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Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-726-1

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2020

Kristian Pentus, Kerli Ploom, Tanel Mehine, Madli Koiv, Age Tempel and Andres Kuusik

This paper aims to test the similarity of the results of on-screen eye tracking compared to mobile eye tracking in the context of first fixation location on stimuli.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test the similarity of the results of on-screen eye tracking compared to mobile eye tracking in the context of first fixation location on stimuli.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies were conducted altogether with 117 participants, where the authors compared both methods: stationary eye tracking (Tobii Pro X2-60) and mobile eye tracking (Tobii Pro Glasses 2).

Findings

The studies revealed that the reported average first fixation locations from stationary and mobile eye tracking are different. Stationary eye tracking is more affected by a centre fixation bias. Based on the research, it can be concluded that stationary eye tracking is not always suitable for studying consumer perception and behaviour because of the centre viewing bias.

Research limitations/implications

When interpreting the results, researchers should take into account that stationary eye tracking results are affected by a centre fixation bias. Previous stationary eye tracking research should be interpreted with the centre fixation bias in mind. Some of this previous work should be retested using mobile eye tracking. If possible small-scale pilot studies should be included in papers to show that the more appropriate method, less affected by attention biases, was chosen.

Practical implications

Managers should trust research where the ability of package design to attract attention on a shelf is tested using mobile eye tracking. The authors suggest using mobile eye tracking to optimise store shelf planograms, point-of-purchase materials, and shelf layouts. In package design, interpretations of research using stationary eye tracking should consider its centre fixation bias. Managers should also be cautious when interpreting previous stationary eye tracking research (both applied and scientific), knowing that stationary eye tracking is more prone to a centre fixation bias.

Originality/value

While eye tracking research has become more and more popular as a marketing research method, the limitations of the method have not been fully understood by the field. This paper shows that the chosen eye tracking method can influence the results. No such comparative paper about mobile and stationary eye tracking research has been done in the marketing field.

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Haakon Lund

The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science. Eye-tracking technology has now reached a level of maturity, which makes the use of the technology more accessible. Subsequently, a growing interest in employing eye tracking as a methodology within library and information science research must be anticipated.

Design/methodology/approach

The review follows the guidelines set in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Two reference databases are searched for relevant references: Library and Information Science Abstracts and Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts. The main selection criteria are peer-reviewed literature that describes the experimental setting, including which eye-tracking equipment was used, the number of test persons and reports on the eye-tracking measures. Furthermore, this study will report which other methods were applied in combination with eye tracking.

Findings

The number of published research utilizing eye-tracking technologies within library and information science (LIS) is still limited although an increase in the use of eye-tracking technologies is observed during recent years.

Originality/value

To the knowledge of the author, this is the first systematic review on eye-tracking technology and application in LIS.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Rafael Batista Duarte, Denis Silva da Silveira, Vinícius de Albuquerque Brito and Charlie Silva Lopes

Business process modeling can involve multiple stakeholders, so it is natural that problems may occur during the designing and understanding processes. One way to perceive…

Abstract

Purpose

Business process modeling can involve multiple stakeholders, so it is natural that problems may occur during the designing and understanding processes. One way to perceive these problems is to evaluate the comprehension of business process models through the collection of data related to the readers' eye movement via an eye-tracking device. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the use of eye-trackers in understanding process models and to offer a research roadmap to challenge the community to address the identified limitations and open issues that require further investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this goal, Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was performed following good practices from the Evidence-Based Software Engineering's (EBSE) field.

Findings

This study resulted in 10 primary studies selected for analysis and data extraction, from the 1,482 initially retrieved. The major findings indicate that the business process community still benefits little from the use of eye-tracking, e.g. not offering sufficient support for inexperienced designers and not having an explicit standardization in its use. These and other findings are synthesized in a research roadmap which results would benefit researchers and practitioners.

Originality/value

In the studies found, the methods used to explore eyes' movement in process models' comprehension analysis were presented as an advantage of the current study. Additionally, another aspect presented in this SRL as an originality is presenting a set of open questions, suggesting valuable topics for future research through a research script (research roadmap).

