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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Alistair Hewison

The rise of evidence‐based medicine and more recently evidence‐based policy reflect the increasing importance of evidence as a basis for the organisation and delivery of…

2212

Abstract

The rise of evidence‐based medicine and more recently evidence‐based policy reflect the increasing importance of evidence as a basis for the organisation and delivery of health care. Evidence‐based practice is central to the “modernisation” of health care in current UK policy. The latest manifestation of this process is the emergence of evidence‐based management in health care. This paper examines the development of evidence‐based approaches in health care and questions the appropriateness of such an approach to management. The problems inherent in applying the principles of EBP to management are explored and alternative apporoach based on the notion of craft is suggesteed as more practical and realistic.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2011

Melanie Kazman Kohn, Whitney Berta, Ann Langley and David Davis

The relatively recent attention that evidence-based decision making has received in health care management has been at least in part due to the profound influence of…

Abstract

The relatively recent attention that evidence-based decision making has received in health care management has been at least in part due to the profound influence of evidence-based medicine. The result has been several comparisons in the literature between the use of evidence in health care management decisions and the use of evidence in medical decision making. Direct comparison, however, may be problematic, given the differences between medicine and management as they relate to (1) the nature of evidence that is brought to bear on decision making; (2) the maturity of empirical research in each field (in particular, studies that have substantiated whether or not and how evidence-based decision making is enacted); and (3) the context within which evidence-based decisions are made. By simultaneously reviewing evidence-based medicine and management, this chapter aims to inform future theorizing and empirical research on evidence-based decision making in health care settings.

Details

Biennial Review of Health Care Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-714-8

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

John F. Hulpke and Michael P. Fronmueller

A topic currently receiving significant academic and practitioner attention is called evidence-based management. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that this approach…

Abstract

Purpose

A topic currently receiving significant academic and practitioner attention is called evidence-based management. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that this approach is sometimes over-sold and may be a fad. Additionally, evidence-based management fails to fully recognize the importance of tacit knowledge, what Kahneman calls system 1. Evidence-based management does provide tools to better use what Kahneman calls system 2, rationality. Decision-makers need to take advantage of both rational and beyond rational processes.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an essay, it is not a report of a study. At this point in time, this paper needs thinking, reflection, pondering, more than a data-based study.

Findings

Advocates promote evidence-based management in part to help avoid fads, yet evidence-based management itself has many of the characteristics of a fad. Evidence-based management is based on an objective rational view of the world and suggests highly rational methods of decision-making. However, a rational fact-based might not give sufficient credit to instinct and feelings. Decision-makers should take into account facts, evidence, when making decisions, but not ignore intuition, hunches and feelings. This study is learning that decisions use a galaxy of approaches, with both cognitive and affective flexibility.

Research limitations/implications

As with any opinion-based paper, this lacks empirical support. Proponents ask us to believe in evidence-based management. Neither we, the authors of this paper, nor the proponents of evidence-based management can empirically support the ideas offered. An additional limitation is that the paper is written in one language, English. Translation into another language might yield different meanings.

Practical implications

There are advantages for scholars and practitioners to look at the best available evidence. There can be disadvantages in overlooking non-quantifiable factors.

Social implications

Those who use evidence-based management should also take into account feelings, ethics, aesthetics, creativity, for the betterment of society. To solve wicked problems one needs more than facts and rational analysis.

Originality/value

The overwhelming majority of those writing about evidence-based management are supporters. This study offers a different view. This paper brings new ideas and new thinking to both the extensive fad literature and the huge evidence-based management literature. Evidence-based management is discussed widely. Google Scholar lists more than two million papers in 2019, 2020 and 2021 on evidence-based management. Readers of this journal should critically evaluate this popular set of ideas.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Vishwanath V. Baba and Farimah HakemZadeh

The purpose of this paper is to integrate existing body of knowledge on evidence‐based management, develop a theory of evidence, and propose a model of evidence‐based

9888

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate existing body of knowledge on evidence‐based management, develop a theory of evidence, and propose a model of evidence‐based decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a literature review, the paper takes a conceptual approach toward developing a theory of evidence and a process model of decision making. Formal research propositions amplify both theory and model.

