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1 – 10 of 302
Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

E.Y. Yan, X.Y. Hao, M.L. Cao, Y.M. Fan, D.Q. Zhang, W. Xie, J.P. Sun and S.Q. Hou

The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to investigate the process for the preparation of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) hydrogel and to characterize such a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to investigate the process for the preparation of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) hydrogel and to characterize such a hydrogel via various analytical techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

The hydrogel in the aqueous solution was prepared by using CMCS as the raw material and glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking agent. The as-prepared CMCS hydrogel was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra.

Findings

The CMCS hydrogel possessed a porous structure and the shape of the pore was irregular. Generally, the diameter of the pores ranged from 20 to 70 nm. The results from FTIR, UV-vis and XRD showed that there was no obvious difference between the structures of the CMCS hydrogel and CMCS powder.

Research limitations/implications

The strength of the hydrogel is not high enough and the degree of swelling is relatively small. So, improving the strength and swelling degree of the hydrogel is necessary.

Practical implications

The CMCS hydrogel presented obvious hollow structures and its fabrication was processed absolutely in aqueous phase. Besides, it possessed low toxicity, good biocompatibility and biodegradability. So, the hydrogel will have potential applications in drug delivery and release, tissue engineering and other biomedical fields.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to present the relationship between the structures of the CMCS hydrogel and CMCS micromolecule, and it confirms that there is no fundamental difference between them.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2022

Aniqa Junaid, Murtaza Najabat Ali, Mariam Mir and Sadia Hassan

The purpose of this paper is to present synthesis protocol of hydrogel composed of Chitosan (CS) and Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and establish an understanding of its…

42

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present synthesis protocol of hydrogel composed of Chitosan (CS) and Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and establish an understanding of its thermal responsive behavior. It aims to prove the basic temperature sensing ability of a novel CS-PEG-based hydrogel and define its sensing span.

Design/methodology/approach

This study includes synthesis of CS and PEG-based hydrogel samples by first performing dissolution of both constituents, respectively, and then adding Glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking agent. It further includes proposed hydrogel’s swelling studies and dynamic behavior testing, followed by hydrogel characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and SEM. The last section focuses on the use of proposed hydrogel as a temperature sensor.

Findings

Detailed experimental results show that a hydrogel comprising of CS and PEG presents a thermally responsive behavior. It offers potential to be used as a temperature responsive hydrogel-based sensor which could be used in medical applications.

Originality/value

This research study presents scope for future research in the field of thermally responsive bio-sensors. It provides basis for the fabrication of a thermal responsive sensor system based on hydrogels that can be used in specific medical applications.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2022

Nargess Yousefi-Limaee, Behzad Shirkavand Hadavand and Zahra Rahmani

Methylene blue (MB) is classified as a cationic dye which is widely used as chemical indicator, coloring agent and biological stain. The discharge of this dye to the water…

Abstract

Purpose

Methylene blue (MB) is classified as a cationic dye which is widely used as chemical indicator, coloring agent and biological stain. The discharge of this dye to the water streams is harmful to the human beings. For this reason, this study investigated the removal of MB from aqueous solution by hydrogel nanocomposite.

Design/methodology/approach

In experimental part, at first, ultraviolet (UV)-curable hydrogel/chitosan nanocomposite, which improves its elasticity by urethane acrylate, was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and SEM analysis. Afterward, the synthesized hydrogel nanocomposite was applied for the removal of MB and the influence of operational condition including nanocomposite loading, dye concentration, contact time and pH of solution was specified. Moreover, isotherm studies as well as kinetics survey were performed.

Findings

Langmuir, Freundlich, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller and Tempkin adsorption isotherms were assessed for the analysis of experimental data indicating the Freundlich isotherm was the best fitted one. The adsorption kinetics data was examined indicating the adsorption kinetics appropriate to pseudo-second-order kinetics model.

