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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

Noel D. Campbell

The purpose of this editorial is to introduce the Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy (JEPP).

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this editorial is to introduce the Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy (JEPP).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper outlines the primary objectives of JEPP.

Findings

JEPP was created to encourage and disseminate quality research about the vital relationships among institutions, entrepreneurship and economic outcomes. JEPP 's aim is to improve the quality of scholarly and public discourse about entrepreneurship and development policies. In general, JEPP seeks high‐quality articles that say something interesting about public policy, entrepreneurship and economic development.

Originality/value

The editorial describes the thinking behind JEPP, and the journal's objectives. JEPP welcomes all scholars and individuals with professional or personal interests in acquiring and sharing knowledge about institutions, entrepreneurship, and economic outcomes.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Ali Davari, Mona Zehtabi, Mostafa Negati and Mohammad Ehsan Zehtabi

Entrepreneurship development is known as a key enabler of economic development, hence it has been contemplated in the strategic plans of various countries. Iran is no…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship development is known as a key enabler of economic development, hence it has been contemplated in the strategic plans of various countries. Iran is no exception in that regard, since developing entrepreneurship has been emphasized in the country's third and fourth development plans, in order to tackle the increasing rate of population growth and unemployment. Now, as the fourth development plan has come to its end, it is necessary to evaluate the policies and programs related to entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to assess the entrepreneurial development plans of this important Middle East country to provide a benchmark of influential policies on entrepreneurship development at both macro and micro level and to evaluate them accordingly.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative methods, namely survey and questionnaire distribution among experts dealing with entrepreneurship subjects have been used as the main method for data collection.

Findings

The results reveal that influential entrepreneurship policies at both macro and micro levels are not generally forward‐looking and supportive of entrepreneurship development. Therefore, some suggestions have been provided to develop these policies.

Originality/value

The paper presents findings of research which come from a rapidly‐growing, developing country, which can provide better insights from a less‐explored context and further add to the body of knowledge.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Joao Campos, Vitor Braga, Aldina Correira, Vanessa Ratten and Carla Marques

Public policies provide a way for governments to influence the effectiveness of business strategies in the international marketplace. The main goal of this article is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Public policies provide a way for governments to influence the effectiveness of business strategies in the international marketplace. The main goal of this article is to show the importance of key aspects for policymaking at the national level and, secondly, to try to evaluate if public policies and programmes are effective in the entrepreneurship and internationalization of firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data set was used to perform a multivariate analysis through multiple linear regression.

Findings

The economic and financial crisis that has plagued the world recently has incentivized entrepreneurs to be more creative and encouraged policymakers to be more effective in the important role they can play in economic growth. Thus, the findings indicate that government support can help firms be more entrepreneurial and increase their level of internationalization in the marketplace. The findings indicate that entrepreneurship is an important growth factor, so it is important to understand government support can be effective in stimulating business activity.

Research limitations/implications

This study focusses on perceptions of government policy based on the GEM database, which means it is limited to subjective assessments rather than objective measures.

Practical implications

The findings of this study will help business managers focus on their country of origin as a way to stress the impact of government policies on reputation in the international marketplace.

Social implications

Governments need to acknowledge how their entrepreneurial policies regarding innovation and internationalization affect business success rate. This means emphasizing the trustworthiness and credibility of their policies.

Originality/value

This article highlights the need for more entrepreneurial policymaking that emphasizes government reputational affects in the success rate of firms in the international marketplace. This provides a way for firms to gain better recognition from country-of-origin effects but also for policymakers to prioritize international strategic efforts. By comparing data from different countries, the article highlights the different ways government policy can be utilized strategically in order to increase entrepreneurship and internationalization rates.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Robert Huggins, Brian Morgan and Nick Williams

This chapter reviews and critiques the recent evolution of place-based entrepreneurship policy in the United Kingdom, in particular the governance of policies targeted at…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter reviews and critiques the recent evolution of place-based entrepreneurship policy in the United Kingdom, in particular the governance of policies targeted at the regional level to promote economic development and competitiveness. The focus of the chapter is the evolution occurring from 1997, when the Labour government came to power, through to the period leading to the Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition government, which came to power in 2010.

