Search results1 – 10 of over 58000
Purpose – To provide a resource for educators and graduate students that contains information about using formal assessment data to plan literacy instruction and…
Purpose – To provide a resource for educators and graduate students that contains information about using formal assessment data to plan literacy instruction and intervention.
Design/methodology/approach – Several aspects of formal assessment are presented, including a definition of formal assessment, types of formal assessment scores, commonly used formal assessments, and recommendations for using formal assessments for individuals and groups. Information about formal assessment is informed both by documented sources and the experiences of the authors.
Findings – The authors provide an overview of common, commercially available assessments designed to measure literacy achievement in either individuals or groups. Reviews of formal assessments include scores, number of forms, literacy domains measured, and published reliability figures. Recommendations for formal assessment use include using assessment data to plan instruction and intervention for both individuals and groups. In addition, a case study is presented demonstrating the efficacy of using formal assessment data to plan instruction and intervention in a K-6 elementary school in the United States.
Research limitations/implications – The review of commercially available individual and group literacy assessments does not constitute an exhaustive list.
Practical implications – Information about formal assessments, assessment score types, and formal assessment uses is consolidated in one location for easy access by graduate students and other educators.
Originality/value – This chapter provides graduate students and others in the field of education an overview of formal assessments and how formal assessment data can be used to make instructional decisions for both individuals and groups.
Consumer responses of attribute liking and intensity as well as overall liking of commercial chocolate were evaluated in four types of testing situations (central…
Consumer responses of attribute liking and intensity as well as overall liking of commercial chocolate were evaluated in four types of testing situations (central location, in‐home, teaching laboratory and formal sensory laboratory). The aim was to determine if there were differences in these responses based on testing situation. This was also an attempt to evaluate and validate the use of in‐home testing for product development samples. Perceptions of certain attributes were found to differ in different testing situations but liking scores of these attributes did not. Consumers were more critical of attributes when tested in a formal sensory laboratory. All four locations tested gave similar results, meaning that, conducting sensory panels at home is as valid a method of collecting consumer opinion as traditional locations. It should be noted that the use of a formal sensory laboratory might have an impact on cost effectiveness of new product development. Results are more likely to indicate the need to continue formulation in order to perfect attribute scores, although this may not actually improve consumer‐liking scores. This continued product development only serves to increase the costs and slow the speed to market.
Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While…
Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While federal law sets the general parameters for identification in school settings, these criteria are vague and may lead to inconsistencies in selection and interpretation of assessment measures. Assessment practice across school settings is greatly influenced by clinical guidelines such as the DSM-IV, which more specifically defines emotional and behavioral disorders and highlights the issue of co-morbidity. Before a student is assessed for special education eligibility under the IDEIA category of emotional disturbance, screening techniques and pre-referral interventions are needed. Positive Behavioral Supports and Response to Intervention models provide empirically supported frameworks for establishing the need for formal psychological assessment. Collaboration among members of the multidisciplinary team, including parents, helps to ensure that identification and intervention efforts have ecological validity. Tests and techniques vary considerably, but developmental histories, interviews, observations across settings, and behavioral checklists and rating scales are recommended, along with cognitive and achievement testing. While problems exist in the reliability and validity of projective techniques, they continue to be used in school-based assessment for EBD. Multitrait, multisetting, and multimethod approaches are essential for culturally fair assessment and reduction of bias in identification and placement.
Health professionals are in an ethical dilemma. The patients should be assumed as competent. Involuntary treatment is a violation of human rights. Therefore incompetent…
Health professionals are in an ethical dilemma. The patients should be assumed as competent. Involuntary treatment is a violation of human rights. Therefore incompetent patients should be protected. However, one cannot determine a patient's incompetency without testing him/her, which is a violation of the assumption of competency. Thus, we propose two different types of uses for competency tests. One is to measure the appropriateness of information disclosed,but with a poor test result the information should be repeated. Another is to measure the competency of the patients when making major decisions. A poor test result will be followed by the designation of a proxy so that incompetent patients can be protected.
The purpose of this paper is to document how the library at Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey Campus came to use the open source Drupal with other freely available tools…
The purpose of this paper is to document how the library at Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey Campus came to use the open source Drupal with other freely available tools as the basis for an extensible platform for current and future information discovery gateways.