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2022

Lei Zhao, Yingyi Zhang and Chengzhi Zhang

To understand the meaning of a sentence, humans can focus on important words in the sentence, which reflects our eyes staying on each word in different gaze time or times…

Abstract

Purpose

To understand the meaning of a sentence, humans can focus on important words in the sentence, which reflects our eyes staying on each word in different gaze time or times. Thus, some studies utilize eye-tracking values to optimize the attention mechanism in deep learning models. But these studies lack to explain the rationality of this approach. Whether the attention mechanism possesses this feature of human reading needs to be explored.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted experiments on a sentiment classification task. Firstly, they obtained eye-tracking values from two open-source eye-tracking corpora to describe the feature of human reading. Then, the machine attention values of each sentence were learned from a sentiment classification model. Finally, a comparison was conducted to analyze machine attention values and eye-tracking values.

Findings

Through experiments, the authors found the attention mechanism can focus on important words, such as adjectives, adverbs and sentiment words, which are valuable for judging the sentiment of sentences on the sentiment classification task. It possesses the feature of human reading, focusing on important words in sentences when reading. Due to the insufficient learning of the attention mechanism, some words are wrongly focused. The eye-tracking values can help the attention mechanism correct this error and improve the model performance.

Originality/value

Our research not only provides a reasonable explanation for the study of using eye-tracking values to optimize the attention mechanism but also provides new inspiration for the interpretability of attention mechanism.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 September 2018

Quan Lu, Jiyue Zhang, Jing Chen and Ji Li

This paper aims to examine the effect of domain knowledge on eye-tracking measures and predict readers’ domain knowledge from these measures in a navigational table of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of domain knowledge on eye-tracking measures and predict readers’ domain knowledge from these measures in a navigational table of contents (N-TOC) system.

Design/methodology/approach

A controlled experiment of three reading tasks was conducted in an N-TOC system for 24 postgraduates of Wuhan University. Data including fixation duration, fixation count and inter-scanning transitions were collected and calculated. Participants’ domain knowledge was measured by pre-experiment questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was leveraged to build the prediction model and the model’s performance was evaluated based on baseline model.

Findings

The results showed that novices spent significantly more time in fixating on text area than experts, because of the difficulty of understanding the information of text area. Total fixation duration on text area (TFD_T) was a significantly negative predictor of domain knowledge. The prediction performance of logistic regression model using eye-tracking measures was better than baseline model, with the accuracy, precision and F(β = 1) scores to be 0.71, 0.86, 0.79.

Originality/value

Little research has been reported in literature on investigation of domain knowledge effect on eye-tracking measures during reading and prediction of domain knowledge based on eye-tracking measures. Most studies focus on multimedia learning. With respect to the prediction of domain knowledge, only some studies are found in the field of information search. This paper makes a good contribution to the literature on the effect of domain knowledge on eye-tracking measures during N-TOC reading and predicting domain knowledge.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Jacek Gwizdka, Yan Zhang and Andrew Dillon

The purpose of this paper is to introduce eye tracking as a method for capturing direct and indirect measures of online human information search behaviour. The unique…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce eye tracking as a method for capturing direct and indirect measures of online human information search behaviour. The unique contribution of eye-tracking data in studying information behaviour is examined in the context of health information research.

Design/methodology/approach

The need for multiple methods of data collection when examining human online health information behaviour is described and summarised. The nature of human eye movements in information use and reading is outlined and the emergence and application of contemporary eye-tracking technology are explained.

Findings

The paper summarises key contributions and insights that eye tracking has provided across multiple studies, with examples of both direct data on fixations and gaze durations as well as theoretical assessments of relevance and knowledge gain.

Originality/value

The paper provides a basic introduction to the application of a unique method for information research in general and online health information search in particular and provides readers with an awareness of how such data are captured and interpreted.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 71 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2021

Rosy Boardman and Helen Mccormick

The purpose of this paper is to identify attention, cognitive and affective responses towards a fashion retailer's website and the behavioural outcomes when shopping online.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify attention, cognitive and affective responses towards a fashion retailer's website and the behavioural outcomes when shopping online.