Methodology/approach

A review and critique of key academic and policy-based literature.

Findings

The chapter shows the way in which governance systems and policies aimed at stimulating entrepreneurship have permeated regional development policy at a number of levels in the United Kingdom. In general, the overarching themes of enterprise policy are similar across the regions, but the difference in governance arrangements demonstrates how emphasis and delivery varies.

Practical implications

Place-based enterprise policy needs long-term commitment, with interventions required to survive changes in approaches to governance if they are to prove effective; something which has been far from the case in recent years. Whilst the analysis is drawn from the case of the United Kingdom, the lessons with regard to the connection between regional modes of governance and effective policy implementation are ones that resonate across other nations that are similarly seeking to stimulate the development of entrepreneurial regions.

Social implications

Evidence of ongoing disparities in regional economic development and competitiveness, linked to differences in regional business culture, suggest the continuance of market failure, whereby leading regions continue to attract resources and stimulate entrepreneurial opportunities at the expense of less competitive regions.

Originality/value of paper

The time period covered by the chapter – 1997 onwards – forms an historic era with regard to changing regional governance and enterprise policy in the United Kingdom, with the emergence – and subsequent demise – of regional development agencies (RDAs) across English regions, as well as the introduction of regional governments in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, which were handed certain powers for economic and enterprise development from the UK central government.

Details

Enterprising Places: Leadership and Governance Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-641-5

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

Dina Modestus Nziku and Colette Henry

While the topic of women's entrepreneurship continues to grow in academic appeal, the policy aspect is one that has received limited scholarly attention, especially in the…

Abstract

Purpose

While the topic of women's entrepreneurship continues to grow in academic appeal, the policy aspect is one that has received limited scholarly attention, especially in the context of developing countries. To address this gap in scholarship, the purpose of this paper aims to critically explore women's entrepreneurship policy in Tanzania. The research question asks: How are policies designed to encourage and support entrepreneurship in Tanzania gendered, and how might such policies be (re)designed so that they are more relevant to women entrepreneurs in the Tanzanian context? The authors contribute to extant scholarship by: drawing attention to the particular context for women's entrepreneurship in Tanzania; identifying gender biases inherent in current entrepreneurship policies; offering some recommendations for policymakers and identifying areas worthy of future research attention in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

The study builds on the Global Women's Enterprise Policy project. The authors apply an adapted reading guide technique to analyse and critique relevant entrepreneurship policy documents in Tanzania. The reading guide examines the category and type of document being analysed, key themes, content, language and imagery, as well as the key policy recommendations being offered and their relevance to women's entrepreneurship in Tanzania and the wider sub-Saharan African region. Completed reading guide templates are then coded and collated into an excel spreadsheet. Findings are discussed and critiqued within a regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive framework.

Findings

The study provides rich and valuable insights into the unique context for women's entrepreneurship in Tanzania, shedding new light on how women's entrepreneurship is supported in a particular region of sub-Saharan Africa. Findings reveal that while current policy acknowledges the important role women play in their communities, especially in terms of their contribution to labour, it is geared more towards small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) development than entrepreneurship; this is despite the fact that entrepreneurship is identified as a means to address sustainable development challenges (notably unemployment and poverty) and expand opportunities for socially disadvantaged groups, especially women. Existing policy is essentially “context neutral” and hence relatively ineffective; the gender focus is lacking and there is a failure to take account of the specific context in which Tanzanian women entrepreneurs have to operate. The authors argue for policies designed to support women's entrepreneurship to be formalised and contextualised in their specific geographical and cultural setting. The “institutional pillars” framework allows us to identify areas where contextualisation of women's entrepreneurship policies could be enhanced.

Practical implications

The study implies that, to be effective, policies designed to support women's entrepreneurship need to be formalised and contextualised to their specific geographical and cultural setting. Some areas where this might be achieved are identified. Avenues for future research in this area are also suggested.

