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Book part
Publication date: 28 November 2016

Gregorio Fuschillo

The purpose is to argue that market-generated and brand-related phenomena such as fandoms work as a social and institutional force beyond the market and to showcase their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose is to argue that market-generated and brand-related phenomena such as fandoms work as a social and institutional force beyond the market and to showcase their influence on the society as a whole.

Methodology/approach

The influence of fandoms on many societal institutions is explored through the literature on fandom studies and consumer research.

Findings

The research indicates that market-generated resources and their related sociocultural dynamics play a significant role in shaping the evolution of many institutions of current societies.

Research limitations/implications

The research is exclusively focused on fandoms despite the varied facets of market-related sociocultural dynamics, opportunity exists for research beyond the exploratory work done here shifting the focus from fandoms to brand systems.

Practical implications

Researchers, especially in Consumer Culture Theory (CCT), may use the perspective shift from market to society to enlarge the scope to new fields of study, out of the market.

Social implications

The research provides new lenses to understand emerging phenomena in fields such as religion and/or politics difficult to understand with traditional frameworks.

Originality/value

This paper provides exploratory research identifying market-related social and institutional processes and emphasizing how they influence other societal institutions, such as family, religion, corporations, professions, and politics; rather than bringing social and institutional processes into the marketplace.

Details

Consumer Culture Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-495-2

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Han Soo Kim, Minsoo Kang and Minjung Kim

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the category function of the sport fandom questionnaire (SFQ), determine the optimal categorization of the SFQ and calibrate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the category function of the sport fandom questionnaire (SFQ), determine the optimal categorization of the SFQ and calibrate the measurement qualities of the newly modified rating scale option using Rasch analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper relies on the Rasch analysis to validate the SFQ. A series of studies are performed based on analysis procedures for the responses from 244 (study 1) and 477 (study 2) participants.

Findings

The results revealed that the original SFQ consisting of the eight-category rating scale is flagged due to irregular observation distribution and disordering of thresholds, whereas both six-category and seven-category rating scales meet the guidelines for the optimal categorization. However, only the seven-category rating scale showed desirable model-data fit indices. Furthermore, the results of the Rasch calibration model showed that all items of the SFQ have large variability, and a person's ability level varied moderately along the continuum.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, examining the psychometric properties of the SFQ, the current study provides information about the optimal categorization and presents a novel reconstruction category in measuring individuals' sport fandom level. In measuring the level of sport fandom, the authors suggest the use of a seven-category rating scale that the current study found to exhibit reliability and construct validity.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Maarit Kinnunen, Antti Honkanen and Mervi Luonila

The purpose of the study is to compare features of career development and fandom in frequent festival attendance in the context of Finnish music festivals.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to compare features of career development and fandom in frequent festival attendance in the context of Finnish music festivals.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a mixed methods research approach and employs two theoretical frameworks: theories of career development and fandom.

Findings

In frequent festival attendance, both festival career development and festival fandom are most clearly present in motivation development and social dimensions.

Practical implications

Strategically, frequent festivalgoers should be considered as crucial stakeholders, who might mobilize the co-creation of a sense of community or festival brand.

Originality/value

Music-related fandom has been previously investigated in relation to artists and specific musical genres, but not so much in relation to music festivals in general. Career studies, on the other hand, concentrate heavily on sports events. There is a scarcity of research scrutinizing both career development and fandom in the festival context within the same study, and festival attendance as part of music tourism is an under-researched area.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Abstract

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Gender and Contemporary Horror in Comics, Games and Transmedia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-108-7

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2020

Po-Lin Pan and Joe Phua

The purpose of this paper was to examine the interplay between sports fanship and brand-related perceptions in the context of sports sponsorship. The effects of sport…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to examine the interplay between sports fanship and brand-related perceptions in the context of sports sponsorship. The effects of sport fans' self-enhancement strategies: Basking in reflected glory (BIRGing) and cutting off reflected failure (CORFing) were investigated in response to how sports fans connected themselves to a sponsor brand as well as whether their sponsor brand trust and loyalty were activated.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was designed in the first study to examine immediate effects of team performance and sports fandom on sports fans' connection to the sponsor brand, while an online survey was conducted in the second study to investigate the joint effects of team performance and game venue on sports fans' sponsor brand trust and loyalty.

