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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Tony Bush and David Gamage

The final decade of the twentieth century saw a major shift to self‐governance for schools in many countries, including the UK and Australia. This trend is underpinned by…

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Abstract

The final decade of the twentieth century saw a major shift to self‐governance for schools in many countries, including the UK and Australia. This trend is underpinned by the assumption that greater autonomy will lead to improved educational outcomes. The impact of self‐management on principals and schools is now well documented but much less attention has been given to the implications for governance, a significant omission as the process of decentralisation transfers responsibilities to governing bodies rather than school principals. Reviews the main issues of governance and illustrates them from the research in England and Wales and in Australia. It joins the debate about the appropriate balance between governance and management for governing bodies and examines the lay/professional interface in school governance. It assesses governors’ role as representatives of school interest groups and concludes by setting out a research agenda for governance in self‐managing schools.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Rafaelle Nicholson

In 1993, the Sports Council's new policy document, Women and Sport, recommended that all national governing bodies of sport ‘establish a single governing body’. Throughout…

Abstract

In 1993, the Sports Council's new policy document, Women and Sport, recommended that all national governing bodies of sport ‘establish a single governing body’. Throughout the late 1980s and 1990s, almost all women sports that were administered separately to their male counterparts therefore ‘merged’ with the men's governing body: squash in 1989, football and athletics in 1992, lacrosse and hockey in 1996 and cricket in 1998. In practice, these mergers became ‘takeovers’, whereby female administrators were forced to cede governance of their sports to male-run bodies whose priority and focus remained men's sport. Work has been conducted on the impact of this process on individual sports, while internationally, studies of similar amalgamations between men's and women's sporting organisations have found that such processes increase male control at the expense of female autonomy. However, there has been no study which considers the impact of the Sports Council's policy on the UK sporting landscape as a whole. Via use of oral histories and archival material, this chapter seeks to begin this process, assessing the impact of a government policy of forced integration of women's and men's sport, which still has potent ramifications in sport governance today.

Details

Gender Equity in UK Sport Leadership and Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-207-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2022

Cristina Góis, Helena Inácio, Deolinda Meira, Mafalda Jesus, Maria Goreti Teixeira and Patrícia Monteiro

Considering in one side, the differences between the non-profits and profits entities and, in other side, given the importance of governance to monitoring the protection…

Abstract

Considering in one side, the differences between the non-profits and profits entities and, in other side, given the importance of governance to monitoring the protection of the interests of the different stakeholders, this literature review aims to identify the special features of the social economy entities and its effects in the principles and guidelines of an adequate governance model for these entities.

An important conclusion after the analysis of several frameworks is that the latest approaches place less importance on formal aspects such as the governing body roles or composition. Nowadays the concerns are increasingly focused in the best ways to adopt viable strategies and business models that will ensure survival and growth of non-profit entities.

In Portugal we identified the specificities of the Portuguese third sector that is limited to the fulfilment of the legally imposed requirements to these organizations. Regarding governance aspects, Portuguese organizations are not subject to codes of good practice or if they follow them, they are designed for the for-profit sector and do not address the main concerns of the non-profit sector.

Details

The Equal Pillars of Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-066-8

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Collins G. Ntim, Teerooven Soobaroyen and Martin J. Broad

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent of voluntary disclosures in UK higher education institutions’ (HEIs) annual reports and examine whether internal…

13202

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent of voluntary disclosures in UK higher education institutions’ (HEIs) annual reports and examine whether internal governance structures influence disclosure in the period following major reform and funding constraints.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopt a modified version of Coy and Dixon’s (2004) public accountability index, referred to in this paper as a public accountability and transparency index (PATI), to measure the extent of voluntary disclosures in 130 UK HEIs’ annual reports. Informed by a multi-theoretical framework drawn from public accountability, legitimacy, resource dependence and stakeholder perspectives, the authors propose that the characteristics of governing and executive structures in UK universities influence the extent of their voluntary disclosures.

