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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2021

Enis Elezi and Christopher Bamber

Higher education institutions possess a plethora of knowledge at the institutional, departmental and individual levels. Therefore, knowledge management plays a vital role…

Abstract

Purpose

Higher education institutions possess a plethora of knowledge at the institutional, departmental and individual levels. Therefore, knowledge management plays a vital role in assisting partnerships to synergise knowledge and strengthen market competitiveness when working collaboratively. The purpose of this study is to identify and critically discuss the role of knowledge management concepts that support development of UK higher education partnerships. This knowledge management research was undertaken with the purpose of exploring components of behavioural constructs in assisting the development of successful partnerships between higher education institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

This research embraces a qualitative methodology and makes use of an expert panel method to gather field data and assess the relevance, robustness and applicability of a conceptual model developed in the context of higher education partnerships. Guided by two research questions, the researchers elicited knowledge from eight experts, academics and practitioners, who had initiated and led partnership development between UK higher education institutions. The experts were invited and selected to attend the panel using the criteria of “Years of Experience in the Higher Education sector”, “Job Positions and Experiences” and the “Partnership Scope and Impact”.

Findings

Depicting in a tree analogy, the conceptual model indicates that effective knowledge management will require higher education executives, managers and practitioners to centre on nurturing “tree roots” presented as behavioural knowledge management constructs and include institutional culture, trust, absorptive capacities and communication channels. The research findings elaborate on previous research and provide a categorisation of partnership outcomes between higher education institutions, explaining that partnership outcomes can be of an “Academic”, “Marketing and Finance” or “Managerial” nature. Importantly, practical use of the model could be implemented using audit methods or benchmarking methods, whereby the categorised elements of the model are used as a criterion of assessment for audit teams.

Originality/value

The conclusion extracted experiential insights to provide guidance as to how higher education executives, managers and practitioners can make use of knowledge management behavioural constructs and activities to assist collaborative undertakings in the higher education sector. This paper provided a new, modified, knowledge management higher education partnership tree, thus giving researchers and academic practitioners a holistic viewpoint of important partnership knowledge management factors.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Daniel Yaw Addai Duah, Kevin Ford and Matt Syal

The purpose of this paper is to develop a knowledge elicitation strategy to elicit and compile home energy retrofit knowledge that can be incorporated into the development…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a knowledge elicitation strategy to elicit and compile home energy retrofit knowledge that can be incorporated into the development of an intelligent decision support system to help increase the uptake of home energy retrofits. Major problems accounting for low adoption rates despite well-established benefits are: lack of information or information in unsuitable and usable format for decision making by homeowners. Despite the important role of expert knowledge in developing such systems, its elicitation has been fraught with challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

Using extensive literature review and a Delphi-dominated data collection technique, the relevant knowledge of 19 industry experts, selected based on previously developed determinants of expert knowledge and suitable for decision making was elicited and compiled. Boolean logic was used to model and represent such knowledge for use as an intelligent decision support system.

Findings

A combination of comprehensive knowledge elicitor training, Delphi technique, semi-structured interview, and job shadowing is a good elicitation strategy. It encourages experts to describe their knowledge in a natural way, relate to specific problems, and reduces bias. Relevant and consensus-based expert knowledge can be incorporated into the development of an intelligent decision support system.

Research limitations/implications

The consensus-based and relevant expert knowledge can assist homeowners with decision making and industry practitioners and academia with corroboration and enhancement of existing knowledge. The strategy contributes to solving the knowledge elicitation challenge.

Originality/value

No previous study regarding a knowledge elicitation strategy for developing an intelligent decision support system for the energy retrofit industry exists.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Jean-Philippe Bootz, Pascal Lievre and Eric Schenk

The purpose of this paper is to understand the solicitation of outside experts in the upstream phase of innovation projects, which fall within the scope of the exploration…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the solicitation of outside experts in the upstream phase of innovation projects, which fall within the scope of the exploration and which take place within a context of radical uncertainty: how are these experts identified, selected and mobilised? While companies are compelled to manage exploration projects, the processes underlying the expansion of knowledge in these projects are not well known.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the literature, this paper first presents a conceptual view of the notion of expert. Then, the research question is analyzed by means of a case study of a polar expedition. The project leader seeks a knowledgeable person who has never been identified as an expert, but whose knowledge is essential.