Findings

The first study found that both team performance and sports fandom yielded significant effects on sports fans' connection to the sponsor brand. Specifically, sports fans with higher fandom reported the highest connection to the sponsor brand after the success of their favorite team, while others with lower fandom exhibited the lowest connection after the failure of their favorite team. The second study suggested that team performance and game venue yielded both main and joint effects on sponsor brand trust and loyalty. Moreover, fan identification mediated the joint effects of team performance and game venue on both sponsor brand trust and loyalty.

Originality/value

Replicating the concepts of BIRGing and CORFing into the context of sports sponsorship, this paper verified the vigorous roles of BIRGing and CORFing in influencing sports fans' perceptions of the sponsor brand. Moreover, both theoretical and practical insights into BIRGing and CORFing concepts applicable to examine the impact of the fan–team relationships on sport fans' perceptions of the sponsor brand through sports sponsorship would be generated for the advancement of sports business research.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2021

Ludi Price and Lyn Robinson

This article describes the third part of a three-stage study investigating the information behaviour of fans and fan communities, the first stage of which is described in…

Abstract

Purpose

This article describes the third part of a three-stage study investigating the information behaviour of fans and fan communities, the first stage of which is described in the study by Price and Robinson (2017).

Design/methodology/approach

Using tag analysis as a method, a comparative case study was undertaken to explore three aspects of fan information behaviour: information gatekeeping; classifying and tagging and entrepreneurship and economic activity. The case studies took place on three sites used by fans–Tumblr, Archive of Our Own (AO3) and Etsy. Supplementary semi-structured interviews with site users were used to augment the findings with qualitative data.

Findings

These showed that fans used tags in a variety of ways quite apart from classification purposes. These included tags being used on Tumblr as meta-commentary and a means of dialogue between users, as well as expressors of emotion and affect towards posts. On AO3 in particular, fans had developed a practice called “tag wrangling” to mitigate the inherent “messiness” of tagging. Evidence was also found of a “hybrid market economy” on Etsy fan stores. From the study findings, a taxonomy of fan-related tags was developed.

Research limitations/implications

Findings are limited to the tagging practices on only three sites used by fans during Spring 2016, and further research on other similar sites are recommended. Longitudinal studies of these sites would be beneficial in understanding how or whether tagging practices change over time. Testing of the fan-tag taxonomy developed in this paper is also recommended.

Originality/value

This research develops a method for using tag analysis to describe information behaviour. It also develops a fan-tag taxonomy, which may be used in future research on the tagging practices of fans, which heretofore have been a little-studied section of serious leisure information users.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2012

Sam Kaplan and Su Langdon

As the global economy expands, it would seem to be in the interests of the major professional sport leagues of the US to move into new markets, especially China, one of…

Abstract

As the global economy expands, it would seem to be in the interests of the major professional sport leagues of the US to move into new markets, especially China, one of the fastest growing and largest in the world. In order to sell effectively in this market, it is vital to gain an understanding of the potential fan base. To explore national differences in fandom, a survey was completed by sports fans in both China and the US to assess which sports participants followed and which media they used, to identify fan motives and their feelings about expansion. This study determined that there are clear differences between Chinese and Americans. While many of the Chinese were fans of American sports, they tended to follow individual athletes rather than teams and had relatively low fan identity but high levels of fan motivation. Motives also varied by country, with aesthetics and affiliation the primary motives among the Chinese sample. These distinctions can be utilised to create marketing strategies.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2018

Ayse Gursoy, Karen Wickett and Melanie Feinberg

The purpose of this paper is to investigate tag use in a metadata ecosystem that supports a fan work repository to identify functions of tags and explore the system as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate tag use in a metadata ecosystem that supports a fan work repository to identify functions of tags and explore the system as a co-constructed communicative context.