Findings

The authors find a large degree of variability in the level of voluntary disclosures by universities and an overall relatively low level of PATI (44 per cent), particularly with regards to the disclosure of teaching/research outcomes. The authors also find that audit committee quality, governing board diversity, governor independence and the presence of a governance committee are associated with the level of disclosure. Finally, the authors find that the interaction between executive team characteristics and governance variables enhances the level of voluntary disclosures, thereby providing support for the continued relevance of a “shared” leadership in the HEIs’ sector towards enhancing accountability and transparency in HEIs.

Research limitations/implications

In spite of significant funding cuts, regulatory reforms and competitive challenges, the level of voluntary disclosure by UK HEIs remains low. Whilst the role of selected governance mechanisms and “shared leadership” in improving disclosure, is asserted, the varying level and selective basis of the disclosures across the surveyed HEIs suggest that the public accountability motive is weaker relative to the other motives underpinned by stakeholder, legitimacy and resource dependence perspectives.

Originality/value

This is the first study which explores the association between HEI governance structures, managerial characteristics and the level of disclosure in UK HEIs.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1972

Where does the power lie? Michael Locke continues his discussion of college government

Abstract

Where does the power lie? Michael Locke continues his discussion of college government

Details

Education + Training, vol. 14 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Gabriella Opromolla

The purpose of this paper is to describe the Bank of Italy's new comprehensive regulatory framework containing guidelines on the organization and corporate governance of banks.

791

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the Bank of Italy's new comprehensive regulatory framework containing guidelines on the organization and corporate governance of banks.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes the structure of the regulatory framework and the content of the rules, including rules on a bank's choice of board model, a bank's corporate governance project representing bylaws and internal organization, tasks and powers of governing bodies, composition of governing bodies, compensation and incentive mechanisms, and information flows.

Findings

The paper reveals that the new rules are in line with recent prudential measures that assign a central role to corporate organization and require banks to establish appropriate corporate governance arrangements and efficient management and control mechanisms aimed to support the risks to which they are exposed. The new regulatory framework also pivots on the principles set forth by Basel Committee's guidance on corporate governance for banking organizations.

Originality/value

The paper provides a useful introduction to new Italian organization and corporate governance guidelines for banks by an experienced banking and securities lawyer.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 March 2020

Ondřej Hradský

The purpose of this paper is to analyse 100 of the largest family firms and their personnel costs and employee numbers compared to non-family firms in the Czech Republic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse 100 of the largest family firms and their personnel costs and employee numbers compared to non-family firms in the Czech Republic and confirm if there exist differences between personnel costs for family and non-family firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 100 family firms and 97 non-family firms from the Czech Republic for the comparison. Four hypotheses about relation between personnel costs for family and non-family firms and their governing body were set. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and t-tests and Kruskal–Wallis test for confirmation of set hypothesis were used.

Findings

Sales volume and production consumption results are used as variables, which were compared between family and non-family firms to achieve the most relevant possible conclusions. Based on our results, it can be stated that differences between personnel costs, which, in this study, comprise employee wages, are not statistically significant in the largest Czech family firms. There are significant differences in personnel costs for company boards. In comparing employee numbers and the number of members of statutory bodies, however, no significant difference was ascertained.

Originality/value

This study responds to a gap in the literature, by exploring the differences between personnel costs (for employees and governing body) in the area of the Czech Republic. This study also contributes to the understanding of the remuneration within family firms, by assessing the role of executive remuneration in family firms.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 January 2021

Iryna Kushnir

This chapter draws together the findings about both the Bologna actors and instruments to explain the mechanism of the Bologna reform in Ukraine until 2014 and its place…

Abstract

This chapter draws together the findings about both the Bologna actors and instruments to explain the mechanism of the Bologna reform in Ukraine until 2014 and its place in Europeanisation in the post-Soviet context.

This research demonstrates that continuity was mainly perpetuated by the Ministry of Education and Science, and change was facilitated by civil organisations. There was a lot of fluidity in the interaction of old practices and policy innovation in Bologna in Ukraine. The interaction between the path dependency and change was primarily a gradual chaotic, yet creative, and shared build-up of minor innovations by different higher education actors. These innovations in the development of the Bologna instruments may be seen as leading to more substantial transformations over time.