Findings

The expert appears both in his cognitive and social dimensions. Moreover, he emerges out of the situation, on the basis of neither strong nor weak signals. The rationality of expert solicitation falls within a pragmatic logic where the acquired knowledge must reduce the uncertainty so that the project can progress. The learning process enables to increase gradually the knowledge of the actor but also to build the legitimacy required in order to have access to the expert.

Practical implications

Findings can be translated in more general situations. Indeed, polar expeditions projects and exploratory innovation projects (Garel and Lièvre, 2010) possess some common characteristics: lack of knowledge concerning, timing issues, need to implement a pragmatic, enquiry-based learning. These projects strongly rely on external expert knowledge. This case study suggests that, while it may be useful, planning should not strictly define the course of action. A central competence of the project leader is to manage the duality between planning and adaptation. This implies the ability to adapt, to detect and to assess human resources and knowledge flows rapidly, as well as to weave social links inside and outside the organisation.

Originality/value

The existing literature offers a comprehensive view of experts in an organisation. However, the questions of expert selection and identification remain open. This paper fills a gap in the literature concerning the way experts are identified and selected. The case study shows that identifying experts does not solely depend on weak signals (reputation) or on strong signals (the expert’s social status). Rather, the expert emerges in the situation, in an unexpected way. The expert’s social dimension is not sufficient and one must look to the cognitive roots of the expertise. On the other hand, the fact is emphasised that the expert is a social construct which emerges from the solicitation process.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2011

Mahyar Arefi

This article explores the relationship between knowledge and sustainable placemaking. Distinguishing between “expert knowledge” and “local knowledge,” it first…

Abstract

This article explores the relationship between knowledge and sustainable placemaking. Distinguishing between “expert knowledge” and “local knowledge,” it first problematizes expert knowledge, and then traces the local knowledge approach to placemaking. The widening gap between expert and local knowledge prompts understanding their sources and modes of knowing. By viewing place as an organization this article draws from Nonaka's (1994) distinctions of four modes of knowledge creation in an organization, and explores the commonalities between the two. The analogy between place and organization helps gain new insights from the organizational theory literature which links processed information to knowledge creation. Seeking similarities between place and organization arises from how individuals in organizations and places process information to solve problems. Critically examining local knowledge questions the presupposition of a fixed, static mode of knowing, and helps incorporate a range of activities and knowhow associated with different stages of placemaking. The study suggests that local knowledge converts existing knowledge into four types of new knowledge during the placemaking process. Furthermore, compared to the top-down nature of expert knowledge which mainly adheres to the principles of scientific rationality for grand planning and problem solving, the local knowledge approach to placemaking is bottom-up, fosters piecemeal growth, and thus is more adaptable and sustainable. Promoting (social) sustainability through knowledge conversion (i.e., converting tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge and vice versa), social interaction and self-help characterize placemaking in informal settlements.

Details

Open House International, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1988

J. Mackerle and K. Orsborn

Expert systems technology as an area of artificial intelligence is coming to the field of structural mechanics. A number of expert systems have been developed or are under…

Abstract

Expert systems technology as an area of artificial intelligence is coming to the field of structural mechanics. A number of expert systems have been developed or are under development. This paper consists of two parts. A brief discussion of the basics of expert systems and their concepts is given in the first part. The second part reviews the prototype of expert systems developed as an aid for finite element analysis and design optimization. Twelve different expert systems are described. A partial list of books on expert systems in general is given in the Appendix.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2011

Maximiliane Wilkesmann and Uwe Wilkesmann

The aim of this paper is to link two sides of knowledge transfer (obtaining and providing knowledge), represented by the interplay between experts and novices

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to link two sides of knowledge transfer (obtaining and providing knowledge), represented by the interplay between experts and novices, possibilities of technical support, and individual and organizational outcomes. An heuristic is developed to link up these different aspects and focus on practical application of some of them; the authors seek to answer the following research question: how can the organization support activities that would encourage knowledge transfer between novices and experts?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used interviews, document collection, and observations on‐site to gain insights into knowledge management and e‐learning activities at Lufthansa, a German airline company, beginning in 2004, with the first qualitative investigation, in the form of telephone interviews. Over the following six years, the authors followed up with archival analysis and in 2010 conducted interviews with four experts who are responsible for knowledge management and e‐learning at the group level at Lufthansa. All interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded, then a qualitative content analysis was conducted. The interviews were complemented by several demonstrations of the system during a visit on‐site.

