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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2012

Silvio Hiroshi Nakao

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the relation between tax reporting and financial reporting, their influence on transparency, and empirical implications.

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the relation between tax reporting and financial reporting, their influence on transparency, and empirical implications.

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Transparency and Governance in a Global World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-764-2

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Zhan Furner, Keith Walker and Jon Durrant

Krull (2004) finds that US multinational corporations (MNCs) increase amounts designated as permanently reinvested earnings (PRE) to maximize reported after-tax earnings…

Abstract

Krull (2004) finds that US multinational corporations (MNCs) increase amounts designated as permanently reinvested earnings (PRE) to maximize reported after-tax earnings and meet earnings targets. We extend this research by examining the relationship between executive equity compensation and the opportunistic use of PRE by US MNCs, and the market reaction to earnings management using PRE designations. Firms use equity compensation to incentivize executives to strive for maximum shareholder wealth. One unintended consequence is that executives may engage in earnings management activities to increase their equity compensation. In this study, we examine whether the equity incentives of management are associated with an increased use of PRE. We predict and find strong evidence that the changes in PRE are positively associated with the portion of top managers' compensation that is tied to stock performance. In addition, we find this relationship to be strongest for firms that meet or beat forecasts, but only with the use of PRE to inflate income, suggesting that equity compensation incentivizes managers to opportunistically use PRE, especially to meet analyst forecasts.

Further, we provide evidence that investors react negatively to beating analysts' forecasts with the use of PRE, suggesting that investors find this behavior opportunistic and not fully convincing. This chapter makes an important contribution to what we know about the joint effects of tax policy, generally accepted accounting principles, and incentive compensation on the earnings reporting process.

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Book part
Publication date: 27 January 2014

Secil Varan and Cagnur Kaytmaz Balsari

The purpose of the study is to present evidence on the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption and earnings quality relationship on an emerging country…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to present evidence on the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption and earnings quality relationship on an emerging country context focusing on firm characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

To measure loss avoidance, the earnings distribution approach is followed. Data includes all the nonfinancial firms listed on the Borsa İstanbul (BIST) for the period covering 1998–2010. The sample is divided into subsegments according to size and leverage, considering the potential impact of different financial reporting incentives. Furthermore, mandatory and voluntary adopters are examined separately.

Findings

The results indicate lower loss aversion in the post-IFRS period. Furthermore, we found that incentives dominate accounting standards in determining financial reporting quality. The decrease in loss aversion after IFRS adoption is more significant for large firms compared to small firms, low leverage firms compared to high leverage firms, and for mandatory IFRS adopter firms compared to voluntary IFRS adopters.

Originality/Value

Research provides inconsistent evidence on the relationship between IFRS adoption and earnings quality. Turkey represents an interesting environment to test the impact of IFRS adoption, as the Turkish accounting system has followed a historical path from a Continental European accounting system to an Anglo-Saxon accounting system. The current Turkish accounting system exhibits features of both these systems. Additionally, IFRS adoption was optional in 2003 and mandatory in 2005 in line with EU regulations, and the changes in the reporting environment are supported by the regulatory developments and institutional changes in Turkey.

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Accounting in Central and Eastern Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-939-3

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2012

Joyce Allen, M. Christian Mastilak, David Randolph and Andrea Weickgenannt

This paper describes a series of cross-curricular exercises intended to introduce students to specific differences between US GAAP and IFRS, while also helping students…

Abstract

This paper describes a series of cross-curricular exercises intended to introduce students to specific differences between US GAAP and IFRS, while also helping students understand how US GAAP and IFRS differently answer broader fundamental questions about accounting. These questions involve relevance, reliability, and managers’ use of judgment. Students play varying roles of financial statement stakeholders, according to the roles represented by three courses in the accounting curriculum. In all courses, the managers of the hypothetical firm face strong reporting incentives. Students make decisions according to the roles they play in each course. We observed that students not only identified the differences between US GAAP and IFRS, but also came to appreciate the potential impact of IFRS on stakeholders. Students also appreciated the effect of reporting incentives on managers under different reporting regimes.