The research findings may also serve as a first step towards a reconceptualisation of the Europeanisation process particularly in the post-Soviet context in the first couple of decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Bologna in Ukraine can be seen as an illustration of the ways in which Europeanisation may not always necessitate the elimination of past conventions and practices – indeed, in a policy field such as education, abandoning history and tradition would have been a futile endeavour. Policy continuity in the post-Soviet context may be a foundation in the Europeanisation process during which minor innovations are slowly yet continuously being accumulated. This foundation shapes the nature of changes. Therefore, perhaps, the debate regarding a slow pace of Europeanisation in the post-Soviet space might be erroneous, since it carries a hidden assumption – that it is slow in relation to a much faster Europeanisation and resulting transformations in the EU. Such a comparison should be revisited in light of a potential difference in the nature of Europeanisation in the two spaces and the acknowledgement of growing overlaps between the two spaces as well.

Details

The Bologna Reform in Ukraine
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-114-1

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Marta Fernández-Barcala, Manuel González-Díaz and Emmanuel Raynaud

The aim of this paper is to explain the organizational changes along supply chains when a geographical brand, i.e. a place name that has value for commercial purposes…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to explain the organizational changes along supply chains when a geographical brand, i.e. a place name that has value for commercial purposes, becomes a geographical indication (GI).

Design/methodology/approach

Using a case study research design, this paper compares GI vs non-GI supply chains in the European Union and describes the organizational changes that occur in supply chains when a GI is adopted.

Findings

When a GI is adopted, an additional “public” level of governance is added along the supply chain that forces it to reallocate and specialize quality controls between the public and private levels of governance to avoid redundancies and to adopt more market-oriented mechanisms of governance in dyadic relationships. The paper argues that these changes occur because the private and public levels of governance complement one another.

Research limitations/implications

More aspects of supply chain management (the power balance or relationship stability) and a more systematic longitudinal analysis using supply chains in various agrifood industries should be considered to generalize the conclusions. An econometric analysis formally testing the main conclusions (propositions) is also required.

Practical implications

The changes needed to successfully adopt a GI are identified, and an explanatory map of these changes is offered.

Originality/value

The structural governance tensions created by the use of common-pool resources within supply chains are explored. It is hypothesized, first, that when a “common-pool resource”, namely, a geographical name, is used in a supply chain, some type of public level of governance that promotes cooperation is required to preserve its value. Second, this public level of governance complements the dyadic mechanisms of governance, requiring the specialization and reallocation of quality controls and the move toward more market-oriented transactions.

Article
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Haniye Sadat Sajadi, Mohammadreza Maleki and Steve Michael

A university of medical sciences (UMS) is governed by a board that serves analogously as a board of trustees or a governing board in the western countries. In Iran…

Abstract

Purpose

A university of medical sciences (UMS) is governed by a board that serves analogously as a board of trustees or a governing board in the western countries. In Iran, however, such boards operate under the broad leadership of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) but still wield enormous power over their universities. Given the influence boards have in the affairs of an UMS, the question remains how the medical university board can be improved so as to improve the overall effectiveness of these institutions. The purpose of this article is a response to this question by focusing on criteria necessary for reviewing board performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a qualitative approach, the study solicited data from 37 key informants that were purposefully chosen from 52 medical science universities across Iran. Semi-structured face-to-face and phone interviews as well as a review of relevant document were the main means of the data gathering. We performed the framework analysis using software ATLAS-ti (version 5).

Findings

The analysis identified 32 overlapping indicators that must be considered in a board performance. These indicators were reclassified and summarized into six categories, including trustees, trustees' leadership, board structure, board process, board output (short-length results) and board outcomes (long-length results).

Originality/value

Our study findings confirmed the role of the context and its relationship with the effective board performance. Here, the governing arrangement of all institutions including UMS is shadowed by the social, economic, cultural, political and technological status of the country. So, special attention is recommended to identify what should be considered to evaluate the performance of the board given the context.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

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