Design/methodology/approach

52 eye-tracking tests and 52 qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted.

Findings

Consumer attention and behaviour differ across web pages throughout the shopping journey depending on its content, function and consumers' goal. Top-down attention is more dominant than bottom-up attention when consumers are shopping online for fashion items. The product listings page was the most frequented and had the most time spent on it. Consumers enjoy browsing for products and adding them to their basket to evaluate them together later. Customisation and personalisation features are the most valued due to their ability to make the experience more convenient and enjoyable.

Originality/value

This article contributes novel findings that the content and design of the website affects attention in different ways. It demonstrates that research cannot simplify viewing patterns for fashion shopping online. The study extends the SOR framework, showing that top-down attention, when provided with personalisation and customisation features, results in approach behaviour. A lack of personalisation or customisation features results in avoidance behaviour. The complex nature of consumer attention and behaviour during their holistic shopping journey advocates the need for eye-tracking research to be conducted on a live website for ecological validity, providing a methodological contribution which can be used for future research.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Anish Babu Zacharia and Nicolas Hamelin

This research used a Phenomenography approach of Eye Tracking to study the Biometric changes when participants were subjected to eight static subliminal images hidden in…

Abstract

This research used a Phenomenography approach of Eye Tracking to study the Biometric changes when participants were subjected to eight static subliminal images hidden in seven differently designed packages. Embeds or static subliminal stimulus in the form of pictures and words were hidden in seven different perfume packages and were used to study the changes experienced between the two groups, one of which was subjected to subliminal stimulus. This study was conducted in the Neuro Lab located in the SP Jain Sydney campus. A total of 46 healthy participants were separated into two groups, with one group shown image packages with static subliminal stimulus while the other group was shown image packages without any subliminal stimulus. Eye Tracking data was collected using iMotions. A detailed analysis of the Area of Interest (AOI), Fixation and Heat Map revealed that only a percentage of the participants visited the AOI with the hidden subliminal stimulus, but the participants who noticed the AOIs with the subliminal stimulus especially the male participants spent more time in the AOI indicating that they could be consciously processing the subliminal static stimulus. A statistical analysis of the time to first fixations (TIFF) revealed that the subliminal stimulus was not the first point of attraction.

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2019

Su Mu, Meng Cui, Xiao Jin Wang, Jin Xiu Qiao and Dong Mei Tang

This study aims to use eye-tracking technology to conduct an empirical study about online learning process analysis, thus aiming to understand the attentional preferences…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use eye-tracking technology to conduct an empirical study about online learning process analysis, thus aiming to understand the attentional preferences and learning paths in online learners.

Design/methodology/approach

With eye movement tracking and data analysing technology, the Tobii X120 eye-tracking instrument, Tobii studio and online learning platform are used to record and visualise data of eye moving and learning steps during the real task-based online learning processes of 14 online learners. According to Barbara A. Soloman’s learning style classification framework, these learners’ learning style was presented in four dimensions. Based on data of eye moving, leaning style and operation in online course, the correlation about learners’ preferences of learning content, online learning paths and learning style were analysed based on according data.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights about how change is brought about during online learning. It is found that there is no significant difference in attention preference between the students with the difference on the learning style of visual-verbal, although each person has a different attention preference on the learning content.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study is that only one common type of video learning process is studied. The learning process of various types of instructional videos in online learning will be done in future research.

Practical implications

In this study, eye-movement tracking technology is used to understand students’ learning path and learning preference in the online learning process, which is helpful to optimise the online learning process and improve the efficiency of online learning.

Social implications

This research findings have been approved by relevant experts and have won the first prize in the school-level competition of South China Normal University in China.

Originality/value

In this study, the technology of psychology (eye-tracking technology) is introduced into the study of real task-based online learning process in the subject of educational technology, realising the integration of multi-disciplinary research techniques and methods.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

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