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Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-757-4

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Mohammad Nurunnabi

The study aims at reviewing a synthesis of disclosure, transparency, and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) implementation in an attempt to provide…

Abstract

The study aims at reviewing a synthesis of disclosure, transparency, and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) implementation in an attempt to provide directions for future research. Prior research overwhelmingly supports that the IFRS adoption or effective implementation of IFRS will enhance high-quality financial reporting, transparency, enhance the country’s investment environment, and foreign direct investment (FDI) (Dayanandan, Donker, Ivanof, & Karahan, 2016; Gláserová, 2013; Muniandy & Ali, 2012). However, some researchers provide conflicting evidence that developing countries implementing IFRS are probably not going to encounter higher FDI inflows (Gheorghe, 2009; Lasmin, 2012). It has also been argued that the IFRS adoption decreases the management earnings in countries with high levels of financial disclosure. In general, the study indicates that the adoption of IFRS has improved the financial reporting quality. The common law countries have strong rules to protect investors, strict legal enforcement, and high levels of transparency of financial information. From the extensive structured review of literature using the Scopus database tool, the study reviewed 105 articles, and in particular, the topic-related 94 articles were analysed. All 94 articles were retrieved from a range of 59 journals. Most of the articles (77 of 94) were published 2010–2018. The top five journals based on the citations are Journal of Accounting Research (187 citations), Abacus (125 citations), European Accounting Review (107 citations), Journal of Accounting and Economics (78 citations), and Accounting and Business Research (66 citations). The most-cited authors are Daske, Hail, Leuz, and Verdi (2013); Daske and Gebhardt (2006); and Brüggemann, Hitz, and Sellhorn (2013). Surprisingly, 65 of 94 articles did not utilise the theory. In particular, four theories have been used frequently: agency theory (15), economic theory (5), signalling theory (2), and accounting theory (2). The study calls for future research on the theoretical implications and policy-related research on disclosure and transparency which may inform the local and international standard setters.

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International Financial Reporting Standards Implementation: A Global Experience
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-440-4

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Saerona Kim and Haeyoung Ryu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of adoption of the mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on the cost of equity capital in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of adoption of the mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on the cost of equity capital in a unique Korean setting. In Korea, individual financial statements were taken as primary financial statements. Before the adoption of IFRS, consolidated financial statements were taken as supplementary financial statements.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors measure the cost of equity using the average estimates from the implied cost of capital models proposed by Claus and Thomas (2001), Gebhardt et al. (2001), Easton (2004) and Ohlson and Juettner-Nauroth (2005), using it as the primary dependent variable. Mandatory IFRS adoption, the independent variable in this study, is assigned a value of 1 for the post-adoption period and 0 otherwise.

Findings

Using a sample of listed Korean companies during the period from 2000 to 2013, the authors find evidence of a significant reduction in the cost of equity capital in Korean listed companies after mandatory adoption of the IFRS in 2011, after controlling for a set of market variables.

Originality/value

This study is one of a growing body of literature on the relations between mandatory IFRS adoption and the cost of equity capital (Easley and O’Hara 2004; Covrig et al. 2007; Lambert et al. 2007; Daske et al. 2008). According to the results of this study, increased financial disclosure and enhanced information comparability, along with changes in legal and institutional enforcement, seem to have had a joint effect on the cost of equity capital, leading to a large decrease in expected equity returns.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Thomas E. McKee, Linda J Bradley and Robert W. Rouse

This article provides an analysis of the economic incentives and financial reporting for Special Purpose Entities (SPEs) over the last four decades. The analysis explains…

Abstract

This article provides an analysis of the economic incentives and financial reporting for Special Purpose Entities (SPEs) over the last four decades. The analysis explains economic factors motivating business use of SPEs and the origins of SPEs in lease accounting and securitization transactions. Related financial reporting standards are identified and discussed, including the historical shift from a traditional control viewpoint to a primary beneficiary viewpoint for financial reporting for consolidation for SPEs (recently renamed Variable Interest Entities (VIEs) in U.S. Financial Accounting Interpretation 46R). The article also includes illustrative journal entries explaining SPE transactions from both the viewpoint of the creating company(s) and the SPE. Actual financial reporting examples and/or journal entries for SPEs created by Bank of America, General Motors Acceptance Corporation, Lucent Technologies and Alza Pharmaceuticals Corporation are also provided.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2012

