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Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Despina Chronaki and Liza Tsaliki

Testing boundaries in the context of encountering horror representations have long been of interest to cultural studies scholars. There have been rich cultural accounts of…

Abstract

Testing boundaries in the context of encountering horror representations have long been of interest to cultural studies scholars. There have been rich cultural accounts of how audiences negotiate with what is frightening or disgusting on screen (Hill, 2005) not just in general but also in what concerns specific social groups as well (e.g. children, Buckingham, 2000). Horror, disgust and the emotion of fear have not been examined in the Greek context so far and it is our aim to attempt a first investigation of how certain groups of viewers engage with the horror genre. We draw upon the argument that fear from encountering horror is a socially based emotion through which people do not just test their own boundaries but also their boundaries within a group of peers (Hill, 2005). Given that women are stereotypically thought to be more afraid than men, we are particularly interested to see how women aged between 20 and 35 in Greece engage with fear or disgust in the mainstreamed context of the horror offered by American Horror Story. We are particularly interested in the ways they perceive horror but also deadly women or female villains. Our interest in this particular series lies not only in its popularity across the world but also because of its nature as a representative series of the horror genre and because all different narratives it offers are mostly based on female characters primarily as villains. Also, as a text available across different cultures, it could probably allow us to engage with cross-cultural research in the future. Therefore we wish to conduct an online survey with women aged 20–35 in Greece, followed by focus groups with women of the same age group in an attempt to provide both a mapping and a further investigation of the topic.

Details

Gender and Contemporary Horror in Television
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-103-2

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

Emmanuella Plakoyiannaki and Yorgos Zotos

The purpose of this study is three‐fold: to provide recent evidence in the UK on the frequency of appearance of female role portrayals in print advertisements; to compare…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is three‐fold: to provide recent evidence in the UK on the frequency of appearance of female role portrayals in print advertisements; to compare female role stereotypes across magazine types; and to explore the interface between female role stereotypes and product categories.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrative approach to content analysis was used in order to analyze advertising communication in print media. The sample consisted of n=3,830 advertisements published in ten high circulation UK magazines.

Findings

The study indicates that women in UK magazine advertisements are mainly portrayed in decorative roles; and that female role stereotypes vary significantly across magazine types. The findings also suggest that there is an association between product categories and female role stereotypes.

Practical implications

The study highlights the need for the advertising industry in the UK to adjust its communication practices to the changing role of women in society.

Originality/value

The study extends research in the area of female role stereotypes in print advertising by considering the frequency of female role portrayals across different magazine types; and investigating the association between product categories and female role stereotypes.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 43 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Kara Chan, Yu Leung Ng and Jianqiong Liu

The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of advertisements with different female role portrayals in a second-tier city with “first-class opportunities.”…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of advertisements with different female role portrayals in a second-tier city with “first-class opportunities.” Chinese girls and women represent a huge market for personal as well as household goods.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental study was conducted using a convenience sample of 216 male and female participants aged 17-21 years in Changchun, China. Participants were asked to respond to print advertisements using traditional and modern female images including housewife, cute female, female with classical beauty, sporty, career-minded and neutral (tomboy).

Findings

Results revealed that female participants responded more favorably toward advertisements using female images than male participants. There was no difference in the responses to the six different female images among both male and female participants.

Research limitations/implications

Young consumers in China are not sensitive to the different female images used in the print advertisements. Advertisers can, therefore, enjoy flexibility in the selection of female gender roles for advertisements.

Originality/value

Little is known about how marketers and advertisements can best communicate with young consumers in China using advertisements with different female images. This study fills this literature gap.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Yu Leung Ng and Kara Chan

The purpose of this study was to investigate how Chinese adolescent girls and boys construct their own ideal female images in response to gendered advertisements based on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate how Chinese adolescent girls and boys construct their own ideal female images in response to gendered advertisements based on Arnett’s (1995) theory of self-socialization and Hirschman and Thompson’s (1997) three interpretive strategies. A qualitative interview study was conducted for this purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

Altogether, 32 adolescents aged 15-19 living in 16 different provinces in China were recruited for a face-to-face interview. Three advertisements were shown depicting an elegant woman, an urban sophisticated female and a strong woman, and interviewees were asked to describe the appearance, the personality and the work and family life of the female character in each advertisement. They were asked to choose one of them as most closely representing their ideal female image.

