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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2021

Yanqiu Xia, Yanan Cao, Xin Feng and Haris M_ P_

The purpose of this paper is to compare the electrical conductivity and tribological properties of magnetron sputtered silver (Ag), copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) thin films

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the electrical conductivity and tribological properties of magnetron sputtered silver (Ag), copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) thin films under conductive grease lubrication.

Design/methodology/approach

Three types of silver (Ag), copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. Current-carrying friction tests were carried out by a ball-on-plate reciprocating friction and wear tester. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to observe and analyze the worn surface and cross-section morphology of the films.

Findings

Silver and Cu films exhibited good conductivity and tribological properties, which were mainly attributed to the synergy of the protective tribofilm generated by conductive grease, current-induced thermal effect and magnetron sputtered films effect. Al film was worn through. Large pitting storing lubricate were only found in Ag film. Cu film showed a similar surface uniformity with Ag film.

Originality/value

This study provides a reference for the design and application of conductive grease and investigates the current-carrying friction behaviors of magnetron sputtered films as electrical contact materials. The comparison of current-carrying friction behaviors of the three films was rarely covered in previous studies.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2020

L. Sulaiman, Z.H.Z. Hazrin, N.I.M. Zakir, N.A. Halim, R.A.A. Rusdi, A.S.A. Khair and H.A. Tajuddin

The effect of using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as an additive in coating paint films for non-stick coatings was studied in this work. This paper aims to discuss the…

Abstract

Purpose

The effect of using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as an additive in coating paint films for non-stick coatings was studied in this work. This paper aims to discuss the benefits of MCC blended in the coating paint film that consists of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and dammar.

Design/methodology/approach

PMMA and dammar mixed at a specific Wt.% ratio with xylene as its solvent. Two sets of mixtures were prepared, where one mixture contained MCC and another, without. The mixtures were applied to metal substrates as coating paint films. The performance of the non-stick coating paint film was observed through the adhesive test between adhesion layers on the coating paint film and also through the cross-hatch test for the adhesion of the non-stick coating paint film to the metal substrate. The results correlate with the surface roughness and glossiness tests.

Findings

The results showed that for the coating paint films, Sample B consisted of 80:20 Wt.% ratio of PMMA-dammar with an addition of 5 Wt.% MCC had an excellent performance as non-stick coating paint films. The MCC formed microparticles on the surface of the coating paint film sample and this causes the coating paint film samples with MCC to develop a rougher surface compared to the coating paint film without MCC. Sample B coating paint film had the highest average surface roughness (Ra) of 383 µm. The cross-hatch test showed the coating paint film with the addition of MCC had stronger adhesiveness on the substrate’s surface thus prevents the coating from peeling off from the surface.

Practical implications

The developed coating paint film in this study would be suitable for outdoor applications to prevent illegal advertisements and stickers.

Originality/value

MCC added to the coating paint film improves the surface performance as a non-stick coating.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2020

Zhaowei Su, Rui Mu, Yonghui Cui, Hongda Zhu, Xuetian Li and Zhongcai Shao

The purpose of this paper is to prepare composite micro-arc oxide coatings with better wear resistance and corrosion resistance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare composite micro-arc oxide coatings with better wear resistance and corrosion resistance.

Design/methodology/approach

A nickel powder composite micro-arc oxide film was prepared on the surface of the magnesium alloy by the method of organically combining ultra-fine Ni powder with micro arc oxidation film layer. In this experiment, the changes in the corrosion resistance and microstructure of the composite film layer after adding Ni powder were studied, and the effect of the addition of glycerin on the corrosion resistance of the film layer was analyzed.

Findings

The results show that the ultra-fine nickel powder was successfully prepared by the liquid phase reduction method, and the micro-arc oxidation process was modified under the optimal addition amount. The surface of the micro-arc oxide film made of ultra-fine nickel powder was found by SEM to have smooth surfaces and few holes. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the phase composition of the micro-arc oxide film layer was Mg, Ni, NiSiO4, MgNi (SiO4) and Mg2SiO4. According to the results of electrochemical tests, the corrosion resistance of the micro-arc oxidation composite film layer was improved after the addition of ultra-fine Ni powder, the corrosion current was greatly reduced and the impedance has been improved. And after adding glycerin, the surface of the film layer becomes denser, and the corrosion resistance of the micro-arc oxide film is significantly improved.