Findings

The paper suggests that decision making is at the heart of management practice. It underscores the importance of both research and experiential evidence for making professionally sound managerial decisions. It argues that the strength of evidence is a function of its rigor and relevance manifested by methodological fit, relevance to the context, transparency of its findings, replicability of the evidence, and the degree of consensus within the decision community. A multi‐stage mixed level model of evidence‐based decision making is proposed with suggestions for future research.

Practical implications

An explicit, formal, and systematic collaboration at the global level among the producers of evidence and its users akin to the Cochrane Collaboration will ensure sound evidence, contribute to decision quality, and enable professionalization of management practice.

Originality/value

The unique value contribution of this paper comes from a critical review of the evidence‐based management literature, the articulation of a formal theory of evidence, and the development of a model for decision making driven by the theory of evidence.

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Ali Janati, Edris Hasanpoor, Sakineh Hajebrahimi and Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani

Hospital manager decisions can have a significant impact on service effectiveness and hospital success, so using an evidence-based approach can improve hospital management

1951

Abstract

Purpose

Hospital manager decisions can have a significant impact on service effectiveness and hospital success, so using an evidence-based approach can improve hospital management. The purpose of this paper is to identify evidence-based management (EBMgt) components and challenges. Consequently, the authors provide an improving evidence-based decision-making framework.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 45 semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2016. The authors also established three focus group discussions with health service managers. Data analysis followed deductive qualitative analysis guidelines.

Findings

Four basic themes emerged from the interviews, including EBMgt evidence sources (including sub-themes: scientific and research evidence, facts and information, political-social development plans, managers’ professional expertise and ethical-moral evidence); predictors (sub-themes: stakeholder values and expectations, functional behavior, knowledge, key competencies and skill, evidence sources, evidence levels, uses and benefits and government programs); EBMgt barriers (sub-themes: managers’ personal characteristics, decision-making environment, training and research system and organizational issues); and evidence-based hospital management processes (sub-themes: asking, acquiring, appraising, aggregating, applying and assessing).

Originality/value

Findings suggest that most participants have positive EBMgt attitudes. A full evidence-based hospital manager is a person who uses all evidence sources in a six-step decision-making process. EBMgt frameworks are a good tool to manage healthcare organizations. The authors found factors affecting hospital EBMgt and identified six evidence sources that healthcare managers can use in evidence-based decision-making processes.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Frederik Reinder Hak and Karin Sanders

The purpose of this paper is to argue that the adaptation of the principled negotiation approach within organizations demonstrates similarities with the adaptation of…

1652

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that the adaptation of the principled negotiation approach within organizations demonstrates similarities with the adaptation of evidence-based management and is the result of cognitive biases and cultural values instead of specific and conscious choices within the adopted negotiation style.

Design/methodology/approach

The adaptation of principled negotiation and evidence-based management are considered as a lack of willingness to be innovative at the organizational level, and when these ideas are introduced will meet resistance.

Findings

The analysis of the principled negotiation approach as an approach which – similar to evidence-based management – is vulnerable to cognitive biases and cultural values offers a solution on how to effectively adapt this approach within organizations.

Research limitations/implications

Implications for research include a research design to test the assumptions of this paper to consider principled negotiations and evidence-based management approaches as innovative approaches.

Practical implications

Organizations and decision makers within organizations can benefit from the analysis in this paper.

Social implications

Companies and parties in a negotiation phase can benefit from the analysis by paying attention to the cognitive biases and cultural values of the other parties rather than paying attention to the first offer and the choices made in the negotiation.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to analyze principled negotiations from an evidence-based management perspective.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Konrad Kulikowski

This conceptual paper aims to propose the evidence-based benchmarking model that bridges standard benchmarking practices with evidence-based management (EBMgt) principles…

680

Abstract

Purpose

This conceptual paper aims to propose the evidence-based benchmarking model that bridges standard benchmarking practices with evidence-based management (EBMgt) principles and lessens tensions between two opposite views of benchmarking as a useful management tool vs a management hype and fashion.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper is based on the critical reasoning, analysis and integration of so far largely separated research fields of benchmarking and EBMgt. The author employs a method of conceptual model building to identify connections between standard benchmarking model and EBMgt practices and to explain how a sequence of benchmarking events supplemented by EBMgt principles might lead to more reliable managerial decision-making.