Originality/value

The predominant water absorption property of the UV-curable hydrogel/chitosan nanocomposite to 8.5 steps and outstanding adsorption capacity for the elimination of MB on hydrogel nanocomposite subscribed that the synthesized hydrogel could be a favorable adsorbent for simultaneous absorption of water and removal of cationic dyes.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2022

Hanieh Shaki

In this study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/poly[acrylic acid (AAc)-co-acrylamide (AM)] composite hydrogel was prepared by radical copolymerization in the presence of Fe3+

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/poly[acrylic acid (AAc)-co-acrylamide (AM)] composite hydrogel was prepared by radical copolymerization in the presence of Fe3+ freezing-thawing method. The swelling behavior of the hydrogel was investigated. The novel synthesized hydrogel was used as an adsorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. In this paper, methylene blue and maxilon blue 5G were selected as representative cationic dyes. In addition, adsorption isotherm models were used to describe the dye adsorption process.

Design/methodology/approach

The prepared composite hydrogel was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy and UV–visible.

Findings

The prepared hydrogel exhibited excellent adsorption ability for both dyes. Various experimental conditions affecting the dye adsorption were explored to achieve maximum removal of both dyes. In addition, adsorption isotherm models were used to describe the dye adsorption process.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, synthesis of PVA/poly(AAc-co-AM) composite hydrogel in the presence of Fe3+ and investigation of the removal of methylene blue and maxilon blue 5G dyes is done for the first time successfully.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2021

Yifan Xu, Xiang Gu, Qinghua Meng, Bin Wang and Jun Fan

This paper aims to show a series of hydrogels with adjustable mechanical properties, which can be cured quickly with visible light. The hydrogel is prepared conveniently…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to show a series of hydrogels with adjustable mechanical properties, which can be cured quickly with visible light. The hydrogel is prepared conveniently with hydroxyethyl acrylate, cross-linker, gelatin and photoinitiator, and can be printed into certain 3D patterns with the direct ink write (DIW) 3D printer designed and developed by the research group.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors designed a composite sensitization initiation system that is suitable for hydrogels. The concentration of photoinitiator, gelatin and cross-linker was studied to optimize the curing efficiency and adjust the mechanical properties. A DIW 3D printer was designed for the printing of hydrogel. Pre-gel solution was loaded into printer for printing into established models. The models were made and sliced with software.

Findings

The hydrogels can be cured efficiently with 405-nm visible light. While adding various content of gelatin and cross-linker, the mechanical properties of hydrogels show from soft and fragile (elastic modulus of 121.18 kPa and work of tension of 218.11 kJ·m−3) to rigid and tough (elastic modulus of 505.15 kPa and work of tension of 969.00 kJ·m−3). The hydrogels have high capacity of water absorption. With the DIW 3D printer, pre-gel hydrogel solution can be printed into objects with certain dimension.

Originality/value

In this work, a composite sensitization initiation system was designed, and fast curing hydrogels with adjustable mechanical properties had been prepared conveniently, which has high equilibrium water content and 3D printability with the DIW 3D printer.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2014

C. De Maria, L. Grassi, F. Vozzi, A. Ahluwalia and G. Vozzi

This paper aims to develop a novel micro-ablation system to realise micrometric and well-defined hydrogel structures. To engineer a tissue it is necessary to evaluate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a novel micro-ablation system to realise micrometric and well-defined hydrogel structures. To engineer a tissue it is necessary to evaluate several aspects, such as cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, its micro-architecture and mechanical stimuli that act on it. For this reason, it is important to fabricate a substrate which presents a microtopology similar to natural tissue and has chemical and mechanical properties able to promote cell functions. In this paper, well-defined hydrogel structures embedding cells were microfabricated using a purposely developed technique, micro-laser ablation, based on a thulium laser. Its working parameters (laser power emission, stepper motor velocity) were optimised to produce shaded “serpentine” pattern on a hydrogel film.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, initially, swelling/contraction tests on agarose and alginate hydrogel in different solutions of main components of cell culture medium were performed and were compared with the MECpH model. This comparison matched with good approximation experimental measurements. Once known how hydrogel changed its topology, microstructures with a well-defined topology were realised using a purposely developed micro-laser ablation system design. S5Y5 neuroblastoma cell lines were embedded in hydrogel matrix and the whole structure was ablated with a laser microfabrication system. The cells did not show damages due to mechanical stress present in the hydrogel matrix and to thermal increase induced by the laser beam.