Originality/value

Through this experimental research, a micro-arc oxide coating of powder composite magnesium alloy was successfully prepared. The corrosion resistance of the micro-arc oxidation film layer has been improved, and certain functions had been given to the micro-arc oxidation composite film, which has increased the application field of magnesium alloys.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 29 September 2020

Awad AL Zahrany, Khalid Rabaeh, Molham Eyadeh and Ahmed Basfar

The purpose of this paper is to present a radiochromic film dosimeter containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and various concentrations of methyl red (MR) dye for high…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a radiochromic film dosimeter containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and various concentrations of methyl red (MR) dye for high dose measurements.

Design/methodology/approach

The MR-PVA films were exposed to irradiation up to 60 kGy using 60Co source of gamma ray. The ultraviolet and visible regions (UV/VIS) spectrophotometry were used to examine the optical density of pre-and post-irradiated dosimeters at 424 nm.

Findings

The dose sensitivity of MR-PVA films increases significantly with increasing MR dye concentrations in the dose range of 5 to 60 kGy. The impact of relative humidity, irradiation temperature, dose rate and the stability of the films has been analyzed. The overall uncertainty of the MR-PVA film dosimeter is 6.12% (Double Standard-deviation, 95% confidence level).

Practical implications

It was found that the MR-PVA films may be used as high dose dosimeter with an acceptable overall uncertainty in routine industrial radiation processing.

Originality/value

The color bleaching of irradiated MR-PVA films in terms of specific absorbance curves increases significantly with increasing absorbed dose up to 60 kGy.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Qi Zheng Li, Yu Zuo, Jing Mao Zhao, Yu Ming Tang, Xu Hui Zhao and Jin Ping Xiong

By adding a Ce salt and an Nd salt to an anodizing electrolyte, modified anodic films are obtained on aluminum surfaces. This paper aims to study the effects of rare‐earth…

Abstract

Purpose

By adding a Ce salt and an Nd salt to an anodizing electrolyte, modified anodic films are obtained on aluminum surfaces. This paper aims to study the effects of rare‐earth elements on the corrosion resistance of the anode film.

Design/methodology/approach

The crystalline film was studied by X‐ray diffraction. The methods of scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X‐ray analysis, electrochemical polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to characterize the properties of the films.

Findings

After rare‐earth element modification, the pores of the porous layer were very evidently smaller, the anodic film was more compact, and the thickness and hardness of the films had increased. The corrosion resistance of the anodic films modified with rare‐earth elements clearly was improved in neutral, acidic, and basic NaCl solutions. Ce showed a better effect than Nd in increasing the corrosion resistance of the films, and the film modified with Ce+Nd showed the highest corrosion resistance. EIS analysis showed that the impedances of both the barrier layer and porous layer of the anodic films increased after modification with the rare‐earth elements, indicating that the anodizing process was affected by the presence of the rare‐earth elements.

Originality/value

The results presented in this paper offer a foundation for further research and application of rare‐earth elements in aluminum anodic oxide films.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 57 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1955

BERNARD CHIBNALL

The National Film Library was established in 1935. Since that time, under the guidance of Ernest Lindgren, the Curator, it has grown into a collection of 6,000 films

Abstract

The National Film Library was established in 1935. Since that time, under the guidance of Ernest Lindgren, the Curator, it has grown into a collection of 6,000 films dating from 1895.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Jaw‐Ren Lin

The squeeze‐film characteristics between two parallel rectangular plates with an electrically conducting fluid in the presence of a transverse magnetic field are analyzed…

Abstract

The squeeze‐film characteristics between two parallel rectangular plates with an electrically conducting fluid in the presence of a transverse magnetic field are analyzed. The squeeze‐film Reynolds equation applicable to the curved surfaces is derived using the continuity equation and the magneto‐hydrodynamic (MHD) motion equations. A closed‐form solution is obtained for the squeeze‐film pressure of parallel rectangular plates, and applied to predict the squeeze‐film behavior. According to the results, the presence of magnetic fields signifies an enhancement in the squeeze‐film pressure. On the whole, the magnetic‐field effect characterized by the Hartmann number provides an increase in value of the load‐carrying capacity and the response time as compared to the classical non‐conducting lubricant case, especially for larger values of the aspect ratio or smaller values of film height.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 55 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2007

U.B. Lonkar and Vijaya Puri

This paper aims to study tuning effects on thick film microstripline due to ferrite thick film overlay.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study tuning effects on thick film microstripline due to ferrite thick film overlay.

