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Book part
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Irina Surdu and Edith Ipsmiller

Going back into previously exited markets is a significant management risk. But, how are re-entry risks managed? By adding strategic reference point (SRP) rationales to…

Abstract

Going back into previously exited markets is a significant management risk. But, how are re-entry risks managed? By adding strategic reference point (SRP) rationales to the risk management literature, this chapter examines re-entry after initial entry and divestment on a sample of 654 multinational enterprise (MNE) re-entrants. The authors move away from narrow risk management lenses according to which risks happen in isolation and theorize that MNEs simultaneously manage international risk by exploiting the trade-offs among external and internal sources of risk. The authors explain that, for re-entrants, exit may become the SRP for evaluating future strategic choices. The results suggest that re-entrants tend to manage re-entry risk by choosing partner-based modes that enable them to maintain strategic flexibility at re-entry. Surprisingly perhaps, market-specific experience acquired during the initial market foray does not provide strategic flexibility, in that highly experienced firms still experience risk trade-offs.

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The Multiple Dimensions of Institutional Complexity in International Business Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-245-1

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Zubair Ali Shahid and Leonie Hallo

Current internationalisation and international business (IB) theories are silent on the intermittent internationalising experiences of small and medium size enterprises…

Abstract

Current internationalisation and international business (IB) theories are silent on the intermittent internationalising experiences of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) from emerging economies (EEs). The aim of this chapter is to examine the role that networks play in facilitating SMEs from EEs subsequent behaviour following intermittent (exit and subsequent re-entry) internationalising experiences, and to build the theory of this process. Internationalisation of SMEs is a complex phenomenon. Utilising qualitative interview-based data from 15 Pakistani and Chinese SME entrepreneurs, industry experts and government representatives, this study concludes the following: SMEs from EEs continuously reconfigure existing products, resources and markets through networks while reducing and reviving levels of commitment with partners in international markets. Additionally, entrepreneurs from these markets proactively choose to dissolve existing relationships, withdraw from foreign markets to seek new partnerships and diversify resources to reduce foreign market uncertainty. However, some SME entrepreneurs seek to re-enter into previous markets utilising prior relationships and networks. Hence, successful management of network relationships over time is a challenge for internationalising SMEs.

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International Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets: Nature, Drivers, Barriers and Determinants
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-564-1

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2006

Martin Biewen

Based on a multiple spells approach, this paper studies the extent and the composition of chronic poverty in Germany. The results indicate that about one-third of…

Abstract

Based on a multiple spells approach, this paper studies the extent and the composition of chronic poverty in Germany. The results indicate that about one-third of cross-sectional poverty in a given year is chronic. The characteristics that are most closely associated with long-term poverty are economic inactivity and pensioner status, while the number of children and the gender of the household head do not seem to have a systematic effect. This is in contrast to cross-sectional results where the biggest poverty risk is usually unemployment and a large number of children, while pensioners do not face particularly high poverty risks. Estimates from a multiple spells hazard model further suggest that 6% of the population have unobserved characteristics that lead to low poverty exit and high re-entry rates, making these individuals likely candidates for chronic poverty. A comparison with results for Great Britain and the United States suggests that poverty is less persistent in Germany.

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Dynamics of Inequality and Poverty
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-350-1

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Jorge Espinoza-Benavides, Maribel Guerrero and David Díaz

This study aims to evaluate the role of entrepreneurial ecosystems conditions (formal, informal and social capital) on different types of entrepreneurial re-entry at a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the role of entrepreneurial ecosystems conditions (formal, informal and social capital) on different types of entrepreneurial re-entry at a global scale.

Design/methodology/approach

Given this phenomenon’s nature, this study builds a panel of data of 54 economies covering different (advanced and emerging) countries across the globe during the period 2004–2017 by mixing multiples sources of information (e.g. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, the World Economic Forum, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund). The statistical analysis consisted of the fixed-effect dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation for panel data.

