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Article

Veselina Vracheva and Irina Stoyneva

Gender equality levels opportunities for men and women and reduces the initial capital constraints women often face, and yet as entrepreneurship opportunities for women…

Abstract

Purpose

Gender equality levels opportunities for men and women and reduces the initial capital constraints women often face, and yet as entrepreneurship opportunities for women open up in more developed and egalitarian societies, fewer women are choosing entrepreneurship. This paper explores this contradiction as it relates to female economic and political participation in the context of business regulation efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on panel data from 89 countries from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor survey and the Global Gender Gap report, we use random effects regression to examine relationships. Analyses included 252 country-years, and all data used during analyses were at the country level.

Findings

Results suggest that equality in economic participation narrows and political participation widens the entrepreneurship gender gap, but a country's business regulation efficiency moderates both relationships negatively.

Research limitations/implications

This study does not distinguish opportunity- and necessity-driven entrepreneurship, and does not consider the survival rates of enterprises and their industries.

Practical implications

Findings are pertinent to policymakers interested in advancing female entrepreneurship. They also apply to female entrepreneurs who must begin to recognize the diversity in work-life preferences among women and men.

Originality/value

A theoretical model is informed by two competing theories, suggesting that in the context of female entrepreneurship, removal of economic and political participation barriers, combined with business regulation efficiency, intensifies the entrepreneurship gender gap.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part

Allan Villegas-Mateos, Elda Barron and Linda Elizabeth Ruiz

The entrepreneurial education has obtained special attention by researchers hoping to develop better entrepreneurship programmes that may result in higher entrepreneurial…

Abstract

The entrepreneurial education has obtained special attention by researchers hoping to develop better entrepreneurship programmes that may result in higher entrepreneurial activity outputs of students. The culture on its own is one of the main determinants, among others, of the entrepreneurial activities undertaken in different countries. In that sense, this research contributes to a greater understanding of the relationship between culture and entrepreneurial education. Using one of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s surveys, the National Experts’ Survey, the authors used Structural Equation Models to analyse the sample of N =  445 experts in Mexico as an effort to achieve a consensus about which of these two constructs is dependent on the other, ‘entrepreneurial education’ or ‘cultural and social norms’. The results of this chapter show that in Mexico there is an influence of the cultural and social norms on entrepreneurial education at all levels, primary, secondary, and superior. Nevertheless, an important limitation of the study was that it does not differentiate between private and public education, but yet it contributes to the understanding of the less visible entrepreneurial educational levels in the literature. This chapter aims with the phenomena of how teaching entrepreneurship works by analysing the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s social environment variable effect on entrepreneurial education. This research contributes to the evidence that the teaching practice under the socio-cultural dimension enables to detect the continuity factors to make an educational transformation.

Details

Universities and Entrepreneurship: Meeting the Educational and Social Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-074-8

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Article

Ali Raza, Moreno Muffatto and Saadat Saeed

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between entrepreneurial cognition and innovative entrepreneurial activity (IEA) across countries using an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between entrepreneurial cognition and innovative entrepreneurial activity (IEA) across countries using an institutional perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper tests theoretical model using data collected by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness study and the Index of Economic Freedom (IEF). A multi-level analysis is performed based on set of 1,004,620 observations from 49 countries spanning 13 years (2001–2013).

Findings

The results suggest that in terms of formal regulations; the relationship between entrepreneurial cognitions and IEA becomes stronger when there is an increase in intellectual property right and business freedom regulations in a country. On the other hand, in terms of informal institutions the relationship between entrepreneurial cognitions and IEA becomes stronger when the level of institutional collectivism and uncertainty decreases and performance orientation increases.

Originality/value

The study indicates that entrepreneurship by innovation increases when the individuals possess high level of entrepreneurial cognition under suitable institutional conditions (e.g. intellectual property right, business freedom, institutional collectivism, uncertainty avoidance and performance orientation).

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article

Ayala Malach Pines, Miri Lerner and Dafna Schwartz

In 2008, the world had undergone a global economic crisis. Since women always face greater difficulties in obtaining capital than men, the economic crisis had a greater…

Abstract

Purpose

In 2008, the world had undergone a global economic crisis. Since women always face greater difficulties in obtaining capital than men, the economic crisis had a greater effect on them. The purpose of this paper is to examine the implications of the global crisis for women's entrepreneurship, from the perspective of equality, diversity and inclusion.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews studies on gender differences in entrepreneurship, focusing on 2007 and 2008 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) studies that examined the rates of entrepreneurship in 43 countries.