Design/methodology/approach

The possibility of obtaining tuning characteristics in the Ku band microwave region in the absence of external magnetic field by a simple process of using NixZn1−xFe2O4 thick film and bulk as in‐touch overlay over Ag thick film microstripline was investigated. The microstripline is basically a non‐resonant component with high‐transmission at a large microwave frequency band. The ferrite was synthesized by precursor method and the thick films were deposited by screen printing.

Findings

It was found that tuning characteristics were observed and composition, thickness and precursor dependent changes occurred. The changes with composition are more prominent in the 14.5‐16.5 GHz range. Also, the ferrite thick film overlay produces a deep notch at 15.7 GHz. It is observed that the pellet overlay also makes the microstripline very dispersive with a high‐insertion loss in the 16‐17 GHz range. The presence of permeability‐related effects interfering with the normal propagation of the microstrip circuits might be causing the changes in the circuits.

Originality/value

Owing to the NixZn1−xFe2O4 overlay the simple microstripline can be tuned to have narrow band filter type of characteristics. Thick film NixZn1−xFe2O4 overlay gives the added advantage of planer configuration along with cost‐effectiveness in the absence of magnetic field.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Martin Greaves and Ksenija Topolovec Miklozic

The purpose of this paper was to examine the film-forming behaviour of simple compositions of polyalphaolefin (PAO) containing an oil-soluble polyalkylene glycol (OSP…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to examine the film-forming behaviour of simple compositions of polyalphaolefin (PAO) containing an oil-soluble polyalkylene glycol (OSP) alone, a zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) alone and then combinations of an OSP and ZDDP.

Design/methodology/approach

A Mini-Traction Machine with Spacer Layer Imaging technology was used to evaluate friction and film formation under a specific contact pressure, temperature and slide-to-roll ratio. Electrical contact resistance measurements were used to follow surface film formation.

Findings

The inclusion of an OSP to a PAO showed evidence of friction-reducing behaviour with low friction values over the rubbing cycle but no significant tribo-film build up. When a ZDDP (1 per cent) is added to the PAO, a thick tribo-film forms of about 100 nm. Addition of an OSP (10 per cent) shows this film still forms despite the OSP being a polar and surface-active additive.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted under a narrow range of test conditions (e.g. temperature and contact pressure), and future work will focus on friction and film formation across a broader set of conditions.

Practical implications

Despite OSPs being polar and surface-active, they do not interfere with the ZDDP in forming an anti-wear film in a PAO and, therefore, their inherent properties of good deposit control could enhance the performance of modern lubricants.

Originality/value

OSPs offer promising benefits as friction reducers in PAOs. The research also suggests that OSPs do not negate the formation of ZDDP anti-wear tribo-films when in combination in a PAO.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Yidong Zhang

The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the influence of a 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane–polyacrylic acid (amino propyl silane (APS)-PAA) buffer layer on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the influence of a 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane–polyacrylic acid (amino propyl silane (APS)-PAA) buffer layer on the tribological performance of copper sulfide (CuS) thin film on silicon (Si) substrate.

Design/methodology/approach

The APS-PAA buffer layer was first deposited on Si substrate by a self-assembling method. Then, the deposited film was coated by a CuS film by a successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The structures and morphologies of the prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that the prepared CuS film with a PAA-APS double layer had a good crystallinity and surface morphology. The tribological performance of the prepared film was analyzed on UMT-2 tribometer and scanning electric microscope.

Findings

With use of an APS-PAA buffer layer, the CuS thin films became compact, smooth and uniform. The tribological performance of the CuS film was greatly enhanced by using an APS-PAA buffer layer.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to demonstrate that the CuS film exhibited enhanced structure, morphology and tribological characteristics by using an APS-PAA buffer layer.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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