Originality/value

The value of the paper lies in its focus on Tanzania, and its critique of existing policies from a gender and institutional perspective. It also enhances understanding of the unique context in Tanzania for entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2010

Jarna Heinonen, Ulla Hytti and Thomas M. Cooney

The paper aims to describe the manner in which entrepreneurship policies are embedded in the national contexts and then through analysis offers a deeper understanding of…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to describe the manner in which entrepreneurship policies are embedded in the national contexts and then through analysis offers a deeper understanding of the development of Finnish and Irish entrepreneurship policies. It seeks to focus on three questions: What is the context for entrepreneurship policies in the studied countries?; What kind of governance structure for entrepreneurship policy can be identified and derived from theoretical perspectives?; and What policy instruments and content are associated with governance rationale?

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical data involve primary data on national entrepreneurship policy documents illustrating the governance structure for policy development and implementation, as well as policy objectives and targets. Additionally, concrete policy measures were studied within six sub‐areas of entrepreneurship. The analysis is based on a framework with two layers of policy: governance structure, and specific policy measures.

Findings

The results show that the countries studied are implementing strikingly similar approaches in entrepreneurship policy‐making: state‐institutional coordination marked by a strong role for the government, complemented by a more recent shift towards a competitive approach. Because political, national and economic context plays a significant role in understanding entrepreneurship policy approaches it is justified to add a third layer, context, to the framework.

Practical implications

Particular measures or good practices cannot be imported from other countries without understanding the theoretical rationale and policy context for the measures.

Originality/value

The study highlights the role of time and path‐dependency in policy‐making; therefore, future research and evaluations on entrepreneurship policies need to be strongly contextualised.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 33 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Alberto Arenal, Claudio Feijoo, Ana Moreno, Cristina Armuña and Sergio Ramos

Academic research into entrepreneurship policy is particularly interesting due to the increasing relevance of the topic and since knowledge about the evolution of themes…

Abstract

Purpose

Academic research into entrepreneurship policy is particularly interesting due to the increasing relevance of the topic and since knowledge about the evolution of themes in this field is still rather limited. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the key concepts, topics, trends and shifts that have shaped the entrepreneurship policy research agenda during the period 1990–2016.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses text mining techniques, cluster analysis and complementary bibliographic data to examine the evolution of a corpus of 1,048 academic papers focused on entrepreneurship-related policies and published during the period 1990–2016 in ten relevant journals. In particular, the paper follows a standard text mining workflow: first, as text is unstructured, content requires a set of pre-processing tasks and then a stemming process. Then, the paper examines the most repeated concepts within the corpus, considering the whole period 1990–2016 and also in five-year terms. Finally, the paper conducts a k-means clustering to divide the collection of documents into coherent groups with similar content. The analyses in the paper also include geographical particularities considering three regional sub-corpora, distinguishing those articles authored in the European Union (EU), the USA and South and Eastern Asia, respectively.

Findings

Results of the analysis show that inclusion, employment and regulation-related papers have largely dominated the research in the field, evolving from an initial classical approach to the relationship between entrepreneurship and employment to a wider, multidisciplinary perspective, including the relevance of management, geographies and narrower topics such as agglomeration economics or internationalisation instead of the previous generic sectorial approaches. The text mining analysis also reveals how entrepreneurship policy research has gained increasing attention and has become both more open, with a growing cooperation among researchers from different affiliations, and more sophisticated, with concepts and themes that moved the research agenda forward, closer to the priorities of policy implementation.

Research limitations/implications

The paper identifies main trends and research gaps in the field of entrepreneurship policy providing actionable knowledge by presenting the spectrum of both over-explored and understudied research themes in the field. In practical terms the results of the text mining analysis can be interpreted as a compass to navigate the entrepreneurship policy research agenda.