Findings

The data show that in all 43 countries, the rates of women's entrepreneurship are lower than men's. Furthermore, the percent of women entrepreneurs is higher in countries where the general income per capita is small and where women have no other option for making a living.

Research limitations/implications

This surprising finding has been explained as a result of the difference between “necessity” and “opportunity” entrepreneurship, with necessity entrepreneurship found to be more prevalent among women in poor countries, thus pointing to the role played by inequality and exclusion in women's entrepreneurial inferiority.

Practical implications

From the perspective of diversity, equality and inclusion, entrepreneurship can be viewed as a means for inclusion of women and other marginalized groups in countries, especially low‐income countries, in which they suffer from lack of equal opportunities and social exclusion.

Originality/value

The paper usefully shows how, especially in times of a global crisis, the role played by inequality and exclusion in women's entrepreneurial inferiority has important implications; such as the need to create special funds for women and the importance of establishing social and business networks for women entrepreneurs.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Content available
Article

Raymond Saner and Lichia Yiu

The purpose of this paper is to assess how far Jamaica has come regarding women economic empowerment, female entrepreneurship and its development policies in favour of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess how far Jamaica has come regarding women economic empowerment, female entrepreneurship and its development policies in favour of women entrepreneurship development.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study employs a mixed method approach to achieve its research objectives, consisting of literature review and corroboration with existing database and indices. Key insights of research on female entrepreneurship are used to reflect on published data to assess progress of female entrepreneurship development in Jamaica. The 2017 editions of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and Gender Entrepreneurship and Development Index were examined to gain a better understanding of how the Jamaican business environment has progressed or regressed over time and how the economic development and business environment impact female participation in Jamaica’s labour force and entrepreneurial initiatives.

Findings

The economic conditions in Jamaica and the role of females as domestic caregiver have made it difficult for women to enter the labour force even though Jamaican women are relatively better educated than men. Women remain at a disadvantage in the labour force. Jamaica’s legislation and budget allocations in favour of female entrepreneurship are analysed to identify where and how Jamaica is investing its efforts to improve women’s participation in the labour force. The authors conclude with suggestions on how the Jamaican government could facilitate further women entrepreneurship development to reach a more gender balanced inclusive socio-economic development.

Originality/value

While global policy has been promoting women empowerment through entrepreneurial development, little is known on the actual outcome of such human capital investment strategy and the critical vectors that contribute to such outcome. This scarcity of knowledge is also applicable to Jamaica. This paper attempts to contribute to women entrepreneurship research by reaching beyond the output-oriented perspective of various skill development programmes and attempts to link policy choice with overall macro results of entrepreneurship development in general and women entrepreneurship development in specific. The study thus provides a rare glimpse of the entrepreneurship ecosystem in Jamaica.

Details

Public Administration and Policy, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1727-2645

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Article

Carmen Guzmán‐Alfonso and Joaquín Guzmán‐Cuevas

The aim of this research is to determine whether entrepreneurial intention models explain the entrepreneurial behaviour of individuals regarding venture creation in Latin…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research is to determine whether entrepreneurial intention models explain the entrepreneurial behaviour of individuals regarding venture creation in Latin America, as well as to test if the three factors usually taken into consideration in these models (attitudes, perceived social value, and perceived self‐efficacy, as defined by Ajzen) really determine entrepreneurial intentions in this part of the world.

Design/methodology/approach

By using panel data from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Global Report for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010, referring to Latin America, the paper employs two linear regression models to examine determinants of entrepreneurial intentions in Latin America and the role of the entrepreneurial intentions in the entrepreneurial initiative.

Findings

According to the results obtained, it can be stated that, also for the case of Latin America, entrepreneurial intentions are once more confirmed as a previous step of entrepreneurial behaviour with regard to venture creation. However, even though the three variables taken into consideration are significant as determinants of entrepreneurial intentions, evidence suggests a negative relationship between the perception of social value about entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurial intention, which contradicts the previous literature review. A further investigation regarding this result is planned for the near future.

Originality/value

The originality of this research arises from bringing together in a model three of the main elements in the research field of entrepreneurship – entrepreneurial intention models, global entrepreneurship monitor and Latin America (one of the most important places where the entrepreneurship phenomenon takes place).

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Book part

Maribel Guerrero and Carlos Alberto Santamaría-Velasco

There is a consensus in the literature on entrepreneurship on the crucial role of environmental conditions in the identification, development, and quality of…

Abstract

There is a consensus in the literature on entrepreneurship on the crucial role of environmental conditions in the identification, development, and quality of entrepreneurial initiatives. Given the relevance of entrepreneurship and the lack of evidence, academic debates request more evidence regarding the main determinants of entrepreneurial activities in emerging economies. Inspired by these academic debates, the objective of this chapter is to provide a better understanding of the role of entrepreneurship in Mexico. Our preliminary results allow us to identify applied research trends to study the entrepreneurial spirit in Mexico, as well as elements to discuss the myths, realities, and challenges faced by Mexican entrepreneurs during the last government administration. Our chapter contributes with implications for entrepreneurs, researchers, and decision-makers.