Findings

The author argues that although there are no common benchmarking procedures, it is possible to identify a standard benchmarking model that resonates in most contemporary benchmarking procedures and consists of four main phases: plan, do, check and act (PDCA). The author integrated this standard model with EBMgt practices of searching for evidence in four sources of information and a six-step critical thinking process to put forward the model of evidence-based benchmarking.

Originality/value

The proposed model is a novel, comprehensive framework that puts together so far incompatible practices of benchmarking and EBMgt. The model clears up existing conceptual confusions around “casual” benchmarking and advances contemporary understanding of benchmarking practices. The model of evidence-based benchmarking might act as a practical, heuristic tool improving the quality of the managerial decisions and thus positively influencing the bottom line of business performance.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton

This article advocates for evidenced‐based management and aims to demonstrate how it works.

8717

Abstract

Purpose

This article advocates for evidenced‐based management and aims to demonstrate how it works.

Design/methodology/approach

The article identifies seven implementation principles to help people and companies that are committed to doing what it takes to profit from evidence‐based management.

Findings

The seven principles are: treat your organization as an unfinished prototype; no brag, just facts; see yourself and your organization as outsiders do; evidence‐based management is not just for senior executives; like everything else, you still need to sell evidenced‐based management; if all else fails, slow the spread of bad practices; and the best diagnostic question: what happens when people fail?

Research limitations/implications

A follow‐up article needs to show results when firms institute evidence‐based management.

Practical implications

A key underpinning of evidence‐based management are three truths: that most so‐called breakthrough ideas are either old, wrong, or both; that effective companies and leaders are more interested in what is true than what is new; and that those that do simple, obvious, and even seemingly trivial things well will dominate competitors who search for silver bullets and instant magic.

Originality/value

The article explains why the implementation of evidenced‐based management promotes competitive advantage.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Jane Farmer and Rosemary Chesson

Presents models suggesting how research evidence can best be operationalised within health care commissioning. Models were derived from data gathered from surveys of…

1767

Abstract

Presents models suggesting how research evidence can best be operationalised within health care commissioning. Models were derived from data gathered from surveys of Scottish health board managers and GP fundholders regarding the use of information in commissioning from 1995 to 1997. Feedback on the models was obtained subsequently from practitioners in 1998. Two models, one for health board managers and the other for GPs, are presented. These include critical success factors in achieving evidence‐based commissioning and factors that are likely to predispose and precipitate evidence‐based practice. Given a culture demanding transparency, accountability and continuing improvement, the models provide tools for reflection, evaluation and planning. In addition, they identify a pragmatic role for managers in evidence‐based commissioning and provide a framework for audit.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

Marco Isetta

The evidence‐based practice (EBP) model appears to have established itself as the principal change driver and discourse for the healthcare sector. This study sets out to…

2398

Abstract

Purpose

The evidence‐based practice (EBP) model appears to have established itself as the principal change driver and discourse for the healthcare sector. This study sets out to identify the emergence of the term EBP in the professional literature to establish an empirical foundation for discussion. The understanding of and relevance to healthcare practitioners in a large South West London hospital are assessed and their views related to the perspective of library and information professionals to assess implications for practice.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature search was carried out and the data generated used to produce a growth curve for the literature. A survey of health care professionals using e‐mail and follow‐up interviews was undertaken at the case hospital.

Findings

Between 1998 and 2004 the number of papers appearing to discuss the theme increased four‐fold. The first recorded reference was in 1991. The EBP model had strong official and political support in the field. On the user sample there is evidence of resistance to the orthodoxy.

Practical implications

The EBP model – variously adopted by several healthcare agencies – has placed information management at the centre of the care process. In spite of this, there are few definite implications for the role of library and information professionals, since the world of information and the UK NHS itself are continually in a state of flux, and the current EBP dominance may neither strengthen nor safeguard it.

Originality/value

The bibliometric study provides a baseline. The study of healthcare professionals is a case study to add to knowledge of practice.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 60 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 15000