Findings

Every person can be simultaneously a novice and an expert in different fields of knowledge. Novices and experts need organizational leeway which allows time for creating “knowledge nuggets” (providing knowledge) and for learning (obtaining knowledge). The Lufthansa example shows that organizational leeway, the convergence of e‐learning and knowledge management in the form of rapid e‐learning, and introduction of knowledge transfer methods that provide opportunities for employees to obtain and provide knowledge, i.e. practice knowledge transfer on the job.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is that the authors develop an heuristic, which explains technically supported knowledge transfer processes among novices and experts, and their individual and organizational outcomes. The heuristic helps to classify knowledge transfer processes and their outcomes.

Details

VINE, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1997

Jay Liebowitz

Knowledge‐based and expert systems are quickly becoming an important component of knowledge organizations, enterprise knowledge management, and core competences. They are…

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1438

Abstract

Knowledge‐based and expert systems are quickly becoming an important component of knowledge organizations, enterprise knowledge management, and core competences. They are being used in various applications ranging from usage in the US White House to chemical plants worldwide. Presents an overview of expert systems technology and then specifically addresses their use in a critical domain ‐ life support systems.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Neil Pollock and Robin Williams

The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptual issues arising in an empirical study of the emergence of a distinctive new form of expertise – of industry analysts and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptual issues arising in an empirical study of the emergence of a distinctive new form of expertise – of industry analysts and in particular the leading firm Gartner Group that exercises enormous influence over the Information Technology (IT) market.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper critically reviews existing analytical frameworks and especially work from the Sociology of Professions. This has largely focused upon groups which have already succeeded in gaining wide acceptance of the effectiveness of their methods and knowledge. For emerging expert groups a key challenge is to create an audience for whom they are expert (Turner, 2001). The study contributes to a “third wave” of studies that shift the focus of enquiry from the operation of professional institutions to the conduct of expert work – and how knowledge is produced, validated and consumed. The paper draws upon an extended ethnographic study of Gartner Inc., and other industry analysts to characterise some key features of their expertise. Data sources include over 100 hours of participant observation of industry analysts and their interactions with vendors and technology adopters at IT industry conferences; interviews with over 20 industry analysts from Gartner (including a telephone interview with its founder Gideon Gartner) and other analyst organisations; a substantial body of interviews with technology vendors and clients (particularly in relation to the Customer Relationship Management technology sector); together with a review of Gartner documentation and reports.

Findings

The paper compares the empirical findings of industry analysts with accounts from current literature on management consultants and other groups such as journalists and financial analysts. Industry analysts, like consultants, have not sought to follow a classical professional model. Thus the brand reputation of big (industry analyst or consultancy) firms provides an alternative warrant of the quality of expertise to professional institutions. However, Gartner analysts identify differences as well as similarities between their work and management consultants. Gartner’s ability to rank the offerings of IT vendors requires them to adopt formal methodologies and internal review procedures to produce defensible knowledge and demonstrate their independence. Industry analysts need to establish cognitive authority over rapidly changing technological fields. This imparts some “public good” elements to their knowledge.

Originality/value

The paper suggests ways forward for analysing new forms of knowledge intermediary in business and accounting, applying perspectives from the “third wave” of studies, and involving detailed study of the “epistemic systems” through which such knowledge is produced, consumed and validated (Knorr Cetina, 2010).

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Jay Liebowitz

Knowledge management is one of the hottest topics in organizations today. Much of what is being proposed and accomplished is not novel by any means. Techniques, tools…

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1711

Abstract

Knowledge management is one of the hottest topics in organizations today. Much of what is being proposed and accomplished is not novel by any means. Techniques, tools, concepts, and methodologies can easily be borrowed from the expert systems and artificial intelligence disciplines. This paper emphasizes that expert systems need to be an integral part of knowledge management if knowledge management is to succeed, and not simply be a fad!

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1993

Stephen E. Lunce, Raja K. Iyer, Leland M. Courtney and Lawrence L. Schkade

What is an expert, and how is expertise attained?

Abstract

What is an expert, and how is expertise attained?

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 93 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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