Details

The History of Entrepreneurship in Mexico
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-172-8

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Article

Ali Raza, Moreno Muffatto and Saadat Saeed

The purpose of this paper is to use a unique set of measures from Holmes et al. (2013) to clarify the relationship between entrepreneurial readiness and entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use a unique set of measures from Holmes et al. (2013) to clarify the relationship between entrepreneurial readiness and entrepreneurial behaviours across countries and determine whether formal institutions moderate this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses data collected by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, the Index of Economic Freedom, Political Risk Services, and the Freedom House and Political Constraint Index to test a theoretical model. A multilevel analysis is performed based on set of 377,356 observations from 51 countries spanning eight years (2001-2008).

Findings

The results suggest that entrepreneurial readiness has a strong relationship with entrepreneurial behaviour (as measured by entrepreneurial entry and opportunity-based entrepreneurship) and that this relationship strengthens with increases in political democracy (PD), government regulations (GR), financial capital availability (FCA) and market liquidity (ML).

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on Holmes et al.’s (2013) institutions that are most important for society, uses satisfactory sample size and multi-level modelling. However, many more institutional conditions that remain to be considered might affect entrepreneurial activities.

Practical implications

For policy-makers, the results show that PD, GR, FCA and ML correlate favourably with entrepreneurial behaviour when individuals have a high level of entrepreneurial readiness. Policy-makers should introduce policies that provide a secure environment to individuals to start their own ventures.

Originality/value

The current study is among the first to examine the three dimensions of formal institutions—political, regulatory, and economic institutions—in a single study. Using the three dimensions, the study explains theoretically and examines empirically the effect of individual-level entrepreneurial readiness on entrepreneurial behaviour.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article

Jose Carlos M. Pinho and Douglas Thompson

Drawing insights from institutional theory, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the synergistic effects of a range of entrepreneurial framework conditions (EFCs) on…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing insights from institutional theory, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the synergistic effects of a range of entrepreneurial framework conditions (EFCs) on the capacity to start a business within different types of economies.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a preliminary study that uses data from the National Expert Survey-Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (NES-GEM). Specifically, the data were gathered through the application of a questionnaire to National Entrepreneurship Experts in a cross-cultural context. Two countries – Portugal and Angola – are analysed.

Findings

Among the five structural relationships involving institutional drivers analysed, four are found to be statistically significant in the Portuguese sample. Three are found to be statistically significant in the Angolan sample. The results from the multigroup analysis did not support most of the proposed relationship between the two countries.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited by the number and type of countries selected and by the fact that each sub-sample covers several years. It also relies on the perceptions of national experts on entrepreneurship covering several areas. Another limitation is based on the fact that this study emphasises mainly a macro perspective. Therefore, interpretation of these findings and their generalisation should be made with caution.

Originality/value

First, this study addresses an area of the GEM model that is believed to be under-researched (NES). Second, the model presented is based on latent variables and analysed through a variance-based method, PLS-structural equation modelling. Third, this study compares the proposed relationships between two sub-sample data sets that represent a factor-driven economy and an innovation-driven economy. Fourth, and most importantly, this study responds to the call for the need to use a new procedure for measurement invariance assessment for composite modelling.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article

Luis Farinha, João J.M. Ferreira and Sara Nunes

The purpose of this paper is to study the linkage of innovation and entrepreneurship to economic growth in countries with different levels of development.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the linkage of innovation and entrepreneurship to economic growth in countries with different levels of development.

Design/methodology/approach

Following quantitative analysis, the authors carry out three empirical approaches to examine the effects of innovation and entrepreneurship on competitiveness. In accordance with their initial study framework, they test the conceptual model of competitiveness through applying descriptive statistics, structural equation modelling (SEM) and hierarchical cluster analysis. Descriptive statistics and SEM data sources from the Global Competitiveness Report of the World Economic Forum were analysed for 148 countries. The hierarchical cluster analysis furthermore analysed Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data on 67 different countries.

Findings

The study confirmed that innovation and sophistication factors are crucial to the competitiveness of economies. The study also revealed the definition of five clusters relative to the competitive performance of advanced economies following the introduction of new entrepreneurship variables.

Originality/value

This research aims to open up avenues for the development of regional competitiveness studies.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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