Findings

Three empirical insights emerge from the study. First, the entrepreneurial ecosystem’s formal conditions are mainly configured to support high-growth entrepreneurship ignoring re-entrepreneurs. Consequently, the formal conditions’ contribution is very limited in emerging economies. Second, the analysis of informal conditions revealed social media’s critical contribution for legitimizing entrepreneurship and supporting those entrepreneurs who want to re-enter the domestic or international market after a business failure. Third, social networks built during previous business angels or entrepreneurial experiences or with other entrepreneurs also play a crucial role for re-entrepreneurs to overcome the weaknesses in the entrepreneurial ecosystems’ conditions.

Originality/value

The study contributes to two ongoing academic debates among entrepreneurship scholars. The first is related to how the entrepreneurial ecosystem supports entrepreneurial activity in different economic contexts. The second is related to the study of the contextual determinants of entrepreneurial re-entry after a business failure.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Susan Freeman, Seyda Deligonul and Tamer Cavusgil

Current conceptualizations of born‐globals lack a full theoretical explanation of strategic re‐structuring through the use of outward and inward‐oriented activity and the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Current conceptualizations of born‐globals lack a full theoretical explanation of strategic re‐structuring through the use of outward and inward‐oriented activity and the processes of de‐internationalization and re‐internationalization. Strategy and internationalization processes are created by entrepreneurial behaviour. If one wants to understand various international behaviours and strategic changes in firms one needs to focus on entrepreneurs – individual managers. The purpose of this paper is to unify the theoretical framework on born‐globals by addressing two questions. How do managers move through the de‐internationalization (exit) to re‐internationalization (re‐entry) process? How do they choose their patterns of internationalization?

Design/methodology/approach

To address these research gaps, this study draws on 26 in‐depth interviews with senior managers across nine Australian born‐globals.

Findings

Moving between outward and inward‐oriented activity as they de‐internationalize and re‐internationalize is used as proactive strategic re‐structuring by born‐global managers for survival during periods of global economic decline or changing competitive conditions.

Originality/value

This study provides new theoretical insights where the entrepreneur is central to the internationalization process and provides practical implications for those involved in international business and marketing.

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Jingyang Li, Shengping Gong, Xiang Wang and Jingxia Li

The purpose of this paper is to establish an orbital launch window for manned Moon‐to‐Earth trajectories to support China's manned lunar landing mission requirements of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish an orbital launch window for manned Moon‐to‐Earth trajectories to support China's manned lunar landing mission requirements of high‐latitude landing and anytime return, i.e. the capability of safely returning the crew exploration vehicle at any time from any lunar parking orbit. The launch window is a certain time interval during which the transearth injection may occur and result in a safe lunar return to the specified landing site on the surface of the Earth.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the patched conic technique, an analytical design method for determining the transearth trajectories is developed with a finite sphere of influence model. An orbital launch window has been established to study the mission sensitivities to transearth trip time and energy requirements. The results presented here are limited to a single impulsive maneuver.

Findings

The difference between the results of the analytical model and high‐fidelity model is compared. This difference is relatively small and can be easily eliminated by a simple differential correction procedure. The launch window duration varies with launch date, from less than one hour to greater than 20 h, and the launch window occurs every day in the sidereal month.

Research limitations/implications

The solution can be used to serve as an initial estimate for future optimization procedures.

Practical implications

The orbital launch window can be used to provide the basis for the preparation of an orbital launch timetable compatible with lunar missions and re‐entry conditions requirements.

Originality/value

Previous studies were mainly concentrated on the launch windows for the departure from the Earth. This paper investigates and establishes the orbital launch window for Moon‐to‐Earth trajectories.

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Merlin Mythili Shanmugam

The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of certain factors (such as working mothers’ attitudes towards career role salience, notion of career success, work-life…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of certain factors (such as working mothers’ attitudes towards career role salience, notion of career success, work-life balance and the impact of organisational support systems available for childcare) on career persistence, despite parenthood, and career re-entry after parenthood. It is conducted in relation to new age, young working mothers of the booming IT sector in India.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey questionnaire was administered to 138 working mothers in the IT sector to analyse the impact of working mothers’ career role salience, notion of career success, work-life balance and the impact of organisational support systems available for childcare on career persistence, despite parenthood.