Practical implications

The paper presents the heterogeneity of topics under research in the field, reinforcing the concept of entrepreneurship as a multidisciplinary and dynamic domain. Therefore, the definition and adoption of a certain policy agenda in entrepreneurship should consider multiple aspects (needs, objectives, stakeholders, expected outputs, etc.) to be comprehensive and aligned with its complexity. In addition, the paper shows how text mining techniques could be used to map the research activity in a particular field, contributing to the challenge of linking research and policy.

Originality/value

The exploratory nature of text mining allows us to obtain new knowledge and reveals hidden patterns from large quantities of documents/text data, representing an opportunity to complement other qualitative reviews. In this sense, the main value of this paper is not to advise on the future configuration of entrepreneurship policy as a research topic, but to unwrap the past by unveiling how key themes of the entrepreneurship policy research agenda have emerged, evolved and/or declined over time as a foundation on which to build further developments.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2019

Vanessa Ratten

The purpose of this paper is to overcome the traditional general approach to sport policy by taking an entrepreneurial perspective. This helps link the fragmented…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to overcome the traditional general approach to sport policy by taking an entrepreneurial perspective. This helps link the fragmented literatures of entrepreneurship, public policy and sport entrepreneurship in order to develop a new perspective of sport entrepreneurship and public policy.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review is conducted that highlights the need for public policy to focus on entrepreneurship in sports contexts.

Findings

In the past, sport policy focused more on governance and political elements but these can be embedded into a policy entrepreneurship perspective regarding sport. This helps to redefine and bridge the literature on sport entrepreneurship and public policy.

Originality/value

Most sport policy research has tended to take a more organizational behavior or political science approach. Thus, this paper takes a new perspective by incorporating the nascent sport entrepreneurship literature into public policy debates. This is helpful to public policy planners but also sports managers who need to work together to build better policy initiatives.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Colette Henry, Barbara Orser, Susan Coleman and Lene Foss

Government attention to women’s entrepreneurship has increased in the past two decades; however, there are few cross-cultural studies to inform policy development. This…

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1094

Abstract

Purpose

Government attention to women’s entrepreneurship has increased in the past two decades; however, there are few cross-cultural studies to inform policy development. This paper aims to draw on gender and institutional theory to report on the status of female-focused small and medium-sized enterprises/entrepreneurship policies and to ask how – and to what extent – do women’s entrepreneurship policies differ among countries?

Design/methodology/approach

A common methodological approach is used to identify gaps in the policy-practice nexus.

Findings

The study highlights countries where policy is weak but practice is strong, and vice versa.

Research limitations/implications

The study’s data were restricted to policy documents and observations of practices and initiatives on the ground.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for policy makers in respect of support for women’s entrepreneurship. Recommendations for future research are advanced.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to extant knowledge and understanding about entrepreneurship policy, specifically in relation to women’s entrepreneurship. It is also one of the few studies to use a common methodological approach to explore and compare women’s entrepreneurship policies in 13 countries.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Torben Eli Bager, Kim Klyver and Pia Schou Nielsen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of the special interests of key decision makers in entrepreneurship policy formation at the national level. The core…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of the special interests of key decision makers in entrepreneurship policy formation at the national level. The core question is: what is the role that special interests play in a situation with significantly improved evidence through a growing number of high-quality international benchmark studies on entrepreneurial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

An ethnographic method is applied to analyse in depth the 2005 decision by the Danish Government to shift from a volume-oriented to a growth-oriented entrepreneurship policy. This decision process is an extreme case since Denmark has world-class evidence of its entrepreneurial performance.

Findings

Even in such a well-investigated country, which since 2000 has had a pioneering role in the development of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor study and international register-based studies, the special interests of a few top-level politicians and civil servants have significantly influenced the decision to shift the overall policy. These special interests guided the interpretation of the ambiguous evidence provided by these two benchmark studies.

Practical implications

Policy makers are made aware of the need to take a critical view on international benchmark studies, asking what is studied and how and realising that “the truth” about a country’s entrepreneurial performance cannot be found in just one study.

Originality/value

The theoretical value of this paper is its challenge to the widespread rationality view in the entrepreneurship policy field and a deepened understanding of how the pursuit of special interests is related to ambiguous evidence and system-level rationality.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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