Findings

The interviewees constructed their ideal female images from the advertisement that best suited their ideal appearance, personality and work and family life. Female interviewees aspired to be like the elegant woman, identified with the urban sophisticated female and rejected the strong woman in the ads. Male interviewees appreciated the urban sophisticated female but rejected the strong woman.

Research limitations/implications

With just 32 interviewees, the generalizability of the findings is limited.

Practical implications

Female central characters in advertisements should be pilot-tested among the target audience to maximize levels of aspiration and identification.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine ideal female images from gendered advertisements among adolescent boys and girls in China.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Yu Leung Ng and Kara Chan

The purpose of this study is to examine how Chinese adolescent girls and boys interpret female images in gendered advertisements based on Tobin et al.’s (2010) gender…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how Chinese adolescent girls and boys interpret female images in gendered advertisements based on Tobin et al.’s (2010) gender self-socialization model (GSSM).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 48 Hong Kong adolescents studying in high schools or university year one participated in a focus group study. Four advertisements with different types of female images were presented. Interviewees were asked to discuss the appearance, the personality and the work and family life of the female characters in the advertisements. Interviewers then asked them to select the one most closely representing their ideal female image.

Findings

Most of the interviewees chose an urban sophisticate as the character closest to their ideal female image. Female interviewees identified with the urban sophisticate and aspired to the cultured nurturer image. However, they rejected the strong woman and the “flower vase” female images.

Research limitations/implications

The generalizability of the findings was limited because of the small sample size and non-probability sampling.

Practical implications

When targeting adolescents, advertisers should consider using female images displaying a personality that is neither too strong nor too weak.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate how Hong Kong adolescents interpret female images from gendered advertisements. This study also clarifies the gender concepts to explain how adolescents perceive gendered advertisements.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Gail Tom, Rebecca Clark, Laura Elmer, Edward Grech, Joseph Masetti and Harmona Sandhar

Reports on a study designed to analyse the effectiveness of realand created spokespersons in advertisements. Compares male and femalespokespersons′ effectiveness by…

Abstract

Reports on a study designed to analyse the effectiveness of real and created spokespersons in advertisements. Compares male and female spokespersons′ effectiveness by audience gender. Concludes that celebrities can be used to gain attention and maintain sales, while created spokespersons′ effectiveness is in establishing a lifelong link with the product.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2017

Patricia R. Todd and Joanna Melancon

The overall purpose of this study is to investigate and gain a better understanding of perceptions of source credibility and consumer motivation to view live-stream…

Abstract

Purpose

The overall purpose of this study is to investigate and gain a better understanding of perceptions of source credibility and consumer motivation to view live-stream broadcasts. Of particular interest is gender differences based on the gender of the broadcaster and viewer.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using an online survey from 998 respondents. As the preliminary examination technique, t-tests were used.

Findings

There are significant differences based on whether a viewer of a live broadcast is watching a source of the same gender or a different gender in source credibility. Viewing same vs opposite sex broadcasters may indicate motivation to engage with the live-video content. There are significant gender differences outcome variables of interest to live broadcasters.

Research limitations/implications

The context investigated was a single live-streaming provider.

Practical implications

The findings provide a start to understanding the differences in perceptions and motivations for watching live-stream broadcasters. This will aid marketers and broadcasters using live-stream formats on a variety of platforms in developing better content and building a more engaged viewing community. This research represents an important step in quantifying unexplored differences in gender perceptions of the source of live broadcasts that ultimately could impact not only the success of the broadcaster but also brands endorsed by these broadcasters.