Giulio Greco

This paper aims to study the effect of new regulatory requirements on disclosure through a longitudinal study. The empirical setting is offered by the risk reporting in…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effect of new regulatory requirements on disclosure through a longitudinal study. The empirical setting is offered by the risk reporting in the management commentaries of Italian listed companies. In this setting there is an evolution from a voluntary disclosure environment toward a regulated one, with the gradual introduction of new reporting requirements.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the content analysis method to investigate the narrative risk disclosure. Non‐parametric statistics are used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

It is found that even when new mandatory disclosure is introduced, managers exploit discretion and do not change their disclosure policy, continuing to withhold relevant information to external users. Before and after the introduction of new regulation, managers' behaviour appears in line with self‐interest to protect themselves from litigation and competitive costs, as well as from possible decreases in the firm's value.

Originality/value

The study provides a longitudinal study, covering changes from a voluntary disclosure environment to a regulated one. The paper provides evidence that the management incentives do not change in the presence of new disclosure regulation.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2015

Yunsung Koh and Hyun-Ah Lee

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of financial factors on firms’ financial and tax reporting decisions. Firms often face the difficulties of…

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6887

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of financial factors on firms’ financial and tax reporting decisions. Firms often face the difficulties of accomplishing both financial and reporting goals. The extent to which reporting they put more value depends on the differential weighting of firms’ financial reporting and tax costs. The authors incorporate various financial factors as a source of cross-sectional differences in the weighing of both financial reporting and tax costs.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine firms’ decisions when fulfilling both the purposes of financial and tax reporting is difficult, the authors use a large set of firms in Korea, where book-tax conformity is high and aggressive tax shelters are restricted. The authors develop a new measure that can specify firms’ decision making between financial and tax reporting by considering both earnings management and tax avoidance.

Findings

The findings show that debt ratio affects firms’ financial and tax reporting decisions non-monotonically depending on the level of the debt ratio. The authors also find that firms with more long-term debt financing are more likely to be aggressive in financial reporting, while firms with higher financing deficit or better access to the capital market are more likely to be aggressive in tax reporting.

Research limitations/implications

Thus, the findings provide more compelling evidence of firms’ decision making between two conflicting strategies, particularly when fulfilling both the purposes of financial and tax reporting is difficult. The authors expect that the results provide practical implications to standard setters, auditors and financial statement users who are interested in the ongoing debate over book-tax tradeoffs.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to study how firms’ decision making between two conflicting reporting strategies are affected by the various financial factors, which are closely linked to a firm’s financial reporting and tax costs.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Abstract

I reexamine the conflicting results in Frank, Lynch, and Rego (2009) and Lennox, Lisowsky, and Pittman (2013). Frank et al. (2009) conclude that firms can manage book income upward and taxable income downward in the same period, implying a positive relation between aggressive book and tax reporting. Lennox et al. (2013) conclude the relation is negative and aggressive book reporting informs users that aggressive tax reporting is less likely. I identify four key differences in the research designs across the two studies, including measures of aggressive book reporting, measures of aggressive tax reporting, sample time periods, and empirical models. I systematically examine whether each of these differences is responsible for the conflicting results by altering the key difference while holding other factors as constant as possible. I find the relation between aggressive book and tax reporting is driven by the measure of aggressive book reporting, as the relation is positive for some subsets of firms and negative for others. Firms accused of financial statement fraud have a negative relation while nonfraud firms exhibit a positive relation. Using discretionary accruals, I also look for, but do not find a “pivot point” in the relation between aggressive book and tax reporting. I provide a better understanding of the relation between aggressive book and tax reporting by identifying research design choices that are responsible for prior results. I show that measures of both discretionary accruals and financial statement fraud are necessary to gain a more complete picture of the relation between aggressive book and tax reporting.

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