Findings

The findings state that re-entry is also a growing phenomenon, in as much as career breaks are an accepted reality. Career role salience and notions of career success are important predictors of career re-entry of young mothers. Most importantly, this study highlights the significant role of the trusted, extended family support system, that is characteristically unique to Indian social fabric, in enabling women’s career persistence and career re-entry after motherhood.

Research limitations/implications

Like most survey research, this study’s validity is also limited to the findings on the self-reported responses. Nevertheless, the study points to new areas to be researched, such as the possibility of the same findings with older mothers who have spent considerable years in their careers, or whether the same sample would answer differently after a few years.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for society and organisations, concerning opting out, and for undertaking genuine initiatives to enable and support women to re-enter their careers after breaks, so that the decision to persist, exit or re-enter their careers remains the privileged choice of women employees.

Originality/value

The paper fulfils an identified need to study how parenthood affects women’s careers in the IT sector and need for organisations in India to understand the practicality of women employees’ needs to integrate work and life.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2006

Nick Dew, Brent Goldfarb and Saras Sarasvathy

We challenge the premise that the CEO's job is to keep the corporation alive and thriving at all costs and under all circumstances. We briefly review the differing…

Abstract

We challenge the premise that the CEO's job is to keep the corporation alive and thriving at all costs and under all circumstances. We briefly review the differing normative views of strategic management theorists and organizational theorists about organizational inertia. We then develop an economic model of incumbent behavior in the face of challenger competition that accommodates complementary assets. The model predicts and describes conditions under which organizational inertia, as subsequent organizational failure, is optimal. We then extend the logic and propose that the failure of entrepreneurial firms does not necessarily imply the failure of entrepreneurs. We conclude with a call to study “exit” as a viable strategic option.

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Ecology and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-435-5

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Anna Dubois, Lars-Erik Gadde and Lars-Gunnar Mattsson

The purpose of the paper is to describe and analyse the evolution of the supplier base of a buying firm and the reasons behind these changes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to describe and analyse the evolution of the supplier base of a buying firm and the reasons behind these changes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a case study of the changes over 52 years in a sub-set of the supplier base of a firm manufacturing fork-lifts.

Findings

The study shows that some relationships feature substantial longevity. However, the duration of one-third of the total relationships is shorter than five years. There was considerable variation over time in the dynamics of the supplier base in terms of entries and exits of suppliers. Owing to this variation, research findings and conclusions in short-term studies are heavily dependent on the specific conditions at the time of the study. Finally, no less than one-fourth of the terminated supplier relationships were reactivated later.

Research limitations/implications

The study was designed in a time when purchasing was considered entirely from the perspective of the buying firm. Further studies, therefore, must increasingly emphasise the role of suppliers and the interaction in the buyer–supplier relationships, as well as the embeddedness in networks.

Originality/value

The findings of the study are unique in two ways. First, they are based on systematic observations over more than 50 years. Second, the study involves the purchases of 11 components representing different technical and economic features. The (few) previous studies are based on much shorter time periods and involves fewer suppliers/components. Moreover, the findings regarding re-activation of terminated relationships represent unique contributions.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

Graham L. Bradley and Juliette D.G. Goldman

Many young adults who drop out of school elect to re‐enter the secondary education system after a period of absence. Reports the findings from a survey of 215 providers of…

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1047

Abstract

Many young adults who drop out of school elect to re‐enter the secondary education system after a period of absence. Reports the findings from a survey of 215 providers of education to re‐entry students in three states of Australia. Few of these educational providers possess formal qualifications in adult education, but most hold favourable attitudes to working with students who return to school. In general, the re‐entry students were perceived to have high rates of academic success but also high rates of withdrawal. The study identified a number of challenges and problems associated with school re‐entry, and makes recommendations to enhance rates of re‐entry student participation, satisfaction and success. Emphasizes the advantages associated with re‐entering an “innovative” senior secondary environment, rather than a traditional high school.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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