After informal gathering of user opinions, formal usability testing of the current OPAC and Digital Library, and an evaluation of available options, Tecnológico de Monterrey's Library decided in October 2007 to build and test a prototype version of a new portal in April 2008, which after usability testing and interviews was improved and released for its users in June 2008.
The development team found out that Drupal, despite its steep learning curve, was a solid development platform which could achieve all the functionality the library set out to achieve through its freely available modules or custom, locally‐developed modules.
This paper documents the steps required to build an information discovery tool using Drupal and other freely available tools, thus demonstrating that Drupal is a viable and extensible development platform for libraries.
Barriers exist on large scale assessment when students are not able to perform at potential for a variety of reasons. Accommodations are mostly available for students who…
Barriers exist on large scale assessment when students are not able to perform at potential for a variety of reasons. Accommodations are mostly available for students who meet criteria for diagnosed disability or criteria for the identification of students who have English as a second language. However, knowing that students have diverse needs, accommodations for a few may not be providing appropriate access for all. Options for designing broader universal design for learning (UDL) on large scale assessment, through strategies that are typically restricted to special accommodations, increase access.
There is a concerning disparity between students with disabilities and their peers without disabilities in their long-term, postsecondary outcomes. The former group tends…
There is a concerning disparity between students with disabilities and their peers without disabilities in their long-term, postsecondary outcomes. The former group tends to have a variety of poorer outcomes in important domains of life, such as employment, postsecondary education, independent living, and community participation. Policymakers, scholars, and the general public alike have called attention to this issue, resulting in both legal mandates and research on evidence-based practices in the area of transition services. While the law requires individualized, results-oriented transition services based upon age-appropriate transition assessment and a number of evidence-based transition practices and predictors have been identified, studies of individualized education programs and practices have revealed a significant underuse of best practices in transition assessment and services. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of comprehensive transition assessment as a foundation for setting postsecondary goals and designing services that best fit individual student strengths and needs and best prepare students to be successful in their adult lives. Further, we provide an overview of current recommendations for best practices in planning, conducting, and interpreting transition assessments, and offer suggestions for areas where further research is needed.
The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically whether the market discipline works, and if so, whether it is a complement or substitute of prudential regulation in…
The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically whether the market discipline works, and if so, whether it is a complement or substitute of prudential regulation in the insurance markets. Market discipline is intended as “the power of … market forces … to evaluate and control the risky behaviour of the financial institutions”. The authors' formal hypothesis is that if market discipline works as complementary to prudential regulation, the response of the insured is expected to be weaker than if market discipline acts as a substitute to prudential regulation.
The authors designed an experiment examining policy subscription reaction to adjustments in insurers' risk ratings in three different regulatory environments, to compare market discipline in each market. An econometric model was estimated to test the reaction of policy subscription to changes in credit ratings of the insurers.
The findings indicate that more market discipline was exerted in the crisis period, and more intensely where it is intended to replace regulation. A formal hypothesis was tested: in a less regulated environment, consumers' protection rests more heavily on their caution and use of market information about the insurers' financial condition.
The research is constrained by the availability and detail of the publicly available data.
The results imply that regulation and market discipline work more as complements than as substitutes.
Market discipline does not replace prudential regulation in the insurance market.
The approach presented in the paper adds to precedent work studying comparatively different regulatory environments, and also concerns the response of market discipline in the financial crisis context.
Baltagi and Li (2001) derived Lagrangian multiplier tests to jointly test for functional form and spatial error correlation. This companion paper derives Lagrangian…
Baltagi and Li (2001) derived Lagrangian multiplier tests to jointly test for functional form and spatial error correlation. This companion paper derives Lagrangian multiplier tests to jointly test for functional form and spatial lag dependence. In particular, this paper tests for linear or log-linear models with no spatial lag dependence against a more general Box-Cox model with spatial lag dependence. Conditional LM tests are also derived which test for (i) zero spatial lag dependence conditional on an unknown Box-Cox functional form, as well as, (ii) linear or log-linear functional form given spatial lag dependence. In addition, modified Rao-Score tests are also derived that guard against local misspecification. The performance of these tests are investigated using Monte Carlo experiments.