt, Takeru Igusa, Bruce Y. Lee and David H. Peters

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how public health and systems science methods can be combined to examine the structure and behavior of Afghanistan’s routine…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how public health and systems science methods can be combined to examine the structure and behavior of Afghanistan’s routine childhood immunization system to identify the pathways through which health system readiness to deliver vaccination services may extend beyond immunization outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using findings from an ecological study of Afghanistan’s immunization system and a literature review on immunization program delivery, the routine immunization system was mapped using causal loop diagrams. Next, a stock-and-flow diagram was developed and translated to a system dynamics (SD) model for a system-confirmatory exercise. Data are from annual health facility assessments and two cross-sectional household surveys. SD model results were compared with measured readiness and service outcomes to confirm system structure.

Findings

Readiness and demand-side components were associated with improved immunization coverage. The routine immunization system was mapped using four interlinking readiness subsystems. In the SD model, health worker capacity and demand-side factors significantly affected maternal health service coverage. System readiness components affected their future measures mostly negatively, which may indicate that the reinforcing feedback drives current system-structured behavior.

Originality/value

The models developed herein are useful to explore the potential impact of candidate interventions on service outcomes. This paper documents the process through which public health and systems investigators can collaboratively develop models that represent the feedback-driven behavior of health systems. Such models allow for more realistically addressing health policy and systems-level research questions.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1970

Pregamol Rutchanagul and Wipada Sangnimitchaikul

The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has still been found to offer services that do not comply with standards. The purpose of this paper is to ascertain competency…

Abstract

Purpose

The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has still been found to offer services that do not comply with standards. The purpose of this paper is to ascertain competency in terms of the knowledge and skills of the EPI staff.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design was a mixed-methods approach. The quantitative method employed a questionnaire survey on the perceived competency of 382 EPI staffs from six regions in Thailand. This was paired alongside of the qualitative method, where four staffs were in-depth interviewed, and the performance of the EPI staffs was observed.

Findings

The overall perceived competency in the work of immunization was at a high level. A comparative analysis between the quantitative and qualitative data showed findings in three categories. First, the perception of competency was high, and performance conformed to standards in the preparation of the setting and equipment for providing the service; second, the perception of competency was high, but in the performance of their work the participants did not comply completely with standards for scheduling the immunization appointments or for vaccine storage; and third, the perception of competency was either moderate or low, and the performance of work was inadequate for vaccine estimations, registering reports, and dealing with adverse events following immunization.

Originality/value

The findings showed a gap between perception of knowledge-and-skill competency and actual practice in EPI service. Effective cooperation among involved organizations in order to improve the standard of performance in expanding the quality of EPI service provision in Thailand is suggested.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

Keywords

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