Findings

The hydrogel structure is able to reproduce extracellular matrix. Initially, the hydrogel swelling/contraction in different solutions, containing the main components of the most common cell culture media, was analysed. This analysis is important to evaluate if cell culture environment could alter microtopology of realised structures. Then, the same topology was realised on hydrogel film embedding neuronal cells and the cells did not show damages due to mechanical stress present in the hydrogel matrix and to thermal increase induced by the laser beam. The interesting obtained results could be useful to realise well-defined microfabricated hydrogel structures embedding cells to guide tissue formation

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is the design and realisation of a 3D microfabrication system able to microfabricate hydrogel matrix embedding cells without inducing cell damage. The ease of use of this system and its potential modularity render this system a novel potential device for application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine area.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Aimin Tang, Qinwen Wang, Shan Zhao and Wangyu Liu

Nanocellulose is characterised by favourable biocompatibility, degradability, nanostructure effect, high modulus and high tensile strength and has been widely applied in…

Abstract

Purpose

Nanocellulose is characterised by favourable biocompatibility, degradability, nanostructure effect, high modulus and high tensile strength and has been widely applied in various fields. The current research in the field of new nanocellulose materials mainly focuses on the hydrogel, aerogel and the tissue engineering scaffold. All of these are three-dimensional (3D) porous materials, but conventional manufacturing technology fails to realise precise control. Therefore, the method of preparing structural materials using 3D printing and adopting the nanocellulose as the 3D printing material has been proposed. Then, how to realise 3D printing of nanocellulose is the problem that should be solved.

Design/methodology/approach

By adding the photosensitive component polyethyleneglycol diacrylate (PEGDA) in the aqueous dispersion system of nanocellulose, the nanocellulose was endowed with photosensitivity. Then, nanocellulose/PEGDA hydrogels were prepared by the additive manufacturing of nanocellulose through light curing.

Findings

The results showed that the nanocellulose/PEGDA hydrogels had a uniform shape and a controllable structure. The nanocellulose supported the scaffold structure in the hydrogels. Prepared with 1.8 per cent nanocellulose through 40 s of light curing, the nanocellulose/PEGDA hydrogels had a maximum compression modulus of 0.91 MPa. The equilibrium swelling ratio of the nanocellulose/PEGDA hydrogel prepared with 1.8 per cent nanocellulose was 13.56, which increased by 44 per cent compared with that of the PEGDA hydrogel without nanocellulose.

Originality/value

The paper proposed a method for rapidly prototyping the nanocellulose with expected properties, which provided a theoretical basis and technological reference for the 3D additive manufacturing of nanocellulose 3D structure materials with a controlled accurate architecture.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2018

Mariam Mir, Murtaza Najabat Ali, Umar Ansari, Patrick J. Smith, Amber Zahoor, Faisal Qayyum and Sabtain Abbas

The fabrication and characterization of a hydrogel-based conductometric sensor have been carried out. The purpose of this research is to fabricate a small robust hydrogel

Abstract

Purpose

The fabrication and characterization of a hydrogel-based conductometric sensor have been carried out. The purpose of this research is to fabricate a small robust hydrogel-based conductometric sensor for real-time monitoring of pH in the physiological range.

Design/methodology/approach

A pH-responsive Chitosan/Gelatin composite hydrogel has been used for this purpose. This study reports and analyzes the sensing response obtained from four hydrogel compositions with varying Chitosan/Gelatin ratios. The pH-responsive nature of the hydrogel has been mapped out through volumetric and conductometric tests. An attempt has been made to correlate these characteristics with the physico-chemical nature of the hydrogel through scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

Findings

The four hydrogel compositions differed on the basis of gel composition ratios; the conductometric analysis results prove that the sensor with the hydrogel composition (Chitosan 2 per cent, Gelatin 7 per cent, ratio 1:2) produces the best pH resolution in the pH range of 4 to 9. The sensing mechanisms and the differences obtained between individual sensor outputs have been discussed in detail. On the basis of this extensive in vitro assessment, it has been concluded that while key pendant functional groups contribute to pH-responsive characteristics of the hydrogel, the overall sensitivity of the sensors gel component to surrounding pH is also determined by the crystalline to amorphous ratio of the hydrogel composite, its interpenetrating cross-linked structure and the relative ratio of the hydrophilic to the pH-sensitive components.

