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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

E. Baecke, G. Rogiers, L. De Cock and G. Van Huylenbroeck

Organic products form a growing segment of the food market. Recent estimates speak about market shares between 1 to 4.25 per cent. In Belgium the share is only 1 per cent…

Abstract

Organic products form a growing segment of the food market. Recent estimates speak about market shares between 1 to 4.25 per cent. In Belgium the share is only 1 per cent, but the market is growing exponentially. Organic farmers in Belgium often have to sell their products as conventional products because of non‐efficient marketing systems. Marketing problems are also mentioned as one of the main reasons by conventional farmers for not converting. Most conventional farmers are not only rather sceptical about the long‐term perspectives of getting a price premium for organic products, but consider the organisation of the supply chain as one of the main sources of uncertainty and therefore as a constraint for conversion. Therefore more efforts should be made to organise the supply chain for organic products. The problem seems to be that of the egg and the chicken: for a cost‐effective supply chain a condition is to have enough producers, while for a lot of producers a cost‐effective swupply chain seems to be a necessary condition to convert, mainly because of high transaction costs linked to non‐efficient marketing.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 104 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2019

Sinclear R. Ndemewah, Kevin Menges and Martin R.W. Hiebl

It is difficult to develop an overall picture of the practice of management accounting (MA) in farms and farm enterprises (FEs) because little research has been published…

Abstract

Purpose

It is difficult to develop an overall picture of the practice of management accounting (MA) in farms and farm enterprises (FEs) because little research has been published on the topic, and these studies are mostly discrete and unconnected to the others. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the available research, develop an explanatory framework for MA practices in farming entities and identify some major avenues for future research on the topic.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses systematic literature review methods. After an extensive database search and an examination of references/citations, 41 empirical journal articles published between 1964 and 2016 are identified, described and analyzed in this research paper.

Findings

The findings reveal that the practice of MA in farms is subject to information problems and that the empirical research on this topic largely lacks a theoretical explanation. Therefore, the explanatory framework of MA practices in farming entities reveals that these practices are subject to influencing factors such as familism, government farm policies, market competition, technological changes, the seasons and the weather/climate.

Research limitations/implications

The overall limited findings on the practice of MA in FEs indicate that caution should be taken when generalizing the current knowledge on the use of MA practices in other organizational forms to farming entities. Moreover, future research should draw on explicit theories to explain empirical results.

Originality/value

This paper is the first comprehensive literature review of studies on MA practices in farms and FEs.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Agricultural Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-481-3

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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2020

Bruno Varella Miranda and Anna Grandori

The purpose of this paper is to provide a multidimensional framework for the identification, description and comparative analysis of alternative farm structures and their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a multidimensional framework for the identification, description and comparative analysis of alternative farm structures and their properties for economic development.

Design/methodology/approach

Integrating previous typologies and considering a large set of examples, the authors identify six attributes that are necessary to characterize and compare farm structures: size; strategy; organizational form; legal form; who the owners are; and degree of separation of ownership and control. They also discuss potential complementarities between those organizational attributes and specific features of the institutions of developing and emerging countries, such as contract enforcement and property rights protection regime, and developed capital markets and corporate law.

Findings

Conceptually and empirically, effective farm structures can deviate from the templates traditionally considered – “small family-owned farm” or “large factory-like corporate farm,” combining structural attributes in diverse ways. The dimensionalization of farm structures also helps in revealing complementary institutional traits at the regional or larger system level that may foster development processes.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited to theory building and case-based evidence. Nevertheless, it provides dimensions that can be measured on a larger scale and by quantitative studies.

Originality/value

This paper sheds light on organizational diversity in agriculture and on a wider set of feasible development paths.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Raffaele Zanoli, Danilo Gambelli, Francesco Solfanelli and Susanne Padel

– The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the risk factors influencing non-compliance in UK organic farming.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the risk factors influencing non-compliance in UK organic farming.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a formal econometric model of risk analysis to provide empirical evidence on the determinants of non-compliance in organic farming. A panel of data from the archives of the largest control body in the UK for 2007-2009 is used, and specific analyses are performed for two types of non-compliances. A zero inflated count data model is used for the estimation, taking into account the fact that the occurrences of non-compliance are very sparse.

Findings

Results show the existence of strong co-dependence of non-compliant behaviours (i.e. the occurrence of major and critical non-compliance increases the probability of occurrence of the minor one; similarly the probability of occurrence of major non-compliance increases when minor non-compliance occur). Besides, livestock production and farm size are relevant risk factors.

Research limitations/implications

Albeit highly representative, the findings are based on Soil Association data only and not on all UK organic farms.

Practical implications

The paper provides practical indications for control bodies, concerning aspects that could be strengthened for more efficient risk-based inspections. The paper advocates the use of financial information like turnover or capital stock, and of data concerning the characteristics of the farmers, that could substantially improve the probability of detecting the most severe non-compliances.

Social implications

Certification is essential for organic farming, and an improvement of inspection procedures through a risk-based approach could add efficiency and effectiveness to the whole organic food system, with obvious advantages for consumers and the society as a whole.