Design/methodology/approach

Using modified techniques from grounded theory (Charmaz, 2007), this paper integrates humanistic and social science methods to identify kinds of tag use in a rich setting.

Findings

Three primary roles of tags emerge out of detailed study of the metadata ecosystem: tags can identify elements in the fan work, tags can reflect on how those elements are used or adapted in the fan work, and finally, tags can express the fan author’s sense of her role in the discursive context of the fan work repository. Attending to each of the tag roles shifts focus away from just what tags say to include how they say it.

Practical implications

Instead of building metadata systems designed solely for retrieval or description, this research suggests that it may be fruitful to build systems that recognize various metadata functions and allow for expressivity. This research also suggests that attending to metadata previously considered unusable in systems may reflect the participants’ sense of the system and their role within it.

Originality/value

In addition to accommodating a wider range of tag functions, this research implies consideration of metadata ecosystems, where different kinds of tags do different things and work together to create a multifaceted artifact.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 74 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

Keith D. Parry

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of autoethnography within the context of sports fandom. This paper advocates the use of such qualitative methodologies to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of autoethnography within the context of sports fandom. This paper advocates the use of such qualitative methodologies to enable a greater understanding of sports fans. The paper also aims to provide greater understanding of sports fandom.

Design/methodology/approach

The research moves away from traditional methodologies of studying sports fandom from an objective viewpoint and uses an evocative autoethnography to provide an account of the lived experience of a sports fan.

Findings

By writing himself into his research it has been possible to gain a deeper insight into sports fandom. The subject of passion arises and while the Dualistic Model of Passion was explored as a mechanism for dealing with obsessive passion it is suggested that attempting to move away from a state of obsessive passion may diminish the enjoyment of being a sports fan.

Practical implications

This paper highlights the benefits that methodologies such as autoethnography can have for academics studying sports fandom and other disciplines. It encourages academics to overcome the perceived lack of academic acceptance of the method.

Originality/value

This paper utilises a qualitative methodology to explore the experience of being a sports fan. This methodological approach is yet to be fully embraced within this field and hence there is a lack of in‐depth data on the experiences of sports fans. This account will allow readers to develop a greater understanding and insight of sports fans.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2019

Chinedu James Obiegbu, Gretchen Larsen, Nick Ellis and Daragh O’Reilly

This paper aims to answer the following question: How can a discursive approach to how music fans construct loyalty in a digital context contribute to a theoretical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to answer the following question: How can a discursive approach to how music fans construct loyalty in a digital context contribute to a theoretical understanding of brand loyalty?

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on insights from theories of brand loyalty and fandom, this interpretive inquiry makes use of data from an online forum dedicated to the rock music band, U2, and interviews with forum members. A combination of online ethnography and discourse analysis are used.

Findings

The analysis shows that music fans mobilise particular discursive resources in constructing loyalty in the digital context, specifically length of time spent as a fan, obsession and the opposition of obligation and choice. These discursive resources reflect a grounded account of an experientially rooted brand loyalty that extends beyond attitudinal and behavioural loyalty and which is particularly salient in music consumption.

Research limitations/implications

This is a single case study, but as a rich and vibrant online community, it provides fruitful insights into the discursive construction of loyalty. The processes of negotiation, accommodation and conflict, engaged in through online discourse, are important in laying bare the preferences, value systems and meanings that frame the experiences of loyal consumers.

Practical implications

This socially constructed view of loyalty facilitates a more sensitive and nuanced application of brand loyalty, with implications for segmentation and targeting activities. It provides a possible basis through which precise insights can be gained into the meanings and practices of loyal fans and consumers.

Originality/value

Examining loyalty through the lens of online music fandom enables a discursive understanding of consumers’ experience of brand loyalty. It shows how online engagement with other consumers of a brand facilitates a deep engagement with the notion of loyalty.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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