Originality/value

This research is among the first to explore source effects and motivation in the live video context.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Hye‐Shin Kim

This study examines whether a unique set of emotions may be generated by advertisements for apparel products and brands for a young female target audience. Also studied…

Abstract

This study examines whether a unique set of emotions may be generated by advertisements for apparel products and brands for a young female target audience. Also studied were the effects of emotions on evaluative perceptions of apparel brand advertisements (ad attitude). Test advertisements consisted of 90 advertisements representing 56 different brands. Using an aggregate‐level communication model, all analysis in the study was performed across advertisements, not across people, as sampling units of interest. Findings show a unique set of three emotional dimensions generated by the apparel brand advertisements. Two emotional dimensions, pleasure/activation (eg activation, bored, desired, social affection) and hypoactivation (drowsy, restful, soothed), had a positive influence on ad attitude. The third dimension, domination (anger, fear, irritation, tension), did not have a significant effect on ad attitude, having neither good nor bad effect on evaluations of advertisements.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2013

Prokopis K. Theodoridis, Antigone G. Kyrousi, Athina Y. Zotou and George G. Panigyrakis

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differences in male and female attitudes and establish a causal relationship between general (a priori) attitudes towards…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differences in male and female attitudes and establish a causal relationship between general (a priori) attitudes towards female stereotypical advertisements and attitudes towards specific advertising stimuli, providing evidence from Greece and Cyprus.

Design/methodology/approach

Male and female respondents (158 in Cyprus and 156 in Greece) indicated their general attitudes towards female stereotypes in advertising and were subsequently exposed to three stereotypical advertisements, to which they expressed their specific attitudes.

Findings

The results of the study prove that in countries with similar cultural backgrounds, such as Greece and Cyprus, general attitudes towards stereotypes in advertising do not have significant differences. General attitudes towards sex role portrayal in advertising directly impact attitudes towards specific advertisements. Further, it was demonstrated that respondents' gender plays a key role in attitude formation. The age of the respondents is also of interest, given that differences exist in general attitudes towards stereotypes in advertising and in attitudes towards specific stereotypical advertisements within respondents of the same gender, but of a different age bracket.

Originality/value

The key potential contribution of this study is threefold. First, it investigates the effect of gender and age on attitudes towards stereotypes in advertising. Second, it establishes a causal relationship between general attitudes towards stereotypical advertisements and attitudes towards specific advertising stimuli. Third, the study further validates the established relationship and the relevant measures across culturally similar countries.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2012

Jennifer Arney and Rose Weitz

This chapter explores how direct-to-consumer advertisements (DTCA) for major depression and anxiety disorders use contemporary gender scripts to sell medications and…

Abstract

This chapter explores how direct-to-consumer advertisements (DTCA) for major depression and anxiety disorders use contemporary gender scripts to sell medications and disease definitions to consumers, and in the process reflect and reinforce those scripts for both men and women. Between 1997 and 2006, antidepressant DTCA in popular magazines overwhelmingly depicted depression as a (white) female disorder, as did anti-anxiety DTCA, although not to such an extreme extent. In addition, DTCA often alerted men to the benefits they might reap if the women in their lives sought treatment, while suggesting that women had a responsibility to seek such treatment for the sake of their loved ones. Moreover, DTCA disproportionately encouraged women to monitor their emotions while encouraging men to monitor their physical sensations. Finally, DTCA suggested that medication would yield benefits for women primarily in their close relationships and for men primarily in their work lives, thus reinforcing the binary sex divisions implicit in hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity. At a broader level, DTCA studied for this article suggest to both women and men that individuals should monitor themselves and others for a wide variety of common emotions, behaviors, and physical sensations, thus individualizing social problems and encouraging the expansion of medical authority over everyday life.

Details

Issues in Health and Health Care Related to Race/Ethnicity, Immigration, SES and Gender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-125-0

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