Originality/value

This paper provides for the first time empirical evidence concerning the implementation of the organic certification system in the UK.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Jason Loughrey and Thia Hennessy

The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential relationship between farm income variability and off-farm employment decisions in the short and medium term for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential relationship between farm income variability and off-farm employment decisions in the short and medium term for the case of Irish farm operators.

Design/methodology/approach

Panel probit models of off-farm labour supply are estimated using Teagasc National Farm Survey data for Irish farms. The framework is based largely on standard expected utility but includes a constraint for recent employment history.

Findings

The analyses identifies some evidence of a positive association between farm income variability and off-farm employment in the medium term but no significant relationship in the short term. This suggests that off-farm employment is part of a wider portfolio decision but is not a strong solution to short-term farm income shocks.

Practical implications

European farmers increasingly face high income variability but financial risk management tools are not sufficiently developed or widely accessible to assist farmers in managing the associated risk. This deficiency can have negative implications for household economic welfare and future farm investments and hence the future farm income. Off-farm employment can form part of a wider medium-term portfolio strategy but more effective tools are also required for risk management particularly in dealing with short-term volatility and where off-farm employment is not a realistic endeavour given time constraints and/or demographics.

Originality/value

The estimation of farm income variability includes a detrending method thus reducing the likelihood of overestimating farm income variability for farms in deliberate expansion or decline. While previous research has typically focused on the short-term response of farmers to historical farm income variability, this research has distinguished between the short and medium term.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 76 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Documents from the History of Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1423-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2003

Jeremy Franks

The recent background to the UK market for organic milk is reviewed to establish the background to the Organic Dairy Production: A Sustainable Future for Organic Dairying…

Abstract

The recent background to the UK market for organic milk is reviewed to establish the background to the Organic Dairy Production: A Sustainable Future for Organic Dairying conference held in March 2002. The presentations given at that conference are critically reviewed. Several of arguably the most important determinants of the sustainable future of organic dairying did not find their full expression at that conference. Issues largely or wholly excluded include: a priori evidence for expecting a higher level of co‐operation among organic than conventional farmers; the distinction between “competitive pricing” and “sustainable pricing”; import penetration and substitution, and post‐conversion subsidies; utilising innovative information technologies to “tell the organic story”; policing organic standards and traceability; and the ownership of the “organic label” and the number of organic standard bodies. The importance of these issues is shown by reference to the current market situation for organic milk in the UK. There is a need for considerable developments in the marketing of organic milk. More distance must be placed between associations that campaign for market growth and an organisation that will need to be appointed to take responsibility for providing reliable and impartial market‐based information.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 105 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Arun Jose and PrasannaVenkatesan Shanmugam

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the significant supply chain issues in the small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) food industry. The objectives are to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the significant supply chain issues in the small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) food industry. The objectives are to identify the major themes and the dynamic evolution of SME food supply chain (FSC) issues, the current research trends, the different modelling approaches used in SME FSC, and the most addressed SME food sector.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 3,733 published articles from 2002 to 2018 in the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science database were collected, from which 1,091 articles were shortlisted for the review. The authors used bibliographic coupling combined with co-word analysis to identify the historical relations of the research themes that emerged during the periods 2002–2014 and 2002–2018.

Findings

This research identified five major research themes such as production and distribution in alternative food networks, relationship, safety and standards in the FSC, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impact of the farm food system, traceability and product quality in FSC and asymmetric price transmission in the FSC. Among the identified themes, GHG emission impact of the farm food system and traceability and product quality in the FSC have received increasing attention in recent years. The dairy sector is the most addressed sector (36 per cent), followed by fruits and vegetables (27 per cent), meat and poultry (18 per cent), seafood (10 per cent) and grains and oilseed (8 per cent). It is also identified that the dairy sector has received significant attention in the “GHG Emission impact of farm food system” theme. Similarly, meat and poultry sectors have received much attention in the “Traceability and product quality in the food supply chain” theme. Also, the authors identified that the empirical modelling approaches are the most commonly used solution methodology, followed by the conceptual/qualitative methods in the SME FSC.

Originality/value

This study maps and summarizes the existing knowledge base of supply chain issues in the SME food sector. The results of this review provide the major research areas, most commonly used approaches and food sectors addressed. This study also highlights the research gaps and potential future research direction.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2008

Julie N. Zimmerman

As academic fields increasingly turn to social action and seek partnerships with groups beyond the academy, so too are we looking for guidance. Rural sociology developed…

Abstract

Purpose

As academic fields increasingly turn to social action and seek partnerships with groups beyond the academy, so too are we looking for guidance. Rural sociology developed out of applying research to social action and within this field was a unique unit. The purpose of this paper is to present a history of the Division of Farm Population and Rural Life, which was part of the US Department of Agriculture from 1919 to 1953 was a pioneer in applying sociological knowledge to policy and action.

Design/methodology/approach

This article looks back to the history of this unit to examine the lessons to be learned.

Findings

Placing these lessons within the context of contemporary issues underscores the continuing relevance of this historical experience.

Originality/value

The issues surrounding engaging external partners are both particularistic and universal. However, without an historical sense of the challenges, each time we encounter them, the challenges feel new and somehow unique. This article looks back to history to examine lessons that can be learned. Placing these lessons within the context of contemporary issues underscores relevance of the historical experience from events and people that occurred several generations of professionals ago.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

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