Practical implications

The conductometric sensor results prove that the fabricated sensor with the shortlisted hydrogel composition shows good sensitivity in the physiological pH range (4 to 9) and it has the potential for use in point of care medical devices for diagnostic purposes.

Originality/value

This is the first reported version of the fabrication and testing and analysis/comparison of a hydrogel-based conductometric sensor based on this composition. The work is original and has not been replicated anywhere.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

A.E.‐S.I. Ahmed, A.M. El‐Masry, A. Saleh and A. Nada

The purpose of this paper is to prepare and optimize the preparation conditions of some new hydrogels and in addition, evaluate their water absorbance at different mediums…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare and optimize the preparation conditions of some new hydrogels and in addition, evaluate their water absorbance at different mediums and their ability to remove ions from aqueous solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Cellulose was extracted from depithed bagasse at two different pulping conditions; 3 and 6 hours cooking times, pulp (I) and (II), respectively. These pulps, in addition to cotton linter for comparison, were grafted with acrylamide followed by cross‐linking with glutaraldehyde. The networks were partially hydrolyzed and the structures of products (before and after hydrolysis) were studied using FTIR, SEM, TGA and X‐ray. The optimum preparation conditions were identified, before and after hydrolysis, to achieve maximum absorbance and the ability of prepared hydrogels to remove ions from solutions was investigated.

Findings

Maximum level of absorption was recorded using hydrogels prepared with monomer concentration =0.8 mol/l, cross‐linker concentration =0.01 mol/l, reaction time =2 hours and temperature =65°C. Hydrogels prepared using pulp (I) showed the best absorbance behavior and a tendency to remove ions from water.

Research limitations/implications

The ability of the prepared gels to remove ions from water could be further investigated to evaluate the ability of their use in a multi‐filtration system for water treatment.

Practical implications

This piece of work has suggested a simple way to convert an agricultural waste to hydrogel able to remove metal ions from water.

Social implications

Consuming this type of waste reduces the risks resulting from its burning in some countries, such as Egypt, that produce large amounts of it.

Originality/value

In this paper, low cost hydrogels, with expected value in water treatment, were prepared using agricultural wastes. They have shown better reactivity than gels prepared using pure cellulosic materials (cotton linter).

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Zhao Yuhang, Zhicai Yu, Hualing He and Huizhen Ke

This study aims to fabricate a multifunctional electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding composite fabric with simultaneous high-efficiency photothermal conversion and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to fabricate a multifunctional electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding composite fabric with simultaneous high-efficiency photothermal conversion and Joule heating performances.

Design/methodology/approach

A multifunctional polypyrrole (PPy) hydrogel/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/cotton EMI shielding composite fabric (hereafter denoted as PHMC) was prepared by loading MWCNT onto tannin-treated cotton fabric, followed by in situ crosslinking-polymerization to synthesize three-dimensional (3D) conductive networked PPy hydrogel on the surface of MWCNT-coated cotton fabric.

Findings

Benefiting from the unique interconnected 3D networked conductive structure of PPy hydrogel, the obtained PHMC exhibited a high EMI-shielding effectiveness vale of 48 dB (the absorbing electromagnetic wave accounted for 84%) within a large frequency range (8.2–12.4 GHz). Moreover, the temperature of the laminated fabric reached 54°C within 900 s under 15 V, and it required more than 100 s to return to room temperature (28.7°C). When the light intensity was adjusted to 150 mW/cm2, the PHMC temperature was about 38.2°C after lighting for 900 s, indicating high-efficiency electro-photothermal effect function.

Originality/value

This paper provides a novel strategy for designing a type of multifunctional EMI shielding composite fabric with great promise for wearable smart garments, EMI shielding and personal heating applications.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

1 – 10 of 302